Skip to main content

Full text of "Spiritual Heritage of Thyagaraja by V Raghavan"

See other formats





Text in Devanagari & English Translation 

of the Songs of Tyagaraja by 



An Introductory Thesis by 

With a Foreword by 

Vice-President of India 



First Edition, 2000 copies, 1957 

Rupees Ten 

Pxmted at Sri Ratnakrishna Pointing Works, 19-B, Woods Road, Madras-a 


The Spiritual Heritage of Tynga-mja* was prepared 
jointly by the late C. Ramanujachariar and Professor 
V. Raghavan of the Madras University. Professor Raghavan 
in his preface to the work describes the varied qualities of the 
late Sri C. Ramanujachariar who was " a bhagavata in every 
sense of that term." The Introductory Thesis written by 
Professor Raghavan shows his vast and varied learning and 
devout enthusiasm for Tyaga-raja. This learned and scholarly 
work is bound to extend the influence of Tyaga-raja on the 
minds and hearts of our people. 

In the present parlous condition of the world which may 
blow up at any moment if we are not careful and restrained in 
our international behaviour, it is necessary for us to rethink 
our fundamental ideas. The problem of the world is not a 
political one which can be answered by statesmen with their 
pacts and alliances. Our. law rafip^)litics, our arts and 
sciences, our manners and morals are deprived from our funda- 
mental faith. It is this faith which makes for the spiritual 
unity of any community. It is our faith that will save or 
destroy us. The decline of faith has for its natural accompani- 
ment decadence of culture. 

Gibbon writes : " The Greeks, after their country had been 
reduced into a province imputed the triumphs of Rome, not to 
the merit but to the fortune of the Republic. The inconstant 
goddess who so blindly distributes and resumes her favours had 
now consented (such was the language of envious flattery) to 
resign her wings, to descend from her globe, and to fix her firm 
and immutable throne on the banks of the Tiber."* Polybius 
deprived the Greeks of this delusive comfort and traced the 

♦Gibbon : The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Cb. 38 


greatness of Rome to her moral qualities. Gibbon adds, 
" Honour as well as virtue was the principle of the Republic." 
According to Polybius, "the Romans were incapable of fear 
and impatient of repose." Gibbon says that " the decline of 
Rome was the natural and inevitable effect of immoderate 
greatness. Prosperity ripened the principle of decay and the 
causes of destruction multiplied with the extent of the 
conquest." When Rome fell, her downfall was attributed to 
the spread of barbarism and Christianity. There is a moral 
law which governs the rise and fall of nations. Adherence to 
the moral law, the law of dharma elevates a nation : non- 
adherence to it degrades it. If we are to progress we must 
adopt the path of virtue. 

We have had in our country from the time of the Eg Veda 
down to our own days a long line of torch bearers who stress 
the primacy of spiritual values, who point out that even as the 
human being is above the animal, the spiritual man is above 
the human. We are not yet ; we hope to be. At a time like 
this when we are faced with conflicting ideologies, national 
dissensions and international intrigues, it is good to be reminded 
of the supreme values of knowledge, discipline and devotion. 
The exponents of pure abstract speculation find their way into 
the minds of men through song and poetry. The poets, singers 
and saints with their passionate devotion to the ideals of 
beauty, harmony, freedom and aspiration have had the 
strongest impact on society. We have had a few great spirits 
in the last century who emphasised the ideals of the race and 
demonstrated their vitality and power of survival and one of 
the most notable of these saint-singers was Tyaga-iSja. 

The name Tyaga-raja means the prince of renouncers, of 
those who give up worldly desires. Ty3ga or renunciation is 
the way to mental peace and freedom. So long as we are 
incapable of withstanding the snares of fear, greed, ambition, 
vanity, we will have disquiet in our minds and violence in the 
world. In one of his songs Hera tlyagaruda' Tyaga-raja says 


" O Supreme Being, Tirupati Venkataramana, could you not 
remove the screen of pride and envy, which is taking a firm 
stand within me, keeping me out of the reach of dharma and 
the like/' 

In the case of Tyaga-raja, renunciation is the result of 
undistracted devotion to God. anurng&t virugah. Bhakti or 
devotion to the Supreme leads to renunciation and concentration 
on the Divine. The attainment of life in God is achieved more 
easily by bhakti than by other means. Incessant loving 
meditation of God is bhakti, says Ramanuja. sneha-ptirvam 
anu-dhyanam bhaktir ityabhidhiyate. 

The soul of man is the stage for triumph and defeat, 
suffering and joy. It is the point of intersection between the 
divine and the human. Each human being has his roots here 
below though he is also a reflection of the celestial light. The 
demand for self-realisation through self- renewal is an appeal 
from the creature to the creator in us. As a creature each one 
of us is given to inertia, staleness, distractedness. It is the 
corrupt state of narrow selfishness. The creative spark in us 
gives us the power of reintegration, renewal. Until the conflict 
is resolved and reconciliation effected, the soul passes through 
moods of self-pity, anger, distraction, devotion. In the 
unregenerate condition, it feels estranged from itself, from 
others, from the creative ground of all being. TySga-raja 
describes the moods of the soul with great delicacy of feeling. 
He describes social splendour as well as abject misery. 

Tyaga-raja was a person of great humility, utter self- 
effacement. He expresses the truths of the Upanisads and the 
Bhagavad-gitu in simple and appealing language. He 
addresses the Supreme as Rama. The kingdom of God acquired 
through devotion is the greatest of all treasures : rnma bhakti 
Samrujyammu. He brings Rama before our eyes as he steps 
forward with his waving hair to bend the bow of Siva or when 
he aims an arrow at Marica to subdue his pride. Religion is 


the sadhana or discipline by which we make a whole of our 
being, when our thought, speech and action, manas, vuk and 
kaya work together. Ty3ga-rSja speaks of Rama as an 
integrated person, 

oka mnta> oka bnnamu, oka patni-wratude manasu 
oka cittamu galavude oka nzdunu maravakave. 

He sings out of the depths of his experience. Even as the 
Upanisad writer says : 

veduham etam puru§am mahnntam 
aditya-varnam tamasah parastat 

Tyaga-raja says: giripai nelakonna rnmuni gun 
tappaka kanti : Unerringly have I seen Rama installed on 
the hill. In his yearning for seeing the Divine his body was 
thrilled, tears of joy rolled down his cheeks and he dreamed 
his desire to see the Divine, unable to give adequate expression 
to it. 

pulakunkitudai mandniravula 

nvmpucu msta ladavalenani kaluvarincagani. 

If we have faith in the Divine, there is no need to worry : 
mn kelaru vicaramu. 

The vision of eternity must penetrate all spheres of life. 
It exposes our insufficiency, our littleness. The secular must 
be invaded by the spiritual ; only then is life dignified. The 
seers are not strangers on earth. Self-realisation is through 

paropakuruya phalanti vrksah 
paropakwrnya vahanti nadyah 
paropakwrnya caranti gnvah 
paropaknrartham idam iariram. 

Through the exercise of compassion all beings become our 
fellow-beings. When any one suffers we also suffer. This is 

religious socialism as distinct from religious individualism. If 
man is not to be lost, he should not be collectivised. He must 
have the freedom of spirit, the freedom to renounce, the 
courage to own nothing. We must love without grasping, give 
without expecting. 

Civilisation is not a static condition : it is a perpetual 
movement. The heritage we possess includes not only elements 
which make for greatness but also forces of reaction, narrow- 
mindedness, disunion which enslave us. The world over, 
religion has often degenerated into superstition, sectarianism, 
enslavement. It gets confused with the codification of 
custom, the consecration of usage, the dead hand of the 
obsolete. Tyaiga-raja distinguishes the spirit of religion from 
its trappings. For one who sees God in everything, there is no 
need for asramas. anni niv anucu yencina vuniki asrama 
bhedamulela. "If bathing, fasting, closing one's eyes constitute 
all that requires to be done, surely there are others, birds, 
animals who will get to heaven first." We should not refuse to 
acknowledge our wrongs. 

The human spirit with its standards and values is the key 
to the progress or the downfall of the human race. History is 
a never-ending struggle between good and evil. Mankind is 
divided into those who co-operate with the forces of light and 
those who refuse to co-operate. The conflict is meaningful. 
We must continue the struggle toward a nobler civilisation 
through the understanding of the hopes, ambitions and efforts 
of our leaders in the past. 

3-6-1958 \ 

Madras J S. Radhakrishnan 

._."■"__"__ ' »* 

C. Ramanujachariar 


This publication entitled 'The Spiritual Heritage of 
Tyagaraja * is the result of an idea conceived and pursued for 
many years with devoted zeal by Sri C. Ramanujachari. 
Administrator, actor, musician and public worker, the late 
Ramanujachariar was primarily a Sadhaka, who strove on the 
spiritual path not only through his tireless karma-yoga in the 
cause of the Ramakrishna movement and the education and 
upbringing of the young, but through the path of bhakti and 
hhajana ; he was a bhagavata in every sense of that term and 
it is this fact which gave meaning to the dedicated life that he 
led to the last minute of his existence. 

The wide public knew Ramanujachariar as the Secretary 
of the Ramakrishna Mission Students' Home ; his contribution 
as an actor, alike to the growth of the amateur Tamil stage and 
the funds of the Ramakrishna Students' Home, was also known 
to many ; perhaps it is only those more closely connected with 
him that knew the musical side of his personality and the part 
he played in promoting the study of Carnatic music as a 
University subject. He was not only deeply devoted to this art 
but was, very early, drawn to the time-honoured way of 
cultivating it as an aid to devotion, bhajana ; for many years, 
he was responsible for the organisation and maintenance of the 
bhajana-goshfi that went round the Kapali temple and tank 
in Mylapore every day at the break of dawn, during the month 
of Margasirsha. 

It was in connection with the conduct of this bhajana- 
goshti in Mylapore that Ramanujachariar came in contact 
with the Umayalpuram Brothers, Sundara Bhagavatar and 
Krishna Bhagavatar, the direct disciples of Tyagaraja. During 
his association with these disciples of Tyagaraja and their own 
pupils and descendants, Ramanujachariar learnt a considerable 
number of the songs of Tyagaraja and developed a passion 
for them. In the subsequent years in which his musical 
activities widened, he was seized with a desiie to collect the 


texts of as many songs of Tyagaraja as were known to different 
musicians, repositories of musical traditions and representatives 
of the different schools of Tyagaraja's own disciples. 

The musical appeal of Tyagaraja was well known ; as 
compositions embodying the trials and yearnings, the religious 
fervour and devotional experience of one of the greatest saints 
and devotees, the songs of Tyagaraja, Ramanujachariar rightly 
thought, should be presented to the wider cultured public and 
scholars and devotees outside the part of the country forming 
the provenance of Carnatic music. He therefore proposed to 
prepare English renderings of the songs and for this, took the 
help of the late Sri V. Krishna Rao, Retired Government 
Telugu Translator. Sri V. Krishna Rao was assisted in the 
translation by his nephew Sri T. L. Narasimha Rao. Sangita 
Kalanidhi T. V. Subba Rao was also consulted by them in the 
course of their work of translation. 

In 1946, the centenary of the passing away of Tyagaraja 
was being celebrated all over the country, and music institutions 
especially in South India, were making special preparations for 
the occasion. The Madras Music Academy had resolved to 
dedicate its annual conference in the December of that year 
exclusively to Tyagaraja and his music, and as the Secretary 
of the Academy connected with its academic and literary work, 
I was planning a stock-taking of the songs of Tyagaraja known 
to musicians, and a series of papers and studies on the different 
aspects of the life, music and contribution of Tyagaraja. With 
my own literary and cultural interests, I was studying the songs 
of the composer on the background of the great musico- 
devotional movements that deepened the life of the Chola-desa 
and Kaveri delta in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. 

It was at this juncture that, along with Krishna Rao, 
Ramanujachariar brought to me a number of small volumes 
containing type-copies of English renderings of the songs of 
Tyagaraja and proposed that I must sit with them and go 
through the songs in their English version one by on e ; and in 
the same compelling way in which he used to enlist support 

to his Students' Home, he demanded of me two things : & 
scheme to analyse and classify the songs so as to bring 
out their varied contents in proper perspective, a^d an 
introductory thesis expounding the meaning and message of 
these songs. Without a break, we sat together, day after day, 
for some months ; it was a regular spiritual sattra for us. 

In the course of the work, translations were revised and 
additional songs noted from all available sources, printed texts, 
manuscripts and representatives of different schools and tradi- 
tions. In the Tyagaraja Centenary Conference of the Madras 
Music Academy, December 1946, Ramanujachariar made the 
first public announcement of the nature and scope of the 
proposed work. 

Tyagaraja was both a devotee and an artist; the 
combination of Vedanta, devotion and literary treatment in his 
songs naturally reminded one of the Bhagavata Purina and the 
religio-aesthetic approach that Bopadeva and Madhusudana 
Sarasvatl gave. Following them, I adopted a synthetic scheme 
of the Vedantic Bhakti Sastra and the Rasa or Alankara Sastra, 
for analysing and studying the outpourings of Tyagaraja. With 
this approach, I presented my study ol the contribution of 
Tyagaraja as a series of nine lectures which I delivered, at 
Ramanujachariar's instance, during the nine days of the 
Navaratri festival of 1947 at the Ramakrishna Students' Home. 
These lectures were published serially in the Vedanta Kesari, 
Madras (December 1947 — August 1948) and were well received. 
Subsequently I collected a good deal of additional material, 
and revised and amplified my study for the purpose of the 
present book. 

When the text of the songs and their English renderings 
were taken up for printing, I decided that, from the point of 
view of the all-India public which the publication was intended 
to serve, the text of the songs should be in Devanagari script ; 
in addition to some compositions which are purely in Sanskrit, 
there are numerous songs in which the Telugu diction is 
dominated by Sanskrit and even in the other remaining pieces, 

there is a considerable amount of Sanskritic expression ; the 
Devanagari version of these songs would therefore help their 
being understood more easily by those whose mother-tongue is 
not Telugu. Besides, I am one of those who hold the view 
that the most significant classics in the different regional 
literatures, particularly of the South, should be brought out in 
Devanagari script. 

There are on the whole 565 pieces in this volume. Stray 
pieces of Tyagaraja have appeared in English version, 
but this is the first time that in a single volume such a 
large number of songs is given with English translation. 
Similarly, there have been stray articles on some aspects of 
Tyagaraja, but this is the first attempt to give, from a scholarly 
point of view, an exhaustive exposition of the contents of the 
songs of this great composer. The book in its entirety has 
been called The Spiritual Heritage of Tyagaraja according 
to the decision of Ramanujachariar. 

I have seen the work through the press except during the 
period when I was away in Europe. Sri T. L. Narasimha Rao 
assisted in the reading of the proofs and the checking of the 
translations ; Prof. Vissa Appa Rao went through the transla- 
tions at the manuscript stage and offered many helpful sugges- 
tions. Dr. K. Nagarajan, M.Sc, Ph. D., the devoted chela of 
Ramanujachariar not only assisted in the reading of the proofs 
but was looking after the press-work during the whole period ; 
his industry and consistent work had been a great help in bring- 
ing out this publication. Thanks are also due to Sri Rama- 
krishna Printing Works who undertook the printing of this 
book. In bringing this out as a publication of the Rama- 
krishna Mission Students' Home, not only has the intention of 
the late Ramanujachariar been carried out but a fitting 
souvenir has been presented, commemorating his long associa- 
tion with the Home. 

As the detailed scheme of classification according to which 
the songs have been arranged has been given at the outset, a 
table of contents enumerating the songs in the order of their 

appearance has been omitted ; instead, two alphabetical indices, 
in Devanagari and English, of the songs are given at the end. 

It is natural that in these songs, there are numberless 
epithets and addresses of Rama or other deities. In the course 
of the translation only a few of these could be put into English. 
In fact some of the songs which are wholly m the form of 
epithets and addresses — and among them are some very 
popular ones — had to be omitted owing to tke difficulty of 
senting them in English. It was the desire of Ramanuja- 
chariar that the descriptive epithets and addresses should all 
be collected, analysed under an appropriate scheme and pre- 
sented in a separate appendix ; the epithets and addresses are 
not only huge in number but significant, and would form a 
separate study by themselves ; though a collection of these has 
been made, they could not be added as an appendix to this 
volume. It may be possible to give them in a subsequent 
edition of this book. 

It is a matter of sincere regret to all those connected with 
Ramanujachariar that this book, which he considered to be the 
crown of his undertakings, could not be issued while yet he was 
with us. Various unavoidable causes were responsible for the 
delay, but before he closed his eyes, he had the satisfaction of 
knowing that the printing had nearly been completed. 

It was the desire of both Ramanujachariar and myself 
that the book should be introduced by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, 
and on my behalf and on behalf of the spirit of the late 
Ramanujachariar, I express our profound gratitude to 
Dr. Radhakrishnan for enriching the volume with his Foreword. 

It only remains for me to express the hope that — in the 
words of Tyagaraja— - 

" munu nivu anatichchina 
panulasagoni ne 
manasaraga nidanamuga salpi- 
nanu " 
I have fulfilled satisfactorily the task which Ramanujachariar 
entrusted to me, 

V. Raghavan 




S. Radhakrishnan 

i- v 

PREFACE : V. Raghavan 




V. Raghavan 

Chapter I : 


i- 35 

II : 

Nada Yoga 

36- 55 

III : 


56- 74 


Reformist Zeal 

75- 98 


Nama Mahatmya 


VI : 

Ishta DevatS 


,, VII : 

Forms of Bhakti 


» VIII : 

Phases of Bhakti 


„ IX: 

Devotional Ecstasy 









t ♦ • 




(Portrait worshipped in the family of the 

Umayalpuram pupils) 




" Sumati Tyagarqja " 


With the fall of Vijayanagar, South India was fast 
disintegrating in political life ; the banners of the merchantships 
of foreigners from the western hemisphere were already fluttering 
thick in the Indian waters, signalling the entry of India into a 
fresh period of slavery to the second great invader from the 
west. In the arts of painting and sculpture, the deterioration 
that set in led to such rapid decay that today our painters and 
sculptors have to go back to Ajanta to rebuild a lost tradition ; 
in literature writers were after those classical features that had 
long been lengthened out to aberrations and avid vernacular 
productions were outdoing in the same line. But fortunately 
this politically declining and otherwise shrinking age in South 
India was noteworthy in two important departments of the 
cultural life of the people, the spiritual and the musical, two 
departments which developed a vital mutual relation and 
produced numerous saint-singers who at once developed the 
musical art and elevated the society with their exalting songs 
couched in popular poetic style. If Purandaradasa may be said 
to dominate one end of this period of musical-spiritual efflore- 
scence, Tyagaraja may be said to dominate the other end. 

It is said that in view of the progressive decline of human 
powers, and the consequent need for easier paths, the path of 
Bhakti was devised for the present age. In the sphere of music 
too, the period under review showed a tendency to evolve 
simpler media of enjoying music. If we look at the Prabandha 
chapters of the Sanskrit treatises on music, we find described 


there huge edifices of compositions in numerous parts, sometimes 
handling a long series of Ragas and Talas ; and even Ragas, our 
bygone musical giants went on singing for days together, 
introducing it for hours, unfolding it a whole night, emphasising 
its contours a whole day and crowning it with effects another 
twenty four hours ! Their capacious mind and the equally 
capacious mind of the connoisseur then comprehended and 
digested huge musical meals of which we today have no 
conception. Music had gradually to bring itself into more and 
more concretised and condensed forms, and reduce itself into 
tinier and tidier crystals. The age of the Chaturdandi of Gita, 
Prabandha, Thsya and Alapa had to give place to the age of 
the Pada, Kirtana and the Kriti. Within the compass of a handy 
piece, effective capture and picturisation of a Raga, the mounting 
of it on a rhythmic setting, increasingly of the medium tempo, 
Madhyama-kctla, and giving it an exalted poetic medium — all 
were achieved* In the process of achieving this musical vitamin 
tabloid of Kriti, which has preserved our music for us today and 
saved the extensive art from being lost to us by its sheer 
prodigiousness, Tyagaraja stands foremost with his marvellous 


Many indeed have been the great music-makers of this 
period in South India, who have helped the country to keep its 
music ; of all these Tyagaraja, the latest, is also probably the 
greatest. His powerful genius comprehended the several and 
varied excellences of all, the early masters, the giants that 
immediately went before him, and his own brilliant contem- 
poraries. In sheer volume of output, he essays in the direction 
of Purandaradasa and Kshetragna; in devotion, religious 
fervour, reformatory zeal and spiritual realisation, his songs 
approach those of Purandaradasa ; when we think of him singing 
in anguish to his Rama, we find in him a second Ramdas of 
Bhadrachala ; in his lyrical moods, he takes a page off Kshet- 
ragna ; in his Pancharatnas and some of his heavier compositions, 
he treads the path of the earlier Prahandha-kfiraQ and later 


Varna-karas ; turning out pieces now and then in the language 
of the gods, he seems to beckon his contemporary Dikshitar; 
when he sings of Mother Tripurasundari it appears as if Syama 
Ssstri of Tanjore was sojourning at Tiruvotriyur ; and he could 
sustain himself through the task of a dramatic ■ composition like 
Narayana Tlrtha or Merattur Venkatarama BhSgavatar and pay 
his homage to a sampradaya sanctified by Jayadeva. 1 

From simple compositions set in metrical patterns to 
elaborate Pancharatnas which have long sentences, piled one 
upon another, we have in Tyagaraja a wide variety of song- 
types showing manifold architectonic experimentation, design 
and skill. This variety again is a speciality which marks 
Tyagaraja among his contemporaries. From plain Divyanmna 
sankirtana, full of words, epithets and long and difficult com- 
pounds, he soars to artistic creations in which, into a few words, 
an eddying flood of music is thrown. Such variety, it is said, 
the composer adopted to suit the varying capacities of the 
learners that came to him ; whatever the truth of that assump- 
tion, that variety has contributed to the wide appeal of his 

A further remarkable feature of Tyagaraja's compositions 
is their poetic excellence and spiritual value. When an impos- 
sible combination happily comes about they say in Sanskrit that 
gold has acquired fragrance, l?r: <WTOta[ : i Gold is great 
by its own high value; fragrance is something wonderful, 
but only real flowers have it ; flower-like ornaments of gold 
cannot give forth flQwers' fragrance, but if they should, then it 
is a miracle indeed. This consummation of fragrant gold has 
indeed been achieved in the creations of some composers like 

x. Besides Purandaradasa,. Kshetragna/ Bhadrachala Ramadas, tfarayana 
Tirtha, Sadasiva Brahmenflra, Upanishad Brahmendra and Merattur Venkata- 
rama Bhagavatar, there was the great Margadarsi Sesha Iyengar, composer 
in Sanskrit, who as his title shows paved the way as it were for the Carnatic 
Music trinity in Kriti composition. Expressions in Tyagaraja like Narada 
Ganalola, Kan^kachela-Karuna}avala-Bala are echoes from Sesha Iyengar, 


Jayadeva, Purandara, Kshetragna and Tyagaraja. Evening 
after evening we sit and listen to our artists rendering pieces of 
Tyagaraja ; neither the artists nor we have any idea of the 
wealth of precious fancy, sublime thought and poignant feeling 
that lie hidden in the many familiar 1 lines, catching turns and 
exhilarating effects to which our musical hunger makes us return 
again and again 1 It is as if the dazzling charms of a lady's 
beauty should blind us to or make us never curious about her 
infinite qualities of head and heart ; it is as if, revelling in the 
joys of a poet's masterly style and diction, we care not for the 
noble thoughts in the poem ; it is as if, stunned by the grandeur 
of a gopura, soaring tier upon tier, each studded with mouldings, 
we stop there gazing, missing the evening service at the sanctum 
of the Deity. But were one to resist or renounce the overwhel- 
ming joys of the sangita of Tyagaraja, were one to get boldly 
to the Sahitya, he would come across a treasure of thought the 
contemplation of which would make one forget everything 
about his music. Poetic fancies, learned allusions, moral 
precepts, enunciation of doctrines, high Upanishadic truths, 
condemnation of sham, hypocrisy and false paths, happy similes, 
wordly wisdom, popular sayings, and above all every shade and 
mood of religious, devotional and spiritual experience, — renun- 
ciation of worldly good and the flattery of the rich, prayer, plain- 
tive pleading, yearning,, anguish, remonstrance, sportive rebuke, 
despair and dejectioi*, self-depreciation, faith, hope, exhila- 
ration, ecstacy of realisation, endearment, joy of service, 
surrender and dedication, satisfaction at his own devout life, 
gratitude — these make his songs an endless epic record of the 
mind of a great Bhakta which was, till the end, erupting like a 
ceaseless volcano. 


It is a full hundred and nine years since Saint Tyagaraja 
shuffled off the mortal coil and became one with effulgent 
Godhead which he sought through his steadfast and consuming 
devotion to his favourite divine form of Sri Ramachandra. 
Moved by the deep angraish of this devotee, Sri Ramachandra 

tHE LORD V S ASStfRAttCfi 5 

appeared before him and assured him of mofcsha within a few 
days. The Saint himself tells us of this in two of his last 
pieces : Qiripai in Sahana and Parit&pamu in Maiioljari. 

" Giripai nelakonna RSnuni 

guri dappaka kanti — 

* * * 

pulakankitudai anandasruvula 

nimpuchu mataladavalenani 

kaluvarinchagani padiputalapai 

gachedananu Tyagarajavinutunl " 
" Unerringly I have seen Sri Rama,- who is 

installed on the hill 

He promised to give me salvation in five days. 
My body was thrilled, tears of joy rolled down my 
cheeks and I merely mumbled unable to give 
expression to my thought "*. 

The other song in which Tyagaraja refers to the promise 
made by the Lord is : 

Paritapamugani yadina 

palukula marachitivo 

sarileni Sitato Sarayu madyambuna na 

varamagu bangSru vodanu 

merayuchu padiputalapai 

karuninchedananuchu kreganulanu 

TySgpxSjujii " 

i. The scene depicted by Tyagaraja in this song refers to Rama getting 
on top of the Suvela mountain, after crossing the sea, and resting there for 
a time before the war actually began, a scene of special significance obviously 
to the school of Rama-worshrppers ; and also in this song, we have probably 
evidence of the influence of Tulasidas, the great apostle of Rama Bhakti; for 
in the Ramacharitamanasaw findTulasi saying of this scene (Lanka, Doha Il-a). 

" Blessed are those that ever remain immersed in the thought of the Lord 
as depicted (i.e., as resting on the Suvela)", on" which Growse adds in a foot* 
note in his English translation : " This scene affords a very favourite subject 
for Hindu painters; partly no doubt, on account of the blessing' whicli Tubidas 
here promises to those who contemplate it," 

5 SAirtrtrifiA' 

"Have you forgotten the words of assuirance 
which you, seeing my anguish, lovingly expressed, 
when you were on the golden boat on the Sarayu, 
in the company of the incomparable Sita, the 
assurance that you would take me to you in 
another five days." 

In accordance with this promise J the Lord took this 
Bhakta, on Pushya Bahula Panchami in Prabhava (6th January 
1847) when the Saint was almost 88 years old. Sometime 
before he attained this Brahmibhnva, one-ness with Godhead, 
the Saint had taken to the orange robes and become a Sannyasin. 
Crude mythologists of the Saint's life will tell us that God 
Ramachandra told him that salvation was for him only in 
another birth and the resourceful Tyagaraja short-circuited the 
scheme by taking to Apat-San?iyasa 9 which was technically 
equal to a second cycle of life ! -What could be more against 
the promise of salvation given by the Lord in the two songs 
just now quoted ? Tyagaraja became a Sannyasin because he 
very much yearned to embrace that" high spiritual order and in 
this, he was prompted by the noble example of the many 
Sannyasins whose samadhis keep company with his own on the 
bank of the Kaverl at Tiruvaiyyaru. Many Sannyasins ot that 
time had sought Brahman-realisation not only through their 
Vedantic Jnuna, but through the worship of Nada also. The 
renowned Advaitic Avadhuta author, Sri Sadasiva Brahmendra, 
was also a musician who sang of his bliss of Brahmananda in 
" fcm infer fes " " %sf& 3W*% WWR; m and so on 2. Narayana 
Tirtha also who composed the musical play on the sports of 

, 1. Ja '^dadinamata', Tyagaraja refers to another occasion when the I^ord 
appeared before him and assured him of succour : '« you should ,not go back 
on the assurance you gave me a year ago that you would* certainly protect me 
and never abandon me.' 

That Tyagaraja revelled in the thought of a Yogm like Sadasiva 
Brahmam is clear enough; one of Tyagaraja's' Dlvyanama saitklrtanas, m 
PunnggavarSli and Chapu, opens ' with the refrain of a well-known piece ot 
Sadasiva Brahmam* *n^ ^ft ^, 


Krishna — the Krishna-lila-tarangini — was a Sannyasin and 
that his personality influenced Tyagaraja's is clear not only from 
Tyagaraja's efforts in the dramatic line but from echoes of his 
songs in Tyagaraja's expressions too *. More than these, the 
well-known recluse of KSnchipuram, Upanishad Brahmendra, 
seems to have exerted the greatest influence on Tyagaxaja in 
music as well as adoration of Rama's Name 2 . And one of 
Tyagaraja's own Gurus saluted by him in his musical play 
JSIaukucharitra is a Sannyasin named RSmakrishnananda. 

Though Tyagaraja lived just a little over a century 
ago, we have unfortunately no authentic account of the 
full details of his life. Hagiologists have tried to make up by 
legends and miracles, some of which are still growing ! 3 We 
shall try to glean such details of his life as we can from refer- 
ences in his own songs and add to these some particulars 
that have been handed down by tradition in the families 
of his pupils. 

i. See the present writer's article on Sri Tyagaraja and Sri Narayana 
Tirtha in the Tyagaraja Centenary Volume (pp. 87-88) published by the 
Andhra Gana Kala Panshat, Gautami Vidya Pitha, Rajahmundry. Narayana 
Tirtha's songs were then, as now, regularly sung at annual festivals of Radha- 
kalyana, Rukmini Kalyana and Sita-kalyana celebrated m Bhajana-mathas and 
it was but natural that the strains of the Tarangas of this Saint were on the 
ears of our composer. Echoes of expressions from the Sanskrit composition of 
Narayana Tirtha are found in Tyagaraja's songs; * Giri-raja-suta-tanaya ' in 
Tyagaraja's simple song on Vighnesvara in Bangala is from the Mangala 
Sloka on Ganesha at the beginning of the Krishna-hla-tarangini. In a Bhairavi 
piece in the opening Taranga, the elder Sannyasin has ' Yaga-yoga-raga-bhoga- 
tySga ' which has its echo in the anupallavi of Tyagaraja's *' Ragasudharasa *\ 
cNikhila-loka-nidana* in Tyagaraja's Saranga-piece is an echo from an 
Anandabhairavi piece in the eleventh Taranga. Compare also * Vinatasuta- 
valiana' of Tyagaraja with 'VinatSsuta ghana vShana' in a Saurashtra piece 
in the first Taranga. 

2. I have dealt with Upanishad Brahmendra, his contribution to music 
and influence on Tyagaraja and Dikshitar in a special paper elsewhere. 

3. Some anecdotes are still in flux I There is no unanimity even about 
the first song the Saint composed or the anecdotes relating to it 

8 fcAfeEtiTAGfe 

One may recollect that at the end of every : piece of his, the 
composer has .signed his name as Tyagaraja* Tyagaraja is the 
name of the presiding deity at the famous shrine at Tiruvarur, a 
place whose musical associations go back to -the time of Saint 
Sundaramurti Nayanar and where the music trinity of South 
India, Syama Sastri, Muttuswami Dlkshitar and Tyagaraja 
were all born. Tinivarur at that time was one of the cultural 
head-quarters of the Kaverl delta and God Tyagaraja was 
worshipped by the Tanjore Kings as their patron Deity as can 
be seen by the numerous musical compositions, padas and 
natakas, in Tamil, Telugu, Marathi and Sanskrit on God 
Tyagaraja, composed by the poets, musicians and kings of the 
Tanjore court lying among the manuscripts in the Sarasvati 
Mahal Library, Tanjore J . One of the poet-composers attached 
to the Tanjore court was an Andhra Brahman settled at 
Tiruvarur, Sri Giriraja Kavi 2 . To his daughter was our 
composer, Sri Tyagaraja, born at Tiruvarur.* Giriraja was 
Tyagaraja's maternal grandfather and not paternal grand- 
father. Tyagaraja's father was Ramabrahmam, of a Telugu 
Vaidika Muriginadu family of Tiruvayyaru; that his house name, 
IntUperu, is Kakarla, is known from his Naukacharitra. 
Kakarlambudhi-chandrudu Srikarudaku 
Tyagaraja etc. 

It is said that Ramabrahmam was living in Tiruvaiyyaru, 
in a house gifted by the Tanjore king, from which we can infer 
that the father too was one of no small attainments. To his 
maternal grandfather Giriraja, Tyagaraja may be taken to 
make an indirect allusion in his Ganesa song in Bangala " Girt- 
raja-suta-tawya "- To his own father, Tyagaraja makes more 
than one direct reference in his compositions ; towards the end 

1. See the English Introduction to my edition of Sndhara Venkatesa 
Ayyaval's biographical poem on King Sahaji of Tanjore, the- Sahendravilasa in 
the Tanjore Sarasvati Mahal Series, as, also my. Introduction to tfre Sangita- 
satamrita of Tulaja, Madras Music Academy Series/ "" 

2. Among the Telugu manuscripts in the Tanjore Libiary, we have 
musical compositions and musical plays and poems by-* Giriraja Kavi with the 
family name Garbha. 


o£ one of his early pieces Dorakunn ityvanti seva in Bilahari, 
lie says ' Ramabrahma-tanayudanu Tyagaraja '— ' fya£ a 3!^ja> 
son of Ramabrahmam '; in his dramatic composition, Prahlada 
Bhakti Vijaya, he pays obeisance to his father both at the 
beginning and at the end ; and in the initial reference Tyagaraja 
describes Ramabrahmam as God Rama himself which again 
shows that his father too was a person of high spiritual attain- 
ment. The Srimukham that Upanishad Brahma Yogin of 
Kanchipuram sent to Sri Tyagaraja * mentions Ramabrahmam 
as the classmate of that renowned Sannyasin-scholar. While 
one tradition calls Tyagaraja's mother SSntamma, another 
gives her name as Sitamma. When later Tyagaraja sang of 
Rama and Slta as his parents — f Sitamma mayamma Sri Ramudu 
ma tandri ' — the poet probably meant it in a double sense. 

Tyagaraja was born in Sarvajit, Chaitra, 27th Monday, 
Sukla Saptami, Pushya, corresponding to 4th May, 1767, 
according to one tradition ; but in 1759, according to others. • 

If Tiruvarur, his birth place, was an ancient kshetra, 
renowned alike for its traditions, saints, devotees and musicians, 
Tiruvaiyyaru or Panchanada, where he lived, was a place of no 
less sanctity and traditions of learning and spirituality. If the 
land of the Five Rivers in the North proved a fertile soil for the 
creative output of the Vedic Rishis, this land of the Five 
Rivers in the South was not less productive of poets, philo- 
sophers, saints and musicians. Tyagaraja was fully conscious 
of the blessing that made him a native of a region which was so 
renowned for its cultural importance, for he proudly sings of the < the ,CJiol&-$ima» the beautiful land in this 
world ' — ' I mahilo sogasaina Cholasimayandu ' (Muripemu- 
Mukhari).- Tyagaraja knew the great value of the kshetra 
where he lived and strove' for his salvation. In his song 

1 This Sriniukliam is foiuid/ajnong the Walajapet Manuscripts preserved 
now at the Saurashtra Sabha, Madura , these are manuscripts of Tyagaraja* 
of his own songs and those of others,, anil of diverse works,used by Tyagaraja, 
and preserved by the Walajapet pupjis pf the Saint. See Journal of the Music 
Academy i Madras— Tyagaraja Centenary Number 1947* PP- ii4~"9* 

16 TIRUVAYVARU on the kaveri 

in Athana, Epupamu jesitirs, by playing a clever pun on the 
word Nada, he says that this place of rivers, Nadapura (or 
Nsdapura (*n?3*) is verily the Lord's own place, as the Lord 
is the embodiment of Nsda (*R). In the Mukhari song, 
Muripemu golige gada y he says that his God Rama should be 
proud of a place in beautiful Panchanada kshetra, worthy of 
being coveted by Siva, on the banks of the Kaveri over which 
the mild Zephyr blows and where holy persons perform homos 
and chant vedas. 

" Iduleni malaya marutamuche 
gudina Kaveri tata mandu — 
Sivudu goru yogyamaina 
sundaramagu puramu." 

And on the fertile Kaveri itself whose waters made the 
Choladesa not only a granary of grain, but a granary of brain 
too, Tyagaraja sang in Asaveri *: 

" This lady Kaveri gloriously proceeding to the 
place of her Lord, the sea, fulfilling the desires of 
all, without difference; now speeding fast, now 
roaring terribly and now placid with grace ; with 
cuckoos singing on either side, touching shrine 
after shrine and worshipping deity after deity, 
with holy men worshipping her with flowers on 
either side and extolling her verily as Rajarajes- 
vari, she goes ! Look at her 1" 

" Sarivedalina I Knverini judare 

varu viranuchu judaka ta nawarigSbhishtamula 

duramuna noka taivuna garjana bhlkara moka 

tavuna nindu karunato 

i. Note the grin of ironical humour on the Saint's face as he sings this 
Kaveri piece in A-saverL The adage goes 'in Tanjore district that the banks 
of the Kaveri and the melody of Sgveri are equally transporting ; and as if 
recording this saying, Dikshitar sings in his » Karikalabhamukham "— » Kaveri- 
tata-sthitam sarari-raganutam." 


niratamuga noka tavuna naduchuchu 
vara Kaveri Kanyakamani 
vedukaga! Kokilalu mroyaganu 
veduchu Rangesuni juchi mari Tredu 

jagamulaku jivanamaina 
mudu rendu nadi nathuni juda 
Rajarajesvari yani pogaduchu 
juchi sumamula dhaxamaraganamulu 
pujalirugadala seyaga Tylgaraja sannuturalai 
In the motherly concern of the Kaveri to feed the people 
with the freshes, Tyagaraja sees the very image of Divinity 
anxious to save the human beings ; the springs of the Kaveri 
which well up with water and the high western winds which 
harbinger her freshes are compared by the composer to the 
abiding kindness of the Lord which can always be tapped by the 
devotee and to the intimations of the Lord's coming grace. In 
the second charana of Ennado Rakshinchite in SaurSshtra, 
Tyagaraja says : 

Nlru leka sajjana ganamulu mana 
darini jucheranuchu delisi Kaveri 
tanu ranu jellu nanuchu vicharahridayuralai 
sareku vacchunanuchu santoshamu 
vlrula kellanu galga badamati 
maruta chanchalamula banipi chalama 
lurajeya leda ? 
Some of the other mundane particulars of Tyagaraja's 
life, known mostly from tradition, are briefly told. Tyagaraja 
is said to have married a lady named ParvatI, who pre-deceased 
him* According to one school of pupils, this wife died early 
and issueless and Tyagaraja married her sister, Kanakainbal 
and begot a daughter named Sltalakshmi. Sitalakshmi was 
married to one Kuppuswami of'Ammal Agraharam and a son 
Tyagaraja was born to them. When this Tyagaraja married 
one Guruvammal and died issueless, the direct Kne of Saint 
Tyagaraja became extinct. 

i& Some wcro&rrs 

Tyagaraja had an elder brother named Japyesa, who is 

very easily made a villain to set off the greatness of Tyagaraja. 

It is said that Japyesa, realising the musical greatness of 

Tyagaraja, was overanxious to make capital out of it; that 

Tyagaraja, however, would not yield to his brother's pressure 

to go to the royal court, sing the praise of mortal man and 

receive sumptuous presents and riches and that, enraged at the 

youngster's obstinate devotion to Rama, Japysea took the 

Rama-idol that was being worshipped by Tyagaraja and threw 

it into the flood of Kaverl. It is also said that after the floods 

subsided, Tyagaraja searched for his precious idol in the sands 

ancl that many of his moving songs were sung at this time in 

the anguish of his separation from the Rama-idol ; particularly, 

the song Nenendu vedukudura is assigned to this context. 

While story tellers are very sure of the context of this song, it 

is strange they do not know the real Raga of this piece. Let us 

see the text of the song once, and we shall find that it has no 

lower incidental reference but has only the higher spiritual 

significance. Tyagaraja says here : 

" Sri Hari ! Where could I effectively search for 
you ? Even Brahma could not have a response 
from you to his prayers for a similar purpose. I 
have been a sinner, have done wicked deeds, have 
indulged often in vulgar talks and have imposed 
on the world as a great Bhakta." 

The refusal to sing in praise of the King and submitting 
oneself to punishment are rather standing motifs with which 
the path of adoring the Lord through music, gma-yoga, is 
emphasised. This may be verified by referring to the music 
sections in the Linga Parana and the Adbhuta Rctmayana to 
which I have drawn attention elsewhere, i 

The blackening of the elder brother who is said to have 
partitioned the house and the belongings between himself and 

i. See Journal of the Madras Music Academy, Vols XVI, XIX pp. 65-72, 


Tyagaraja, seems, however, to have an ultimate basis on some 
fornrof domestic conflict. For one of the details that we can 
directly gather from the Saint's songs refers to the trouble that 
his elder brother gave him. In his Anyuyamu seyakuru in 
KSpi, the Saint says at the end: 'Would you not free me 
from the trouble that my elder brother gives me ? " Na purvaju 
bsdhadirpa leda ". Also, in his Madhyamavati song N&dupai, 
Tyagaraja refers to accusations against himself that he forced 
the partition of the house and property and wanted to celebrate 
daily festivals for Rama. 

The repeated reference by Tyagaraja to the difficulties 
Sugriva and Vibhishana had with their brothers and the way the 
Lord came to their rescue may also be taken as an indirect 
evidence of a certain obsession in Tyagaraja's mind caused by 
this harassment by his own brother (e.g. Munnu Ravana). 

That Tyagaraja suffered much is clear from a large number 
of songs-; that there were many not well disposed to him is 
equally clear from songs in many of which he is very critical 
of men around him. He says in the Purnachandrika piece, 
Palukavemi that while his parents bestowed devotion and 
protected him, everybody else had tormented him (Takkina- 
varalento himsinchiri). That there was constant strife with 
cousins (dayadis) who were inimical to his devotional life is 
borne out by the Nabhomani piece, Nayeda vanchana, where 
he says in the Anupallavi : Dayadula poraina gani dasudanai 
vedukonna. In the Ahiri piece, Etula gnpaduduvo, he speaks 
of the harassment from Dayadis. The ridicule from these around 
to which he was exposed finds repeated mention : e.g., the 
charana of Tblinejesina (Suddha Bangala). 

It is said that Tyagaraja sang the well-known Kalyani 
piece Nidhichala sukhamn as a reply of refusal to an invita- 
tion from the King. Similar sentiments of vairngya towards 
seeking the patronage of the King or rich men are given expres- 
sion to by all poets and saint-singers ; for instance we may look at 
Tyagaraja's contemporaries and compeers, Syama Sastri and 
MuttuswSmi Dlkshitar ; Sastri prays in his beautiful Ananda 


Bhairavi address to the Mother, Oh Jagadamba, that he 
should be saved from the calamity of singing for the low rich— 
' Manavini vinuma mariyada lerugani dushprabhula kori vinu- 
timpaga varambosagi.' In his invocation to the Goddess of 
learning and music Vimpustakadhnrinim in. VegavShinl, 
Dikshitar praises the Goddess as one who frees man from the 
calamity of looking up to the faces of small men 4UWUmfriita- 
5?tW!3f*and starts a regular song in LalitS, with the idea ' I 
shall resort to Goddess Lakshmi and shun the resort to 
low men '— ' f^Rff «MT *rt srsnfa $FmRmm iWlft. 1 Similarly, 
although both on his paternal and maternal sides and on the 
side of his own music teacher, Tyagaraja had much contact 
with the Tanjore court and though the Kings of Tanjore were 
themselves highly cultured and gifted persons whose association 
would hardly have devaluated his vairctgya, Tyagaraja 
took the vow (vrata) as part of his sudhana, to lead the 
life of a daily mendicant, go about singing the praise of Rama 
(bhajana) and live on Unccha-vritti (alms). In Vwidhintku 
in his Prahlnda Bhakti Vijaya, he says in the second foot that 
he stretches not his hand for wealth. At the end of 
Kattujesinavu, he calls himself the desireless Tyagaraja, 
' Nishkama Tyagaraja \ As pieces like Rnjuvedala and 
Mucchhata Brahmudulaku show, the greatest delight that 
Tyagaraja yearned for was to follow the deities in the festival 
processions, singing songs on them. The sufferings, however 
acute, did not make him deflect from his path and his steadfast 
pursuit of the spiritual ideal, for as he says in Ennallu Nitrova, 
one born to that high mission cannot change over to a low 
calling, under stress of adversity ; the vendor of fragrant flowers 
cannot start selling firewood: 'Pulammi bratuke vara pullalamma 

Besides his own brother, Tyagaraja had, as already 
indicated, about him at Tiruvaiyyaru, detractors who ridiculed 
his ways of devotion, as well as his music. This is clear from 
his pieces in which he criticises and complains against these 
adversaries, calls into question their competence and exposes 


their false devotion. In many a song, given here in this book 
under the headings of Nirveda, Dainyokti and Roshokti, Tyaga- 
raja refers to the harassment from those around him ; for example 
bemoaning his fate in Prarabdhamittundagn (Svaiavali), 
Tyagaraja exclaims: 'Those whom I help turn against me; when 
I treat them charitably, they level unfounded charges against me. 
He asks Rama in some songs why He should be a witness to His 
devotee being humiliated among his compeers/ There is a 
Sanskrit saying that the composition of a contemporary poet 
and the beauty of one's own wife do not appeal to man, and it 
is indeed true generally that neither a saint nor an artist is ever 
recognised and honoured in his own time or clime. * 

But though there was a critical or hostile opinion, Tyagaraja's 
songs and his name spread far and wide during his own life time. 
A number of pupils came to him and he imparted to each a corpus 
of his compositions according to the student's voice-quality and 
musical equipment. It is to these pupils, primarily to the 
representatives of the three branches of his Sishya-paramparS 
of Umayalpuram, Tillaisthanam and Walajapet, starting with 
Sundara Bhagavatar and Krishna Bhagavatar, Rama Iyengar 
and Venkataramana Bhagavatar respectively, that we owe the 
propagation of the songs of the Saint. Of famous musicians 
who called on him, special mention is made and a story told of 
a Kerala musician called Shatkala Govinda; it is said that 
Tyagaraja commemorated the occasion of the visit of this 
musician of prodigious gift of voice, with one of his five main 
long pieces, referred to as the Pancha-ratnas, the song Endaro 
mahctnubhnvalu andariki Vandanamu in Sri Raga. The song 
is an omnibus obeisance to the vast galaxy of realised souls, 
devotees, sages, saints and singers of the praise of the Lord and 
can have hardly any trace of an incident like the visit of 

^tWf H^T ^ ^ftfsRTf^ *fa& H Eajaseklwa in his KavyamifnartU. 


There were also invitations to Tyagaraja to go to several 
places and in the latter part of his life, Tyagaraja undertook a 
pilgrimage which extended from Tirupati in the North to 
Srirangam and Lalgudi in the South. At Tirupati again, a story 
is told that when he was eagerly approaching the sanctum for 
darshan, the priest had drawn the curtain and this occasioned 
the song in Gaulipantu, Tera tiyagarada. 

" Oh ! Tirupati Venkataramana ! Could you not 
remove the screen of anger, arrogance and jealousy 
which, taking a firm stand in me, keeps out of my 
reach Dharma, Moksha etc ?" 

It may be noted that it is the veil of matsara and ajnmia 
from which one suffers that is further elaborated in the song. 
From Tirupati, the Saint came to Madras and its neighbourhood. 
The musical importance of Madras is not a matter of the 
present-day Sabhas and Academies. At that time, there were 
in Madras great patrons of music, like Manali Muttukrishna and 
Chinniah Mudahars, Devanayakam of Nungambakkam, Veda- 
chalam, Pindakuri Venkatadri of Coral Merchant Street who 
patronised stalwart musicians of the times — RamaswSmi 
Dikshitar and his three sons, Sonthi Venkataramayya, son 
of Sonthi Subbayya and Guru of Tyagaraja, DoraiswSmi and 
others *. One of these enlightened gentlemen of Madras at that 
time was Kovur Sundara Mudaliar whose village was visited by 
Tyagaraja. At Kovur, Tyagaraja sang five songs on God 
Sundaresa there, I Vasudhd nlvanti in Sahana, Sanibho Mahn- 
deva in Pantuvarali, and others. 4 At Tiruvotriyur, the place of 
Siddhas and Saints, the shrine having a duplicate of the Deity 
after whom Tyagaraja was named, Tyagaraja was drawn by the 
presence of the Goddess Tripurasundarl on whom he sang the 
pieces Sundarl ni divya rilpa in Kalyani, Darini telusu 
konti in Suddha Saveri and others. He then went to the holy 

i. See the present writer's article • Some Musicians and their Patrons in 
Madras about 1800 A.D.' as revealed' in a Sanskrit manuscript work called 
' Sarvadevatilasa' m the Journal of the Madras Music Academy, VpU XVI, 



city of Kanchi, where at that time lived a noble Sannyasin and 
Ramabhakta named Upanishad Brahmam, an author of Advaitic 
works and a votary of Nada-brahmam. He had sent a 
Srimukham inviting Tyagaraja to his place, and as already 
stated, we still have the original Srlmukha. At Kanchi, 
Tyagaraja sang a few pieces on Varadaraja like Varadaraja 
ninnukori in Svarabhushani 1 and Vinayakuni in Madhya- 
mSvati, on Kamakshi. 

Stories are told of how, during his itinerary in these 
northern districts, he once revived, with a song, a dead person 
and how at another time, when thieves harassed him, Rama 
himself appeared and walked by his side as guard. 

There is a song on Subrahmanya at Brahmapuri (Ni vanti 
daivamu-Todi) which may refer to Slrhali, At Negapatam he 
sang of Goddess Nilayatakshi, in two pieces 2 . OhUtamu rnre 
in Arabhi, Rangas&yi in Kambhoji and Rajuvedala in 
Todi are some of his songs on Sri Ranganatha, at Srlrangam. 
It is not known what took Tyagaraja to the village of Lalgudi, 
known as Tapastlrthapura ; on the Goddess Mahita- 
pravriddha at that place, Tyagaraja sang three pieces 3, 

i. The piece ' Varada navanltasa ', in RSga Panjara, more m the style of a 
Divyanama filled with epithets, does not appear to have any connection with 
Varadaraja of Kanchi. Similarly, his Narasimha-pieces do not seem to be 
connected with any specific Narasimha shrine like Shohngar, there is hardly any 
clue in such pieces to relate them to anyplace that Tyagaraja might have visited. 

2. While praising the Goddess in his SSveri piece 'Karmame balavanta- 
maya', Tyagaraja refers to a local legend pertaining to this deity that She subdued 
the pnde of the Sea (see charana 2); Dikshitar also refers to this story of the 
Divinities at Negapatam subduing the pride of the sea; see his piece 'Saundara- 
rajam' in Brindavani, where Dikshitar associates the local Perumal also with 
this exploit : 'Ambudhi-garva-nigraham'. I have tried to verify this from 
the Sthala MShatmya of Nagapatnam but not succeeded, 

3. The piece 'Lahte Sripravriddhe' on this Goddess is couched in Bhairavi; 
according to the Sthala Maliatmya, Lalgudi is known also as Bhairavi-vana . 
In the Kambhoji piece on this Goddess, , Mahltapravr^ddha^ the third charana 
has a knot (see p. 82 of text in this book— padarthe ? ) So also in 'Gati nivani', 
the Todi piece on this Goddess, the first charana alludes to a legend of the lords 
of some place entreating Devi and She manifesting Herself m that form for 
their sake. On these two knots, the Sthala Purana of Lalgudi which I secured 
could not throw any light. 



and on the God here Saptarishlsvara also, Tyagaraja sang 
two pieces x . 

During the visits of admirers and pupils and during these 
travels, he came to realise how his fame as a musician had 
spread all over the country and in the fullness of his satisfaction 
and gratitude to his beloved Deity, he says in his song in Todi, 
D&mrathi ni rinamu dirpa nn taratm, that Rama was the 
greatest savant, ' Rasika-Siromani ', who discerned the worth of 
Tyagaraja's songs, enjoyed them and spread them to the 
distant lands to the full satisfaction of His devotee : 
* Asa dira duradesamulanu 

prakasimpa jesina 

Rasikasiromani Dasarathi, 

ni rinamu dirpa na tarama ' — 
and asks ' Is it possible for me to repay the debt I owe you 
for this?' 

Tyagaraja had a full consciousness of the mission with 
which his life was charged on this earth ; as he says in his 
Asaveri piece, Epaniko janminchiti, he clearly saw that he 
was born with the mission of singing of Rama e\ren as 
sage Valmiki and others did of yore ; and with full knowledge, 
carefulness and joy, he carried out to his soul's content, the 
task to which he was called; in his song in Ganavaridhi, 
Dayajtichutahu, he gives expression to this supreme gratification 
of a self-conscious artist, born to fulfil a noble mission entrusted 
to him by the Lord : 

i. In the piece 'Isa pShi mSm* in Kalyani on Saptarishisvara, Tyagaraja 
says hi the second charana: «• Vyasarchita pahta-nijadasa Bhuloka kailasam- 
banu " etc., which is confirmed by the local Kshetra MShatmya, a ms. of which 
I secured from Lalgudi. The Sthala MShatmya says of Lalgudi : 3Tr§ff#<*r- 
WPSWRgpflT crqfasrT: t The reference to VySsa and Indra worshipping Siva at 
Lalgudi is supported by the mss. of the Sthala Mahatmya. 

At the end of the first charana of this piece, the text of the song as 
available in different editions reads " Paramanandgrnava Deva t yanSpa 
janaka " which has been so reproduced in the body of this book also (page 79) 
with a query. On thinking over this textual knot, I found that the correct 
text is ' Devayanapa-janaka ' meaning • father of the husband of DevayanS ' or 
Pevasenst, the consort of Subrahmanya, son of Siva, 


' Munu nivanatichchina 
panulu asagoni ne 
manasaraga nidanamuga salpinSnu \ 

The anguish and the plaintive strain of many of his songs 
may lead one to think' of Tyagaraja as a meek and frail spirit. 
But a large number of his songs, in which his bold spirit is seen, 
show the strength of his mind and his firm faith in God and 
himself, and the knowledge of his owfr musical excellence and 
the consciousness of himself being in the right: In the familiar' 
piece Nidhi chala sukhama, he refers to himself as w the wise 
Tyagaraja; ' Sumati Tyagaraja \ In the other familiar piece, 
in DevagSndhari, Namoralagimpavemi, he plays a poetic pun 
on the word Sugriva and asks Rama, that if Sugrlva should be 
protected for his beautiful neck, ' Su-grlva ', for the same reason 
of his own stx-griva, (excellent musical voice), he, Tyagaraja, 
should also be protected. In Sitnvara sangita, he refers to 
himself as one revelling in 'Susvara'-' Susvaraloludau Tyagaraja', 
Look especially at his Mukhari piece, Chintisi unnade, in which he 
dwells on the anxiety of the weeping Yama, the lord of hell who 
is unable to claim any victim, because people have all taken to 
singing the saving songs of Tyagaraja: 

f Saramani Tyagaraju samkirtanamu 
baderanuchu chintistunnade Yamudu *. 

In Dasarathi ni rinamu already cited, he refers to his songs 
as capable of endowing on one happiness here and in the hereafter: 
' Bhukti-mukti galgunani kirtanamula bodhinchana Tyagaraja- 
kararchita/ For the sense of balance and true appreciation of 
what is of fundamental value, he calls himself one of the 
foremost Rasikas-Rasikagresara (at the end of Grahabalamemi- 
Revagupti). He no doubt broke down in a meek way in 
numerous pieces bemoaning his lot, but among the various 
moods in which he addressed his Deity are not wanting those in 
which he confidently affirms his qualifications and argues for his 
right for His gface; for example in Atukaradani (Manoranjani), 
he refetf* to himself in the charaua as one well-versed in Veda, 


Sastra and Upanishad and one who is treading the true path— 
' vedasastropanishadvidudaina nijapu darini batti dasudaina \ 
In Evarimnta, he describes himself as one who knows the 
injunctions of Sruti and Smriti (Arsheya and Paurusheya 
Chodyas). Just as he describes himself here as one who treads 
the true path, he calls himself also 'a true servant' — 'nijadasa- 
of the Lord (Cf . end of Kadatera in Todi). 

Just as Tyagaraja was conscious of the high spiritual 
value of his songs, he was conscious also of their great musical 
excellence. His music was the natural climax of an age of 
giants at Tanjore, the musical atmosphere there having been 
enriched by the contributions of Kshetrajna, Narayana Tlrtha, 
Virabhadrayya x , to mention only a few of the first rank. 
According to one tradition Tyagaraja was himself the grandson 
of Vina Kalahastayya. He had his musical lessons from Sonthi 
Venkataramanayya, son of Sonthi Subbanna, of whose music a 
Sanskrit contemporary work 2 says that it would make barren 
trees sprout. No wonder that popular imagination speaks of 
Tyagaraja having been personally initiated by sage Narada 
himself. No wonder also, that in his own Mukhari piece, 
Mffl)aturamettukontivi, Tyagaraja makes bold to say finally 
that Rama incarnated himself only to enjoy and bless Tyagaraja 
for his songs sung in hundreds of Ragas, 

An Idea of Tyagaraja's knowledge of the literature 
belonging to Rama-Bhakti and the musical-cum-spiritual 
heritage handed down through the compositions of the succession 
of saint-singers of different parts of India has already been 
given. More on the same may be seen below in the chapters 
on Nama-m&hatmya and Ishta-devata. The foregoing account 
of Tyagaraja's works would have also given an indication of 
the composer's mastery of the linguistic media in which he 

i. On him, see the present writer's article in the Journal of the Music 
Apademy, Madras, Vol. XVII, pp 153-56 and Vol. XXIV, pp. 151-154. 

2. ' Sarvadevavilasa : see the present writer's article m the Journal of the 
Madras MysiQ Academy, Vol, XVI, p. 135. 


expressed himself. As already said, the composer had made 
his songs the means of communicating his deep feelings and the 
varying moods of a devotee and spiritual aspirant, one who 
underwent poignant experiences in lif e ; all this calls for an 
amount of effective expression which is not possible for one who 
is not endowed with poetic gifts. Whether he was pouring 
forth his agony or breaking into joy or elaborating a piece of 
teaching or condemning worldly things and vices or coming 
down heavily upon hypocrites and depraved persons, his 
expression was equal to the occasion. Like a regular poet, 
Tyagaraja not only played on words but sustained himself 
through continuous sound effects, some of which were part of 
the art of musical composition. 

From what has been already said, it would have been clear 
that frequently Tyagaraja placed himself by the side of the 
great Rama-poets, beginning with Valmiki himself. While in 
some pieces, he calls Rama as abiding in the hearts of the good 
poets — Satkavi-hridalaya and Sukavijana-hrit-sadana in Jagad- 
ananda-karaka (Nata, charanas 2, 10), Kavlsa-suhridaya-nivesa 
in Dasarathe (Kokilapriya) and Sukavi-manasarchitapada in' 
Okapnri (Kalavati), all of which refer to the great popularity 
of the Rama-theme with the poets, he makes special mention 
more than once of Valmiki who gave us Rama and the 
Ramayana. In the same Nata Pancharatna (8th charana), he 
calls Rama one whose story was set forth by the anthill-born 
sage who was also the king of poets: Kavlna-bilaja-mauni- 
krita-charitra. In Entanuchu in Yadukula&ambhoji, he refers 
to Rama having saved the king of poets — Kavirajarakshaka— 
which is of course a reference to the traditional story of 
Valmlki's earlier life as hunter and his being redeemed by 
Rama-nlma. * Satata-pSlita-adbhuta-Kavaye ' in Namo namo 
Rughavuya is again a reference to the same wonderful poet 
Valmiki. In Gatamoha, he gives Rama himself the designation 
c Satakoticharitra ' after Valmlki's work. 

That Tyagaraja was steeped in the religious and spiritual 
lore goes without saying. He was a lover of the learned, the 


truly learned,_§ven as his God was, Budha-jana-dhana (in 
Saranu sarananuchu — Madhyamavati). Complaining to the 
Lord about His being slow to come to the rescue of one like him 
who is attacked by people, Tyagaraja refers to himself as one 
learned in the Vedas, Sastras and Upanishads, Veda-sastropani- 
shadvidudaina (in AtukaradaniManoraxifeni); elsewhere also, as 
has been already referred to, he speaks of himself as qualified in 
the teachings of Sruti and Smriti. 

How far Tyagaraja underwent formal instruction in these 
is however a different matter. "When all this learning lived by 
word of mouth, was recited and expounded publicly and the 
religious congregations and activities were resounding with it, 
one growing in that atmosphere naturally grew into that 
learning, called significantly ' sruta ' in Sanskrit and ' kelvi ' in 
Tamil. If a fair degree of ability to handle Sanskrit could be 
considered as an acceptable ground for one's claim to scholar- 
ship, we may say that Tyagaraja would pass the test. For not 
only has he composed a Sanskrit gadya on the Lord and 
Sanskrit verses in his plays and a number of songs wholly in 
Sanskrit 1 , but his Telugu pieces are surcharged with Sanskrit 
and sometimes even bilingual 2 . Particularly in songs full of 
epithets, Tyagaraja goes out of the way to exhibit his ability 
to use rare Sanskrit words and rarer compounds and to make 
puzzling synonyms out of these, so that it requires the attention 
and imagination of a sound Sanskritist to interpret these songs. 

i. Eg. Nadatanumanisam, Samajavaxagamana, Jagadananda Karaka, 
Varasikhivaliana, Varahla ghanalola, Dehi tava padabhaktim, Ehi Trijagadisa, 
MSmava Satatam, Namo Namo RaghavSya, Nif avadhi Sukhada, PhanipatisSyi, 
Sujanajivana, Sri Narasimha, Raghupate, Bhajare bhaja xOSnasa, Tulasibilva, 
Devadeva, MaMtapraYriddha, Sambho Mahadeva, Sri Janakatanaye, Pahi 
RSmduta, Rama eva Daivatam. 

2. While a few are m a mixed style,-e.g. Tava.dSso'ham, Pam Paramatma, 
many take off in Sanskrit, in the, Pallavi'and go into Telugu, m'the main body:- 
Isa pahi mam, Siye pahi mam, MSmava RaghurSma, Re manasa chintaya, 
Rama pShi meghasySma, Sri Ramachandra Raghava, Bhaja re JRaghuviram, 
Sii Raghuvara, Pahi Kalyariasundktra; Dasatathanandana, and Divyanamas 
starting' with Pahi. Ela nidayairSdu is, an epsampl^ of a piece with Telugn 
opening and Sanskrit body. 


Certain words rare in Sanskrit poetic usage have gained rather 
free currency in the vocabulary of our music composers and 
Tyagaraja has resorted to them frequently, words like Samaja 
(elephant), Apaghana (body), Raja and Abja 1 (moon), Sara 
(water) in Saradhi (ocean) 2 , Vana (water) in Vanaja and 
Vanaruha (lotus) and Vanadhi (ocean) 3, Vi (bird) in Viraja- 
turaga and Vivaha, Bha (star) in Bha-raja and Bhesa 4, 
and Asuga (wind) 5. Vi-vaha 6 in the sense of one riding a 
bird is confusing and expressions like Bha-r2ja-mukha and 
Bhesa-sankSsa are inelegant. Even so are involved compounds 
like Upavalari-mayavilasini 7 which means Vishnu-maya-vil5sini 4 
All this, like some other features too, may fall within the scope 
of literary flaws according to Alankara Sastra, but it should be 
noted that a predilection for these bespeaks an author's ability 
to handle the language freely. Even very recondite and pedantic 
SamSsas are indulged in by him 8 but here again, it appears that 
the composer relied more on the knowledge of Sanskrit one 
gathered from general acquaintance with literature and religious 
texts and by keeping one's ears open and not from any formal 
study of Sanskrit grammar and lexicography ; for the forms used 
by Tyagaraja, while displaying wide vocabulary, are not free 

i. See Rakabja-mukha in Lokavanachatura , this is confusing as Abja is 
moie commoly used for lotus. 

2. See Daya-saradhe, Saradhi-bandhana, SaradM-mada-vidara. 

3. Tyagaraja would use, for lotus, even Saraja (Saraja-anana in Gatainoha), 
(Sarajalochana in Ramaramana bharama) and Jivanajadalayataksha (Evidha 
mulainagani). Bisa-ruha m Laklalayya (Kedaragaula) is also lotus. 

4. See Sujana-hrit-Kumuda-bha-raja in Matimatiki (Mohana), Bharaja- 
mukha in Melukovayya and Bhesa-sankasa in Sri Narada (Kanada). 

5. See Ghanagha-jimutasuga in Nenarunchinanu. Asuga is more com- 
monly used for arrow. 

6. In NidayarSvalegaka (Todi). 

7. See also Manda-janaka-sata-sankasa in Jayamangalam-Ksdanamakriya« 
meaning 'bright like a hundred Suns' in which Manda is Saturn and his Janaka is 
Sun; Varivahavahana-tanaya m Endudakinado is Indra-putraorValin, Varivalia 
being Megha and one riding it (vahana), Indra. It is also far fetched to use such 
lSkshanika-prayogas as Kanja-ja-astra for Brahmastra (in Sri Kanta, Bhava^ 
priya) and Vagisa-ananda (m Rama nipai) for Brahmananda. Instances could < 
be multiplied but the subject is to be dealt with fully in a different context. 

8. See foot note 7 above. 


from solecisms * ; in this respect, like his contemporary 
Dikshitar 2 who composed more completely in Sanskrit, 
Tyagaraja used a popular and easy form of Sanskrit which 
admitted of vernacularisms 3. 

But it must be granted that, compared with his contem- 
poraries, Tyagaraja generally commands a greater felicity of 
expression and grace and flow in style and he could, with much 
ease and effect, manage many alliterations and sound effects, 
especially those that are necessary for the second letter assonance 
or those with which he makes the ends of a line dovetail itself 
perfectly into the opening of the line or the Pallavi when it is 
sung and repeated, or for the yatis of Gopuccha or Srotovaha 4. 
In his Divyanamas there are numerous pieces with lines upon 
lines displaying his skill for alliteration and double entendre, 

i. Eg. Rama namam Bhaja re; Raj am (standing by itself m Ramam 
bhaje'ham in Saveri), Bhusama-santam and TyagarajVhnd-bha&tam in Bhaja re 
bhaja manasa , Phanipatisayi mam patu where we do not know if the epithets 
are in nominative or vocative and how the verb pStu in 3rd person fits ; Pahi 
paramatma satatam mam (Varali). 

a. For a strange coincidence of almost idential expressions m Tyagaraja 
and DIkshitar see Varasikhivahana Varrjalochana (Supradipa) in the former and 
« Varasikhivahanam Varijalochanam ' in the latter's YamnnSkalyani piece 
• Paramasivatmajam \ 

3. See Ram, Pavitri, Durandhari, Paratpari, Sagari, Adhari, Udan, Chan 
Lokasakshi (all feminine); these forms are sanctioned only in popular vernacular 

4. A large number of striking examples can be given to show the ability of 
Tyagaraja in all these respects : Nidhi-Sanmdhi ; Dantunikama-Vedantuni- 
kaina; Dari-Sundan-Tripurasundari; Deki tava pada-VawfeAi; Rama-Abhirama; 
Savamu-Putrotjflv«m« (Emi Jesite— Todi) ; Varana-mvarana (Sri Raghuvara— 
Devagandhan). Grahabala (Revagupti) shows this effect alt through ; Graha- 
Anugraha - Vigraha - Navagraha - Nigraha ; Khala-Ulukhala in Kadatera; 
Vidulaku-Kovidulaku ; Manasa-Mana samarthya ; Manamu-Abhimanamu ; 
Kanta-Krekanta ; Madama-Kamadama and Kulama-Vyakulama (in Rama 
Rama-Huseni) ; Mitri-Saumitri ; Tera, Matsaramuna Tera, Madamatsaramuna 
Tera; Sodhmdh&vL-YssodhaniMHL (Pahi Rgmachandra, Yadukula Kamboji); 
Bhavansannuta— Abjabhavasannuta. ' Easier examples like Guru-Sadguru, 
Raju-Rangaraju ; Meru*Mah5meru and epithets and prefixes going with RSma 
a bound of course. 


(slesha) *. Indeed the more one scrutinises these highly 
Sanskritic compositions, the more textual problems does one 
face, many of which have been aggravated by bad transmission 
of the text through non-Sanskrit knowing hands and could 
probably be solved by examination of more manuscripts and 
patient reconstruction. 2 

Some Telugu scholars do not attach equal importance to 
the Telugu of Tyagaraja 3 but it should be remembered that 
Tyagaraja was born in a Telugu family long domiciled in Tamil 
districts and he wrote the simple colloquial Telugu that was 
spoken by these Telugu families in Tamilnad. 

Taking a larger view we find of course no difficulty in 
accepting Tyagaraja as one endowed with definite and 
conspicuous poetic abilities. We have already referred to the 
general felicity of his expression ; in ideas too, Tyagaraja who 
intentionally meant to communicate a large volume of thought 
through his songs, shows his capacity to expand an idea with 
beauty, logic and effect ; he can take a central idea or an 
effective end of a thought in the Pallavi and elaborate it to an 
extent in the Anupallavi and embellish it further in the charanas 
with the same architectonic skill as in expounding a Raga 
through opening, progression and further sweeps. If as a 

i. To ate a few examples; m Palaya Sri Raghuvlra, in Devagandhari, 
Palaya-Knpalaya ; in Taradhisa-vadana and Taradhisa-damana (in Palayasri 
Raghu) the first Taradhlsa is moon and the second Valm ; Rakshasa-jana-— 
MdLkaraksha-samaia, ; Sn Dasaratha-kula and Sri da-sara-dhi (because he was a 
Telugu who pronounced Th as Dh> Dasarajfta and Dasaraf Az rhymed with words- 
havingdft/; for another instance see dadhi and Dasaraf/t/ in Nidhichala); Himakara 
Bhi Twdtaraharana, Tyagaraja-nuta and Nitya-agarajadhara, the latter meaning 
'lifting and supporting constantly the long of mountains viz., Govaradhana*. 
Janakaja-mata and Janaka-jamata , Kanaka-patadhara, kana-kapata, Tanu 
kanaka; Kamalahita, and nata-kamalahita-dhara ; see also the small pieces J 
Deva Rama Rama in SaurSshtra, as also Entamuddo, where all the lines of the 
charanas rhyme at the beginning ; also in Sri Raghuvara (Devagandhari) the 
lines of the Anupallavi and charanas are in Yamakas. For sustained Prasa, a 
piece like Palukavemi patitapavana in Arabhi can be seen. For a piece with 
more difficult and obscure combinations, Pahi Pahi in SaurSshtra may be seen. 

2. I shall deal with these elsewhere on another occasion. 

3. The Telugu part of the texts also has Some knots still unsolved. 


master musician, Tyagaraja takes off his Pallavis with a 
characteristic and suggestive phrase of the Raga, even so, in his 
Sahitya, he takes off his Pallavis with an emphatic phrase or a 
compact idea which admits of reinforcement or illustration in the 
further parts of the song. Many of his songs open with striking 
Pallavi-words; some of the more musically celebrated masterpieces 
are also examples of this merit of Sahitya : A few examples will 
suffice: Emi Jesite — Todi is an illustration of how Tyagaraja 
can' develop a leading idea, enriching it with a long series of 
supporting ideas. The analogies with which the idea is driven 
home in JSIidhichala are really effective ; for similar apt illustra- 
tions and striking similies we can cite a number of his songs : 
G-uruleka, Chakkani, Karuvelpulu, Tanayuni, Mlvalla, 
Tehsi Rama, JSialinalochana, Sarasiruhanayana, Nanv 
brovakanu. The fecundity of his imagination is conspicuous 
in songs like Melu Melu and Nanu brovakanu where 
long chains of similes are strung. In Pnhi Ramaramana, 
he says that he is too delicate a creature to bear the amount of 
suffering he has been subjected to and adds a series of three 
illustrations that the jasmine blossom cannot withstand a stone, 
that one cannot tighten an iron-belt round a cucumber and that 
the Brahmastra cannot be aimed at a poor parrot. In songs where 
the preaching is pronounced, we see Tyagaraja producing within 
the song almost a compact essay; e.g., Proddu Poyyenu, 
Samsarulaite ; tde Bhctgyamu ; Adikndu bhajana ; Made 
Dhanyudu ; Bhaktuni Ch&ritramu ; Karuna Elagimte ; 
Padavinl ; Paripalaya (on higher puja). For working striking 
fancies on ideas, songs like Vnrijanayana (Kedaragaula), 
Nndasudhwasambilanu on the personification of music and its 
concepts, Sandehamunu on Rama's feet and sandals, Evdundi 
Vedalitivo which speculates on the native place wher efrom Rama 
might have come and contrasts him with the Trimurtis etc., can 
be seen. There are indeed numerous passages which exemplify 
Tyagaraja's poetic fancies. Special attention may be drawn 
to a few examples : In Brovabharamu. he asks if he is too 
much of a burden for Rama to bear and points out the huge 
burdens that the Lord had borne in the past, the mountains of 


Mandara,and Govardhana on his back and palm, and the entire 

universe in his stomach. In Srikanta ?ilyada, Tyagaraja asks 

Rama why He who chastised Kaka-asura does not pay any 

heed to the erring Dvijas' (Brahmans); Tyagaraja intends a 

pun here, for the mischievous Kakasura was a bird and ' Dvi ja ' 

(Brahman) means also a bird. In the first charana of Anuparna- 

gummbudhi, he refers to Rama as the son-in-law of Mother 

Earth and implies that he should not be inert like Earth ! In 

Mmamuledct, he observe^ that the father of Kusa-Lava should 

be a connoiseur of music. At the end of Kada tera rada (Todi), 

another deft touch of his is seen when he suggests that those 

who are true servants of the Lord who was bound to the mortar 

(by Yasods) get freed from the bonds of vicious worldliness, 

' Khala chitta laukikamane srinkhalamandu dagalakane— 

Ulukhalabaddhunikinijadasudai velasillu',-a fancy which reminds 

us of Vedanta Desika's verse on Krishna-Damodara in his poem 

Yadavabhyudaya J . Sarasasnmadana contains an original 

flash of Tyagaraja that if, after the promise of the 

kingdom of Lanka to Vibhlshana, Ravana should surrender, 

the magnanimous Rama would give him the kingdom of 

Ayodhya itself. Sri Ramadasadaso'ham has a series of 

fancies on the Samudrika-lakshanas of Rama, and in Yuktamu 

gadu, a series of reasons for Rama's indifference is imaginatively 

worked out. In the Kiranavali song, Pamku ni kelara, his fancy 

comes out with an added glimmer of fun in the reference to 

Sabari and Guha and in Sitanayaka (Rltigula), a more 

pronounced expression of this tendency gives us a fine song 

of the type called Ninda-stuti. In Evaramadugudurz, he 

wbrks'out the fancy that, every boon and blessing he might ask 

of the Lord having already been taken by one celebrated Bhakta 

or another, he, Tyagaraja has nothing left which he might request 

for himself. In some other songs the play of fancy combined 

with the power for graphic depiction presents us excellent 

pictures': The portrayal of Rariia as a boy playing with his 


mates in the street in Rama Rama Rama Inli (Sahana) is one 
such. For a masterpiece of exquisite miniature painting, we 
have in his Kaikavasl piece Vnchamagocharame a brilliant 
example ; the tenderness and compassion with which the Lord 
combines His power is effectively reflected in the light and 
shade of this masterpiece. Tyagaraja presents a sylvan scene in 
which, guessing Sita's longing for the tail of a chamara-deer, 
Rama swiftly sends a shaft at its tail, but finding that the deer 
would rather lay down his body than lose his tail, Rama 
despatches more swiftly a second arrow to strike down the one 
aimed first at the tail. For his descriptive gifts, one should 
see pieces like the one on the river Kaverl [Sari tedalina). 
We should evaluate the poetry of Tyagaraja by the heights to 
which his imagination has reached, as indeed we should judge 
the achievement of all genius. 

The literary quality of Tyagaraja's composition is also 
evident in the touch of realism and humour which enliven his 
expression and bespeak the Saint's keen eye on things around 
him. Attention may also be drawn to the popular idioms, 
proverbs, sayings, parables and maxims which are strewn all 
over his songs *. In Nike dayaruka, Tyagaraja observes that 

*i. Gomukha-vyaghra— Tiger with a cow's face— Bhaja re Raghuviram. 
2* Dutta palu ruchi dehyu samyame — Like the vessel trying to know the 
taste of milk— Enta muddo. 

3. Vennaiyunda netikevvarama vyasana padura— With butter in hand, 
will one worry himself about ghee "> — Kanna talh. 

4. See the whole of the songs Rukalu padivelu, Chakkani rajamargamu, 
Melu Melu, Rama niyada, Nalinalochana (Madhyamavati), Samayamu delisi, 
Balaam kulamu, and the similes in Pahi Ramaramana (Varali). 

5. Vrishabhadulukatukula ruchi deliyu — Expecting bulls to know the 
taste of flvcZ—Kalinarulaku. 

6. Pranamulenidaniki bangaru baga chutti etc., in Bhakti bichcha— Like 
dressing and decorating dead bodies. 

7. Charanas 1 and 2 of Mivalla : If the gold is not of requisite quality, 
why blame the goldsmith ? If your daughter cannot bear the labour pain, 
why blame the son-in-law ? 

• 8. As much fun as there is money to spend— Vittamunaku daginattu 
veduka naduchunu— Ninnadanela. 

9. GananStha jeya goraga ggdu vanarudai tirega-trying to make the 
Image of Ganesa and producing one of a monkey— Evanto ne delpudu. 

(Continued on next page) 


it is only a person wanting in sense or propriety who would 
hope to gain forcibly the love of a woman whom he has failed 
to interest by the mere sign of his eye, or who would not bury 
within himself hearsay reports but begin to act upon them. His 
sense of humour and satire are seen especially in the songs in 
which he criticises the imposters or those wallowing in worldly 
things. In Manasu vishaya, he refers to the fool who lends the 
door of his own hut to a neighbour to enable him to close his 
own hut and go to witness a drama, and himself keeps an all- 
night vigil for driving dogs from his own open hut. See the series 
of illustrations in Samayamu delist: " It is immaterial if a mad 
man is or is not pleased at hearing good poetry ; it is immaterial 
if blind eyes, however large, remain open or closed ; it is 
immaterial if a panaka-p&ju is done in the Turushka-vithi ". 
Look at this in Mivalla: "If one's daughter is not able to 
stand the labour-pain, why blame the son-in law ?" Tyagaraja 
can also employ a scathing style when he wants to denounce 
vehemently : Look at his references to the SomaySji performing 
sacrifices and his wife running after beautiful paramours 
(Manasu nilpa), to the success that experts in pornography 
(Koka Sastra) have in this world, to those who run after women 
like dogs, to the sukara-vritti of those who worship not with 
pure minds, to the hired mistresses who foment domestic chaos 

10. Like an orphaned girl clinging to her husband : Talli Tandri leni bala 
tana nadhu goru riti— Chera rava. 

11. Pulammi bratuke vara Rama pullamma bilvararu — One selling flowers 
will not care to sell firewood— Ennallu. 

12. Rocking the baby with one hand and pinching it with another— Totla 
narbhakula nutuvu, man mari tochinattu gilliduvu— Atta balukudu. 

13. The purchased wife— Rukalosagi konna sati— Gara vimpa rada 

14. Talaku vachchjna bsdha talapagaku setu— the danger that came for 
the head just took the turban thereon— Nadadma maita. 

15. The bull in the oiimill going round and round in the same track— 
Sri Rama RamSsritulamu. 

16. Is it possible to draw out easily a cloth cast over the thorns— Gajja 
mundla mlda dagulu konna batta grakkuna diya vasama— Sri Rama Jayarama 

17. See also Palamunchma nitamunchina m Bhuvmi dasudane, Niraina 
pSlaina in O Rama O Rama. 

1 8. Pouncing like the gram on the frying pan — Ramaramana in Vasanta- 
bhairavi and the Stbftti pulaka nyaya, one gram enough test for a potful— . 


{Evaru Teliyanu), to those who prostitute their mother, viz., 
the mind, to the libertines called senses for earning some money 
{Nijamuga in Sahana). 

Tyagaraja's musical contribution is remarkable for its 
quantity and variety, 1 as much as for its quality. The highest 
musical excellence is found in his compositions which we have 
come to call ktitis, in which he captured and effectively 
picturised the essence of Ragas. In these the words are reduced 
and scope is afforded for musical elaboration, variations and 
embellishments. In his compositions, as stated in the beginning 
there is a wide variety of form and type, from metrical com- 
positions and settings suggested by the European band-tunes 
that were then familiarised at Tanjore, e.g., Girirajasuta and 
Raminchurarevarura to creations like Koluvaiyunnude, 
where sangatzs are heaped and the Scthityas are moulded like 
Pallavis. As part of the daily worship of the Rama idol, he 
composed a series of songs expressing the several services, the 
shodasa-upacharas, forming part of the worship. At that 
time, there was widely prevalent in the Tanjore area the practice 
of celebrating in Bhajana mat has, the festivals of Radhakalyanam 
and SitSkalyanam. Tyagaraja composed a series of songs 
referred to as the Utsava-sumpradaya-kirtanas and Divya- 
namarsamklrtanas for a full festival like these. The Divya* 
nmna-samkirtanas are in simpler, metrical setting, so as 
to help congregational singing ; but it is in them that much of 
Tyagaraja's thought is thrown and the composer exhibits also 
his command of Sanskrit, its rare words and compounds, and 
sound-effects. Above all Tyagaraja attempted also to produce 
full musical plays. During his times, in temples and certain 
villages of Tanjore, like Merattur, there was the practice of 
enacting in abhinaya, musical plays by troupes of Bhagavatas x 

i. See the present writer's Bhagavata Mela Nataka in the Journal of the 
Indian Society of Oriental Art, Calcutta, Vol. V. 1937, pp. 167-179. \lsoJoqrmf 
of the Madras Music Academy, Vol. XVIL pp. 130-151. ' 


proficient in music and dance. Tyagaraja had much fascina- 
tion for this devotional dramatic tradition sanctified by the 
association of Jayadeva and his Gita Govinda and, much 
nearer his time, Naralyana Tirtha and his Krishna-lila-taran- 
gini. An elder contemporary of Tyagaraja was an accom- 
plished music composer of Merattur named Venkatarama 
Bhagavatar who enriched this Bhagavata-mela-?iafaka-sam- 
pradaya with his musical plays like the Prahladacharitra. 
Inspired by these, Tyagaraja composed two musical plays, 
bringing out the greatness of devotion, called the Prahl&da- 
bhakti-vijaya and the Nauka-charitra. 

The Prahlada-bhakti-vijaya and the Nauka-charitra 
are modelled on the same plan as the nntakas of the 
Bhagavata tradition with descriptive songs, dialogue-songs, 
introductory verses, and prose-passages ; but there is no 
tradition of either of these works of Tyagaraja having been 
played. They were only sung by devotees in- Bhajanas, 
continuously as well as in parts. It would give a wrong 
impression to call them operas. Sometimes an attempt is made 
to distinguish them from Nataka-compositions such as those of 
Merattur Venkatarama Sastri; the distinction will hold good 
only so far as practice is concerned, as Tyagaraja's two dramatic 
compositions were never enacted; but in theory, Tyagaraja's 
composition differed not, for he expressly says in his Prahlada- 
bhakti-vijaya that it was to be sung and rendered in abhinaya. 

The story of Prahlada is of primary importance to all 
votaries of the Bhakti-marga, and when we consider the fact 
that Tyagaraja was a Rama-bhakta from his young years and 
was subject to many trials in the pursuit of the path of single- 
minded devotion to the Lord, there seems to be a special 
significance in Tyagaraja's fascination for Prahlsda's story 
which is, so to say, the prototype of the story of his own 
devotional life. Further, the great popularity of the Prahlada- 
story in the dance-drama tradition which gave rise to the 
Prahl&da charitra of Merattur Venkatarama Sastri Juust have 


also induced Tyagaraja to write this musical play which, as its 
title shows, tries to bring out the triumph of Prahlada's devo- 
tion to Hari over the many trials to which his demoniac father, 
Hiranyakasipu, submitted Prahlada. The pieces here are both 
heavy and light, and some of them have become popular in our 
concerts also. It may be noted that, following the practice in 
the flgtafta-compositions, Tyagaraja employs here many Rakti- 
ragas ; Huseni, Sahana, PunnaigavarSli, Ghanta, NilSmbari, 
Gaulipantu, Asaveri, Ahiri, and Paras. 

Shorter but more dramatic and more noteworthy as an 
artistic achievement is the musical play Nauka-chantra which 
brings out the idea of complete surrender to the Lord through a 
finely worked out story. The Gopis desire to go on a boat excur- 
sion on the Yamuna, with Krishna in their midst. They are 
exhilarated with his love and become intoxicated with pride. 
The Lord who desires to render them humble and purify them, 
conjures up a gale which tosses the boat on the turbulent waters 
of the river ; consternation seizes the women ; suddenly they find 
that the craft springs leaks and the Lord grimly asks them to 
remove their garments, symbolic of all material trappings, and 
plug the holes with them. When the Gopis had surrendered 
their pure spirit to the Lord in meek prayer that He was the 
sole saviour, the Lord calls off the storm and blesses His 
devotees. The motifs through which the ideas are worked out 
are variations of those in the wellknown episodes of Vastru- 
paharana and Rasalila- There is a Sanskrit version of this 
theme by one Venkatasuri which is an inferior production and 
is obviously not the source of Tj^agaraja's inspiration, but was 
probably a post-Tyagaraja attempt. It is well-known that in 
the Bhajana-tradition there was continuous contact among the 
schools in different parts of India. At different stages the 
Assam - Sankaradeva and the Bengal - Chaitanya school on 
the one hand and the South Indian schools on the other 
had contacts of give and take. It has come to light that the 
theme of Nauku-charitra is wellknown in Bengal Vaishnavite 
devotional literature and as the Bengali productions on the 


theme are earlier, it stands to reason to suppose that Tyagaraja 
took his inspiration from the Bengali originals r . 

Pious tradition believes that, on the whole, Tyagaraja 
composed, to be on a par with the 24,000 slokas of Valmiki's 
Ramayana, 24,000 songs on the glory of Rama. Even the songs 
that are now available, 800 or so, form quite a substantial 


We are, however, not primarily concerned on this occasion 
with any detailed study of Tyagaraja as a musical genius. 
Among musicians of his time, Tyagaraja was one who underwent 
a poignant life of devotional and spiritual striving and by the 
meaning and message packed in the passages of his songs, he 
takes his place among the musician-saints of our country, like 
Kabir and Purandaradasa, the latter of whom exerted a very large 
influence on him, or the pioneers of devotional poetry in this part 
of the country, the Alvars and the Nayanntars. Among the 
music composers of his time, Tyagaraja was a poet, preacher 
and philosopher. Those that have heard his! songs again and 
again and have been carried away by their music, have no 
suspicion of the wealth of idea that lies underneath, like gems 
within the ocean. Time and again, we sit before our favourite 
songster and wait for the thrill of a particular sangati or 
sanckara in his song ; neither the listener nor the singer realises 
the equally thrilling poetic fancy or philosophic truth which that 
musical flourish hides within itself. When one looks at this 
aspect of his songs, one will not be reminded of the musical 
setting of his age, of the heritage of Sonthi Venkataramanayya, 
Adippayya and so on, but one will recall a different background, 

1. Sri Suresh Ch Chakravarti, Calcutta, writes to me on this subject : 
" Regarding Nauka Vilas or Nau Vikar* it provides an important chapter of 
what we call Pals Kirtan or LilS Kirtan of Bengal. There are many Padas or 
compositions from the pen of various Vaishnava poets known as Mahajans." 
I may draw attention also to a Sanskrit Giti-kavya on the same theme called 
Talrani-vihara by B&SbkarSnanda Sarasvati published in the Samskrita Sahitya 
Parishat Pamka, Calcutta, XXX, Nov, 1947 ff, 


of a religious and spiritual revival on the banks of the Kaverl, 
of NarSyana Tirtha, Sadasiva Brahmendra, Ayyaval and 
Bodhendra and of the rise of the cult of the Lord's Name, 
Noma Siddhanta, as the most potent means of realising God. 
His reformist zeal for true devotion and discarding of sham and 
meaningless form and ritual, derived its direct inspiration from 
the Padas of Purandaradasa *; and an entire school of Rama 
Bhakti developed by saints and books, like Ramananda, 
Tulasidas, the Adhyatma Bamayana and Ramadas gave his 
imagination everything that was needed in his pilgrim's progress 
for the realisation of Ramachandra 2 . It is not as if mere 
singers alone took up and spread the songs of Tyagaraja. 
Devoties in Bhajana-mathas and in the Bhajana-parties 
accompanying the deities in procession in great festivals sang 
them and Bhagavatas who expounded Harikathas found in his 
instructive pieces many apt songs which they could use in their 
discourses; many of the songs, by their theme and teaching, 
appear verily to be shaped like apt Nir&panas, as they call 
them, intended for use in such devotional and spritual exposi- 
tions. The view, I hope none holds such, that we should look 
to his music and not to his meaning is expressly contradicted 
by Tyagaraja who emphasises in his own definition of a Kriti 
that it should expound the .true words of the exalted Upani- 

shads : * Nigama - sirorthamu - galgina - nija - vakkulato 

kritiche bhajiyimchu \ In fact, in respect of singing his songs, 
it is the devotional word Ehajana that he uses. The gusto 
with which he preached and the volume of valuable wisdom and 

i # For example ct. Tyagaraja's 'Dhyaname varamaina gangasnaname' and 
Purandaradasa's 'Smarana onde salade' m whose third charana we read 'sakala- 

tirtha yatreyamatidamdha nikhila punyada phalavu smarane*; Tyagaraja's 

'Manasunilpa' and Purandara's ' Manava nihsuvadu balukasta'; Tyagaraja's 
• Sogasuga ' and Purandara's 'Talabeku'; Tyagaraja's 'Dvaitamu sukhamS' and 
Purandara's 'Dvaitavu sukhava' and Tyagaraja's 'Grahabalamemi' and Puran- 
dara's 'Sakalagrahabala nine'. There are similar parallels between Tyagaraja 
and KanakadSsa also. 

2, In his Prahlada Bhakti Vijaya* Tyagaraja salutes Tulasidas, Puran- 
daradas, Bhadrachala Ramadas, Namadeva, JnSnadeva, Jayadeva, TukSram 
and Narayana Tirtha, 


experience he impounded in his songs place him among the 
saints whom we revere for the service they performed by periodic 
spiritual rehabilitation of our land. Tyagaraja's songs will 
therefore be not only a huge dam storing for us our precious 
musical heritage, but one more of the bibles which our saints 
have given to the community at large for their spiritual 

One is therefore justified in making a detailed study of the 
entire though '.-material in the songs of Tyagaraja with a view 
to bring out the richness and the varied aspects of the spiritual 
heritage of Tyagaraja and to draw attention to the message of 
the songs that Tyagaraja composed for the salvation of 

Ragaratna malikache ranjillunata 
baga sevinchi sakala bhagyamondu damu rare 
naigama shat chastra purana agamartha sahitamata 
yogivaruluyanandamunonde sanmargamata 
bhagavatottamulu gudi bade klrtanamulata 
Tyagaraju kadatera tarakamani chesina sata 


" Come one and all and sing the hundreds of 
gem-like melodies which Tyagaraja composed for 
the salvation of humanity ; songs which contain 
the essence of the Vedas, the six Sastras, Puranas, 
and Agamas, which the Bhagavatas congregate 
and sing forth and which show the right path to 
attain the bliss realised by the Yogins ! 

" Oh come, one and all, smg them well and be 
blessed !" 



" Nadaloludai Brahmananda mandave, manasa " 

One of the distinguishing characteristics of Tyagaraja as 
a composer is the large number of songs he has given us on the 
noble art that he handled, and the many references he has 
made to it in his other songs. These songs and references cover 
every aspect of the art, musical criticism, elucidation of musical 
concepts, the best way to practise music, music as a help to 
spiritual effort and above all, music itself as a Yoga and a 
Siddhi, a path and a realisation. 

In his Sriranjani piece, opening with an exclamation on the 
wonderful effect of the accompaniment by the mridanga : 

Sogasuga mridanga tslamu 
jatagurchi ninu 
sokkajeyu dhirudewado 2 

Tyagaraja defines, as it were, what the composition-type called 
Klrtana or Kriti is : 

Nigamasirorthamu galgina nijavakkulato, 
svarasuddhamuto, yati-visrama-sadbhakti - 
virati-draksharasa-navarasa-yuta, kritiche 

' Kritis which expound the true words of the 
exalted Vpanishads, which are marked by correct 
placements of svaras and rhythmic turns and 
pauses, which reflect true devotion and vairagya, 
which are dripping inside and out with juice like 
grapes and are rich in the nine rasas \ 

Tyagaraja has not merely defined here the requirements of 
a Kriti but has really described the highlights of his own 

i. On this subject, see also the present writer's Sanskrit article of this 
name in the Silver Jubilee Souvenir of the Morris College of Music, Lucknow, 
-952, pp. 25-6. 

3, Cf . purandaradasa's pada ' Tala. befcu takka mela beku ' etc* 


compositions in which the Kriti-foxm attains its perfection. In 
Sanskrit literary criticism, two main styles of composition are 
often distinguished: Narikela-paka and Draksha-paka; a 
composition whose beauty is deep inside is to be slowly enjoyed 
with an effort, just as we have to break the shell of the cocoanut 
to drink its water; and a composition which tastes immediately, 
whose Rasa flows the moment it is tasted, and which is full of 
juice, like the grapes — ' Bahirantardravad-rasa \ To music, 
which is the art of all arts, in which form and content coalesce 
and Rasa dominates from beginning to end, the comparison of 
Drnksha-paka applies excellently. And among our musical 
compositions, those of Tyagaraja are aptly described by this 
simile of Drukshu-paka. That they are masterpieces of melodic 
and rhythmic structure needs no elaborate demonstration. That 
their theme is infinitely varied by the play of the moods and 
phases of all the nine Rasas and that their ideas are all based 
on the teachings of our ancient sages and sacred books will be 
plain from the other chapters of this study. 

How keenly Tyagaraja enjoyed the rhythms of a finely 
played mridanga, as referred to in the above-quoted piece, can 
also be seen from one of the later charanas of his long song on 
music in Sankarabharana, Svara-raga-sudha-rasa, where 
he says ; 

' What is the pleasure in banging a mridanga, 
without knowing the rhythms and their varied 
patterns ?' 

* Maddela-talagatulu teliyakaye mardinchuta 

sukhama ?', 

Now listen to this address of his, his vade mecum to 
musicians, which he gives in. the well-known Todi song 
Kaddanu-varihi : 

' Niddura nirakarinchi, 
mudduga dambura batti, 
suddhamaina manasuche, susvaramutoi 
baddutappaga, bhajiyinchu/ 


Musicians may well hearken to this advice of their Guru- 
mtfha, Tyagaraja : 

" Cast off your sleep, get up very early in the 
morning and practise ; culture your voice well in 
the still early hours of the morning. (We may 
add — do not sleep till 9 a.m. and allow your voice 
to sink to half a kattai or quarter of a kattai 
and then requisition the other limbs of your body 
to make the sanchuras which your voice cannot 
execute): Take a beautiful Tambura for your 
Sruti (we may add — cast off your Sruti-box). 
Let your mind be pure, intone the svaras correctly 
and well, and stick to the sampradaya ". 

A well-trained voice, perfect Sruti, spotless personal 
character, Svara-suddhi and faithfulness to tradition, — what 
else need be said to emphasise the fundamentals of our musical 
art ? The repeated emphasis on Su-svara that Tyagaraja lays 
may be noted ; besides Sogasuga and the above cited piece, one 
may mention also here Etla dorikitivo in Vasants, Sukhi evaro 
in Kanada and Situyara in DevagSndhari in the last of which 
Tyagaraja describes himself as one revelling in Susvara (susvara- 
loludau Tyagaraja sannuta). 

We shall see another note-worthy song of his, Nuda-sudh&- 
rasa, in Arabhi. We all know that one of the outstanding 
features of Tyagaraja's songs is the employment of Sangatis. 
By harnessing the Pallavi method; he introduced variations in 
the rendering of the same passage, which besides their value as 
f effect* have a meaning of their own in the unfoldment of the 
Raga-bhnva and also of the Bhuva of the Sahitya or words 
of the song. The Sangatis have therefore to be set, limited 
and made strictly appropriate and they are not merely a matter 
of the facility of one's voice. Take, for instance, the Pallavi 
of a song like Namofctlagimpavemi. (Why do you not listen 
to my wailing ?). The variations of the Pallavi vary the shades 
of the feeling of agony and despair and give a gradual climax 


towards which the Sangatis mount. That the musical concept 
of Sangati has to be thus understood, as a contextual effect, 
appropriately introduced, is given to us by Tyagaraja himself in 
his song Nada-sudha-rasa, He conceives that Nada itself has 
taken human form in Rama and he then proceeds to fit in the 
elements of music to this conception : — 

Svaramularunnokati ghantalu, 
vara ragamu kodandamu, 
dura-naya-desyamu trigunamu, 
nirata-gati saramura 
sarasa-sangati sandarbhamu. 

The beautiful Sangati should also be attended by emotional 
propriety and contextual relevance. This is confirmed also by 
the older classical name by which Sangati is known in the 
texts, Prayoga or Gamakalapti. 

Of our art of music, the JRaga is the very soul. The Ragas 
constitute the greatest glory of Indian music. Each Raga has 
a distinct form, a personality of its own, and anybody singing it 
should make the full personality of that Raga stand before the 
listener's mind. Any other and defective way of singing the 
Ragas is to maim and mutilate them and to court Hell which 
Shaw says is full of musical amateurs. There is 1he story in the 
BHhad-dharma Parma, Adbhuta Rnmuyana and Linga 
Parana that the Lord showed Narada a huge congregation of 
beautiful divine damsels lying maimed and mutilated and when 
he asked about their identity, Narada was told that they were 
the personified forms, the Adhidevatus, of the Ragas that 
Narada had mutilated by his singing *. Tyagaraja's songs have 
some reference to this significant legend, for, in two places, he 
says that we should worship the Beauties of the Seven Svaras 
and that each Raga has incarnated as a beautiful damsel and 
is dancing with tinkling bells. In his Jagan-mohini piece, he 

* See my articles * Music in the Brhad-dhanna PurSna ' and 'Music in the 
Adbhuta Ramayana ' in the Journal of the Madras Music Academy, Vol. IX. 
pp» 37-39 and Vol. XVI. pp. 65-73. 


says, ' Sobhillu saptasvara sundarula bhajimpave manasa * and 
in his Attiana song Sripapriya, he says, ' Ragambulu manjula- 
magu avatlramuletti manjlramu ghallani natinchu.' 

There seems to be a peculiar appropriateness in Tyagaraja's 
selection of the Saguna form of Sri Ramachandra for his 
Bhakti. Among the infinite excellences, (ananta-kalyana- 
gunas), with which Valmiki has built up this personality which 
has bewitched for ages the millions of this country, as it did 
indeed His contemporaries, one finds specially mentioned a high 
proficiency in the art of music ; *n«*f *f g$ *g : ^p mwm*: — 
says Valmlki in the opening of Ayodhyakmda II. 2-34. No 
wonder that several times Tyagaraja, in his addresses to Rama, 
calls him a lover of music. In his Varali piece, Eti janmam 
idi and in the Kambhoji piece, Sri Raghuvara aprameya he 
calls Rama, * Sangita-lola'; 'Gma-lola' in the Suddha- 
slmantini piece Junaklramana and in the Divyamma, Vara- 
Ilia in Sankarabharana; 'Glta-priya' in the Kedaragaula 
Divyanama, Ramuni maravakave. In his SrlrSga Pancha- 
ratna> he describes the Lord as revelling in the sacred music of 
the Samaveda—'Sama-gana-lola'. In an Athana piece, he calls 
upon the mind to resort to the upnsana of music which is dear 
to the Lord: 'Sripapriya sangitopasana cheyave, O manasa !' 
In his appealing Todi piece Ninu Vina sukhamu gm% he 
describes Rama as one who delights in the Ragas of music, 
' Raga-rasika '. It is in the seven notes that the Lord lives and 
moves and has .His being : Saptasvara-charl (in Sripapriya in 
Athana). If one can manifest the svaras precisely, each one 
of, them would form a veritable ornament to God (Susvara- 
mayabhusha in M dayache Rama in Yadiikula KSmbhoji). In 
Sadhinchene in Arabhi, he refers to Rama as the maintainer 
of the music -tradition — ' Sangitasampradayakudu \ In the 
beautiful piece Mmarnuleda, so well set in music and words, 
Tyagaraja says to Rama that one so detached in heart like Him 
could not be found and His attitude towards a musician like 
Tyagaraja, was inexplicable in one who knows the appeal of 
music and is the father of the nwsitiaas, Kusa and Lava. 


Above all, as I have already said, he conceives Rama, in an 
Arabhi piece, as also in Ni daya che Rama in Yadukula 
Kambhoji, and Talachinantane in Mukhari as the very- 
embodiment of the ambrosial Rasa of Nada, 'Nadasudha- 
rasambilanu narakritiyaye, f Nada-brahmananda-rasakriti ' and 
c Nada-brahmananda-rupa ' T . 

When Tyagaraja chose Rama for his Ishta-devata, he had 
an additional advantage. In Hanuman, he had a guide and 
a Guru not only in Rama-bhakti, but in music as well. It is 
well-known in Sanskrit musical literature, that Anjaneya is an 
authority on music and the author of a treatise propounding a 
school, 'mata'. So Tyagaraja says that when Anjaneya, the 
devotee and musical votary that he was, resorted to Rama, he 
knew that he was selecting the personality which not only 
represented the essence of Git a but also the essence of Sangita 
and this, Tyagaraja proclaims in his well-known piece in Surati : 

' Gltarthamu sangltanandamu 
nitavuna judara manasa 
Sitapati charanabjamu nidukonna 
Vatatmajuniki baga delusura \ 

As has already been mentioned, Tyagaraja belongs to the 
line of musician-saints who employed this noble art for the 
moral and spiritual upliftment of themselves and humanity. 
For a long time before Tyagaraja, music had played in 
this country an effective role as the handmaid of religion. 
" The best sort of music is " as Coleridge said, "what it should 
be — sacred". In fact, the conception of all art in our country 
has been spiritual and it is in our temples and as part of our 
Sadhana, that all arts, literature, sculpture, architecture, dance 
and music have flourished. The rise of the Bhakti movement 
and the Bhctgavata s&mpradaya popularised this path of 

1. As with music so with dance; it is the Lord who is the favourite theme 
of all -dance; and those that do such dance are dear to him. The reference 
' Nrityajana-priya ' in the Darbar song ' Paripalaya mam ' is noteworthy, 
particularly in view of the very few references to the dance-art in Tyagaraja's 


musical devotion all over the country. The books of this 
school say that the worship of the Lord with song and dance 
must be done by the devotees as a Nitya-karma. 

$fc# SteM^ ii 

This belief is elaborately set forth, with illustrative stories, 
both in the Linga Purana and in the Adbhuta Ramayana *• 
It came to be held that any other and lesser use made this art 
profane. Again and again, Tyagaraja laid emphasis on this 
teaching, because many among even the accomplished music 
masters delighted in the art either for displaying their powers 
and their mastery of it or for propitiating kings and rich men. 
God was the fittest object of music, and music bereft of devotion 
to the Lord was useless. In the well known Dhanyasi song 
Sangitajnanamu, Tyagaraja says that music, without devotion, 
would lead one astray, that music is something high that great 
sages and saints have practised and that its real efficacy is 
known only to a person knowing the right and wrong and the 
worthlessness of wordly things, and one who has subdued his 
defects and the six inner enemies, passion, anger, avarice, delu- 
sion, elation, and intolerance. 

Sangita jnanamu bhakti vina 
sanmargamu galade ? manasa 
Bhringi Natesa Samiraja Ghataja 
Matanga Naradadulupasinchu 
nyanyayamulu delusunu jagamulu 
maySmayamani delusunu durguna 
kayajadi shadripula jayinchu 
karyamu delusunu, TyagarSjuniki. 

In his own masterly manner, Tyagaraja summarily says in 
his song Samayamu delist, in Asaveri : f It is immaterial if 
a song which does not refer to Sri Rama is sung' or not sung/ 

I. See my article on ' Musac in the Adbhuta RgmSyana', Journal of the 
Madras Music Academy, Vol. XVI, pp. 65-73. 


c Padamu Tyagaraja-nutunipai gSnidi, p5di 
emi, padakundina nemi.' 

The only song worthy of the name is what is surely in 
praise of the Lord : ' Rama nl pate pata ' (Rama KodandarSma 
— Bhairavi). 

In his Srl-raga Kirtana* Numa kusuma mulache, he asks 
us to place the supreme Lord on the bejewelled pedestal of 
Nuda and Suara and worship His feet with the flowers of His 
names : 

' Nadasvaramunu navaratnapu vedikapai 

Paramatmuni Sri Ramuni Padamulanu...pujinche.' 

If one would spend his time adoring the Lord like this, 
with music and the singing of His holy name, then, Tyagaraja 
says, human life is the greatest of all lives—' Nara janmame 
janmamu, manasa '; and there is none happier than one who, 
with flawless tuneful music, keeps ceaslessly singing the Lord's 
Name — 

Nityamaina susvarapu ganamuto 
nirantaramu, Tyagarajanuta, 
sukhi yevaro Ramanama- 
sukhi yevaro (Kanada). 

Mere knowledge of music without Bhakti does not lead one 
to the right path. ' Sangita jnanamu bhakti vina sanmargamu 
galade manasa,' declares the well-known piece in Dhanyasi. In 
stories of the Lord that the Bhagavatas expound, there should 
be both Raga and Anurnga, music and devotion— Anuraga- 
mga-rajita-kathasarahita (Jagadmandakaraha, Nata). On 
the other hand, in his true poetic way, Tyagaraja plays on the 
word Raga and juxtaposes two addresses of the Lord as Raga- 
tasika and Raga-rahita at the end of Ninu vinn sukhamu 
gana (Todi), suggesting thereby that the musician's rnsikya 
should not descend to levels to which it does among many of 
them. In his Vasanta song, Etla dorikitivo, Tyagaraja says 


that it is as a fruit of his sweet music that he has been able to 
realise God — ' Susvarapu nada phalamo \ 

Those musicians who did not have a high conception of 
their own art, who degraded it and were bereft of devotion or 
knowledge, Tyagaraja condemned again and again. In his 
Sankarabharana Kriti, Mariyadagadura, he says that Bhaga- 
vatas who understand neither Raga nor Tula, who have no 
love or devotion, knowledge or yogic practice are only destined 
to be born again and again in this Sums am. Look at his 
disgust with such low musicians who do not realise what a 
divine art they are handling ; in the well-known Sankarabharana 
song, Svara raga sudha rasa, he says in the Anupallavi: 
These (meaning the vulgar musicians) are verily the crane and 
the toad sitting on the lotus called supreme bliss, ' Paramananda- 
manu kamalamupai baka bhekamu ' *. They are standing by or 
squatting on the wonderful lotus flower called the supreme bliss, 
not knowing that it is so ; they are not the swans and the bees, 
the ' Nada-sarasiruha-bhringas ' as he says of Narada, that know 
how to enjoy the ambrosial Rasa of that lotus of bliss ! Those 
Bhagavatas who are also Rasikas, endowed with taste, become 
the object of the Lord's protective grace : Bhagavatagresara- 
rasika-avana (Namoralanu-Arabhi). 

Of all arts, music has the greatest power to take us away 
effectively, easily, immediately and fully from the mundane 
plane and keep our Spirit absorbed completely in the Spirit's 
own inner ineffable essence. Our ancients realised this truth 
almost at the very dawn of our history. They first extolled the 
Gods in poetic hymns called Riks, but soon found that the 
Gods were more easily gratified by the singing of those hymns. 
Hence they fitted their Riks to tune, i.e., they produced the 
Suma Veda. Of the many Vidy&s or esoteric means of 
realisation taught in the Upanishads, one is called the Udgitha 

j. Cf. Somadeva, Karhasaritsagara, IV, 4, 78* 


Vidya, the worship of the Udgitha or Pra?iava, Omkctra* Of 
it, the Chnndogya Upanishad says : 

aftf^^^gs^Tisfta i qjtf 3pqf gfcrsfl to: sfir«n 

BINt TO:, BWBJtari* TO, cflfasffaf g^qt TO:, SW3T 3FTTO:, ^ 
55* TO:, m^: em TO:, SF3 ^7«ft TO: I ^ ^ TORf TOOT: TO«qf 
STSqt «?es(tq: | 

m^& m*t sto* gig i qsag gig ag; wr, s^Rg ^m ^ t 

' This Om, this Imperishable Udgitha, must be 
worshipped \ 

c Of all these of creation, earth is the essence ; of 
earth, the essence is water ; of water, the herbs 
are the essence; man is the essence of herbs; 
speech is the essence of man; poetry is the essence 
of speech ; music is the essence of poetry ; the 
Udgitha or Pranava is the essence of music \ 
' Thus this Udgitha or Omkara is the utmost, 
the most valuable, final essence of all essences ' *. 
k Therefore the worship of all Suman or music is 
good. What is good or perfect is Saman ; what 
is bad and ugly is indeed not Saman \ 

Hence it is that Siva is said to have been propitiated by 
Ravana with Sama-gana. Hence it is that in the Glta, the 
Lord says that he is the Saman amongst the Vedas — %3[rcf 

It is from this Sama Veda, Bharata says in his Natya 
Smlra, Brahma extracted the art and science of music. 

sffl*4t 'ifcpta * 1 swtaifiW' 'far s^ns fttaros: i 

On a par with the Sama Veda whose notations are 
unalterable, there were in ancient times, a body of songs on 
Siva called Qandharva, as distinguished from the variable Qita 
music; these Qandharva compositions, referred to also as 

1 Cf . Carlyle " All deep things are song. It seems somehow the very 
central essence of us, Song , as if all the rest ot us were but wrappages and 
nulls ".—Heroes and Hero-Worship, III- 


M&rga songs, were supposed to have been created by Brahma 

himself ; their notations also were not variable and the singing 

of these songs, called Aparmta, Ullopya, Madraka, etc., 

conferred great spiritual blessings on the singer. Two Nagas, 

Kambala and Asvatara, are said to have attained the state of 

being .he ear-ornaments of Siva, by singing these songs. Sage 

Yajnavalkya, the great Smriti authority, says in his Smriti : 

c Clearing your senses, memory, mind and intellect 

of all other objects, the Supreme Atman, which is 

within oneself, shining like a lamp, should be 

contemplated upon. 

' Intoning the Sumorgana in the proper manner 
and without break, and practising it with concen- 
tration, one attains the Supreme Godhead \ 
' The constant singing of the songs Aparuntaka, 
Ullopya, Madraka, Prakari, Auvenaka, Saro- 
bindu, Uttara, Gritaka, Rik, Gathu, Punika etc., 
verily bestows salvation \ 

* He who knows the truth of Vina music, is an 
expert in Brutis and their varieties and under- 
stands Tala also, reaches the path of salvation 
without exertion '. 

$& snc*n tl«rat afts^ ^ $<&&. ag: 11 

Yajnavalkya Smriti, N. & Press Edn< 

pp. 349-50, »!«$, 


When Tyagaraja says in his Chenchukambhoji song 

' Vararagalayajnulu: svarajatimurcchana bhedamul sv2nta- 

mandu deliyakayundi/ he is only rendering in his own words 
the last verse of Yajnavalkya quoted above. When he addresses 
Narada in the opening of the Char ana of the Kanada piece as 

* Vina-vadana-tattvajna ' he is just embodying in his Song, part 
of the very verse of Yajnavalkya quoted above. 

It may be observed that in almost all the instances cited 
above, the reference to music comprehends both melody and 
rhythm, raga and tala, svara and laya. Yajnavalkya too 
adds ' cJT^pr '. In the Chenchukambhoji piece of Tyagaraja, 
we find ' Vara-raga-Jayajnulu ' and in his SrirSga Pancharatna, 
f Bhava-raga4az/5<i^saukhyamuche \ Of the great thrill and 
transport that the unerring rhythmic accompaniment in music 
can give, better expression cannot be found than in the 
Sriranjani piece quoted at the beginning of this Chapter: 

* Sogasuga mridanga talamu jatagurchi ninu sokka jeya dhiru- 
dewado \ And on how a lapse in rhythm can ruin the music, 
hear Shakespeare bursting out : 

" Ha, ha ! Keep time. How sour sweet music is 
When time is broke and no proportion kept I". 
{Richard II Act V Sc. V.) 

We are now familiar with the image of Dakshinamurti 
imparting knowledge, Jnma, to sages, Sanaka and others, 
found invariably on the southern side of our temples. But if 
we see our earlier temples in the Pallava and the early Chola 
periods, we will find on the southern side not the Yoga- 
Dakshinamurti showing the path of salvation through Know- 
ledge, but the FmarDakshinkmurti showing the easier way to 
salvation through Vina and music which the Yajnavalkya 
Smriti speaks of in the lines referred to above *, and which 
Tyagaraja, no doubt, has in mind when he says in his S2ramati 
piece, Mokshamu galada, ' VlnavSdanaloludau Siva-mano- 

i. See my article on the 'Yina 1 in the Madras Music Academy Tyagaraja 
Centenary Conference Souvenir, 194 6 * P- 57* 


vidha merugaru mokshamu galada '— ' It is indeed hard lor one 
to attain Moksha if one knows not the mind of Siva who always 
delights in playing on the Vina \ 

Hence is Narada represented as going about eternally with 
his Vina, singing the glory of the Lord and proclaiming to the 
world that the Lord dwelleth not in Vaikuntha, nor in the sun, 
nor even in the hearts of yogins, but where His devotees sing. 

Narada is the first Bhagavata-musician ; the Lord delights 
in the beautiful music that Narada is ceaselessly singing in 
praise of Him : ' Narada-gana-lola ' ( Athana) and f Narada- 
sugana-lola ' (Mupnla velasi — Asaveri) ; and no wonder Tyaga- 
raja venerated him as his Guru in more than one song of his. 
He feels his relationship with Narada so close that he calls 
Narada his friend ; f Tyagaraja-sakha ' ( Nwradamuni vedalina, 
Pantuvarali — Prahlada-bhakti-vijaya). The Bhairavi piece 
Sri Naradamuni is wholly devoted to this Prince of 
teachers going about with the Vina : ( Rajillu vinagala 
gururaya '; so also the Darbar piece Narada gnru-^aini in 
which Narada is described as the master of the entire music- 
lore — 'Sareku sangita-yoga-naigama-p5rangatudu\ In the 
well-known Vijayasri piece, Vara Narada, Tyagaraja says in 
the charana that the Lord Himself proclaimed Narada as the 
greatest Guru and as identical with Himself. In the Kanada 
piece on Narada, Tyagaraja calls Narada the honey-bee on the 
lotus of Nuda, ' Sri Narada nadasaraslruhabhringa ', and one 
who knows the truth of the music of the Veda-bom Vina — 
' Veda-janita-vara-vlna-vsEdanatatt vajna ' * , In Sri Ragh uvara 
aprameya in Kambhoji, he describes Narada as ' Svara-layadi- 
murchchanollasita ' 2. 

1. Tyagaraja has evidently m mmd the playing of vina m Asvamedha and 
other vedic sacrifices and the vedic statement which says that the vina is verily 
a form of the Goddess of Beauty and Prosperity—' fspff Eft t^snpjj I^Hr ' 

2. As it is in the text, this may also be taken as a description of Rama 
Himseif, separating the last bit *Narada-vmuta\ 


The control of breath, mental absorption, and the mainten- 
ance of a blissful state have all made this art of music a 
veritable Nada Toga. Even the later evolved Tmtric, Saivite 
and Yogic schools assign a definite place to Nnda and accept 
the efficacy of its worship in spiritual realisation. The Vijnnna 
Bhairava Tantra says that the mental absorption produced by 
music gradually leads to the realisation of oneness with the 
Divine Spirit. 

3PW%T: sr?F% W<*j)*fl!i*f^I II 

The substance of all these teachings is found summarised 
in the beginning of all music treatises in Sanskrit. Our saint- 
composer was acquainted with these books and had, in practice, 
realised the truth and philosophy of Nada Yoga. One music 
treatise, the Svamrnava, written as a dialogue between Siva 
and Parvati, which, tradition says, Narada himself gave to 
Tyagaraja, is taken as mentioned by Tyagaraja, at the end 
of his song Svara-raga-sudhn-rasa, and as having been studied 
and understood by him. In his Dhanyasi song, Sangita-jnanamu, 
Tyagaraja mentions many of the musical authorities found in 
the books, Narada, Bhiingi, NatarSja, Anjaneya, Agastya * and 
Matanga ; and a longer list of these he mentions in his kritis 
saluting the great masters in the musical field — Vidulaku 
mrokheda-, adding here names like Lakshml, Parvati, Sarasvatl, 
Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, Indra, Bharata, Kasyapa, Chandikesvara, 
Guha, Ganesa, Markandeya, Tumburu, Spmesvara, Sarngadeva 
and Nandi, some of whom are authors of treatises and historical 
figures. According to time-honoured tradition, the first thing 
to do is to pay respect to one's elders and teachers and this 
Tyagaraja does in this song appropriately in the ^per^ing Raga, 

1. In 'Dehi tava pada' in Sah5na there is a reference to Agastya adoring 
Sita with music. 



Previously, some songs of Tyagaraja which emphasised 
music as an aid to Bhakti were quoted. Now attention will be 
drawn to his songs which glorify music itself as the means to 
Mukti and as Mukti itself. Summing up, as it were, the 
Phala-sruti of music, he says in his Mukhari song, Sangita 
snstra jnmamu that the knowledge of musical lore, as handled 
well by Tyagaraja himself, would confer on one wealth, fame, 
good conduct, grace of the Lord, love for good men, devotion 
and love and above all the bliss of oneness with the Lord. 

Sangita sastra jnanamu sarupya- 

saukhyadame manaSa — 

prema bhakti sujanavatsalyamu, 


nema nishta yaso dhanamosangune 


Tyagaraju nerchina. 

The bliss of music, which is verily the nectar of immortality 
lengthens life ; in his Sriraga Pancharatna piece, he says : 
' BhSva-raga - layadi - saukhyamulache chir2yuvul kaligi.' 

In his song Svara-ruga-sudhn-rasa, to which reference 
has been made more than once, Tyagaraja says first that Bhakti, 
combined with the ambrosial Rasa of Svaras and Rag as t is 
itself Heaven and salvation. 

svargapavargamurS manasa. 

He then points out the origin of Nuda in the Mulndhnra 
and observes that knowledge and realisation of this Nuda is 
itself bliss and salvation. 

' Muladharaja nadameruguta 
mudamagu mokshamura/ 

In Enduku peddalavale (Sankarabharana), Tyagaraja 
juxtaposes Veda and Sastra, Advaita JnSna and the secrets of 
the Nadavidya, implying thereby that a mastery of the secrets 
of music confer the same summum bonum as Vedantic know- 


ledge and spiritual realisation gained by metaphysical pursuits. 
Sage Yajnavalkya says that one who understands music well 
reaches easily the path of salvation, the contrast suggested 
being with one who takes time and trouble to reach the same 
goal by other processes. Tyagaxaja makes this contrast plain, 
when he says next in the same song that while the Jnani, as the 
Gita says, 

attains liberation after numerous births, he who has by nature 
a devoted mind and has also knowledge of Rngas is verily a 
liberated soul here itself i.e., a Jivanmukta. 

' Bahu-janmamulaku paini jn2niyai 

baraguta mokshamura 

sahaja bhaktito ragajnanasahitudu 

muktudura manasa \ 
It is in this sense evidently that Beethoven also declared that 
music is a higher revelation than philosophy. 

That music itself is Jivanmukti is the implication of his 
question in the Saveri song ' What if he is a Samsarin, he who 
can sing of the Lord with Rugas, playing on the Vina V 

Bhagavatula gudi bhogamulella Hari- 
ke gSvimpuchu vinaganamulato 
naigamacharuni Sriragamuna baduchu 
Tyagaraja-nutuni baguga nammuvaru 
— Samsarulaite nema^a ? 

In his DevagSndhari piece Sitavara, Tyagaraja prays that 
he may be blessed with the knowledge of music so that he might 
attain to that state of Jivan-mukti which is the teaching of the 
Qlta and all the Upanwhads. 

God protects those devotees who combine divine love with 
music : RSgasvara-yuta premabhaktajana-rakshaka (Na mo- 
ralanUs Arabhi). 

In his Saramati song, Mokshamu Q-aladu, he affirms that 
music alone gains Jivanmukti for one, and then he expatiates 


on the origin of Nnda from Om, by the interaction of Prma 
and Agni, as expounded in the Sastra x , and the manifestation 
of the seven svaras therefrom : 

' Nl sad-bhakti-sanglta-jn2na-vihlnulaku 
mokshamu galads 

pr5n2nala-samyogamu vafla Pranava nSdamu 
sapta svaramulai baraga \ 

He then observes that one cannot attain salvation if he 
does not know the mind and intention of Siva who is always 
delighting in playing on the vina, which reference to the Vina-* 
Dakshinamurti I have already explained. Tyagaraja follows up 
the idea in his Begada piece, Nadopasanacke, where he says 
that Siva, Vishnu and Brahma attained to their high divine 
state by the constant worship of N&da. 

' Nadopasanache Sankara Narayana 
vidhulu velasiri manasa \ 

That the secret of the thing is the realisation of the truth 
that the seven Svaras and N&da emanate ultimately from 
the Omk&ra, the Pranava, the Udgltha of the Upanishads, 
is emphasised more than once by Tyagaraja. In his song in 
Hindola, Samajavaragamana, he describes Krishna as well 
versed in music-lore which is the nectar that came out of the 
Suma Veda and as the light shining on the hill of Nnda, made 
up of the seven Svaras born of the Pranava, the matrix 
of the whole Veda, 

SSma nigamaja sudhamaya gana vichakshana — 
Veda siro mStrija sapta svara nadSchaladipa — 

Tyagaraja's description of Krishna as Nadachaladlpa, ' the 
light on the hill of Nada ' may be compared to what Upanishad 
Brahman says of Krishna (not distinguished from Rama) in a 

See Sangita Ratnakara Ch. I, especially the verse : 


Divyanama sanklrtana of his in Lalita raga (Adi tula) : ' Sam- 
vidrupa-nada-pradlpa', the light of the Nada which is of the 
form of pure consciousness ; and in another long Divyanuma in 
Kalyani, Upanishad Brahman addresses the Lord again as 
* Nada-pradlpa \ 

Tyagaraja says again in his song Vara-ruga layajnolu in 
Chenchukambhoji, that the Nada which issues forth is really 
the divine Pranava : 

€ Dehodbhavambagu nadamul divyamau prajiavaka- 

ramane.' * 

His song in Andolika, (the Baga-namt rocks us, as is were, 
on the billows of Nada) Ruga sudha rasa, says : 

' The nectar of Nuda-rasa gives one the blessings 
of Yoga, Yuga, Tyuga and Bhoga. Drink that 
Raga-rasa, O mind, and delight.' 

Tyagaraja knows that those great souls who have know- 
ledge of Svara, Nada, and Omkwra are really Jlvanmuktas : 
Raga sudha rasa panamu jesi 
rajiUave manasa 
yaga yoga tyaga bhoga 
phala mosange 

Sadasiva mayamagu nada omkara svaravidulu 
jlvanmuktulani Tyagaraju deliyu 

In the charana here, Tyagaraja says that Nuda, Svara 
and Pranava are of the very form of Sadasiva. In his Nata 

z. There is no doubt in the reading ' Pranavakara ' meaning ' of the form 
of Pranava'* for it echoes a passage in one of the works of Upanishad Brahman. 
It is one of the tenets of the school which Tyagaraja followed in respect of 
Rama-nama-siddhanta) Upanishad Brahman with whom Tyagaraja had connec- 
tions, says in his Divyanama-sankirtana that all the names that issue forth from 
the ocean of Rama-nama are of the form of Brahma and Pramva~3$5ivt$iwffit 
The manuscript of this musico-religious composition of Upanishad Brahman 
was secured by me from the Upanishad Brahma Math, Kanchipuram. For ' 
Tyagaraja, the Nada that issued forth took a double form : on one side it was 
musical, on the another of the form of Rvni-nam* ; the former solidified itself 
again as the enchanting personality called Ramachandra* 


pancharatna, he describes the Lord as the parrot within the 
cage of Pranava, ' Omk2ra-panjara-klra '; in Mundu venuka 
(DarbSr) and Rama (Arabhi), he addresses the Lord as 
abiding in Omknra, f OmkSra-sadana ' and ' Omkara-dhama \ 
I have already referred to the saint conceiving Rama as the 
very embodiment of the ambrosial essence of Nnda — ' Nada- 
sudharasambilanu narakritiyaye '. In some other songs, he 
addresses the Lord as the embodiment of Nnda : ' Nadatmaka ' 
in Nibhakti bhngya ( Jayamanohari) and ' Nada-rupa ' in the 
Rltigaula piece Nl daya galgute and in the Kaly2ni piece 
Nammi Vacchina ; in Nidaya che Rnma in Yadukulakaimbhoji 
and in Talachinantane in Mukhari, he speaks of God as the 
embodiment of the Brahmnnandarasa of Nnda — 'Nada- 
brahma-Snanda-rasa-akriti \ and e Nada-brahmananda-rupa \ 
That all music is but an aspect of the Lord's form has been 
stated in the Vishnupurnna : 

Reference should be made here to Tyagaraja's song in 
Chittaranjani (sung in Kharaharapriya), a Sanskrit composition, 
in which he pays obeisance to Siva, whose body is Nnda, who 
is the quintessence of Snma Veda, the delightful and the best 
of the Vedas, and from whose five faces Sadyojnta etc., the 
Svaras emanated. 

flWEigsfttf foe OTifir $ *rwr finrar i 

It may be noted that in this purely Sanskrit piece, Tyagaraja 
has incorporated part of the Mangalasloka of the Sangita- 
ratnnkara of Sarngadeva (I. i) q% 31533 font 1 

We cannot better close this chapter than with two of the 
composer's songs in which this high conception of music as the 

And brahmanandA 55 

supreme Yoga, in which even the Gods revelled, finds best 
expression. The song in KalySnavasanta, N&da loludai, calls us 
forth to attain Brahmananda through Nnda Vpusana, which 
is the path followed by the Trimurtis, the gods and sages : 

Nada loludai Brahmananda 
mandave manasa 
svadu phalaprada sapta svara 
raga nichaya sahita- 
Harihar2tmabhu surapati 
Sarajanma Ganesadi 
Vara maunulupSsinchare 
dhara Tyagaraju deliyu 

In his Garudadhvani kirtana, as if with a clarion call, 
Tyagaraja proclaims : 

' Rama ! One that does not float on the ocean of 
music, adored by the Gods and Veda$ 9 which is 
Brahmananda itself, is verily a burden to the 

* Srin2yakakhila-naigamarchita- 
sangita jnanamanu-Brahmananda- 
sagara midani dehamu bhumi bharamu\ 



" Snntamu leka saukhyamu ledu " 

Neither Jnuna nor Bhakti is a matter of glib talk or vain 
claim, but one of sustained practice. One's life has to be entirely 
geared up to a new scheme of values and reorganised in a manner 
different from the daily humdrum or dissipation. For a spiritual 
aspirant or devotee who wants to realise his goal, a new syllabus 
of conduct is needed and a constant endeavour to acquire these 
new accessories and an eternal vigil to keep oneself upon the 
path can alone, in good time, bring him near his objective. As 
part of the Krishna Jayanti festival we see in some temples a 
feature called * Uriyadi ' {*~flfut+). A man has to get up a 
slippery pole smeared with oil, and, all the time, half a dozen 
men throwing jets of water at him ; against these odds, he has 
to reach the top and knock off the prize tied up there. One's 
striving on the path of devotion and knowledge is like this ; 
before one step is gained, one slips down ten steps. Just as in 
the story of our remembering the prohibited monkey when we 
are to take the medicine, we will find our adversaries coming up 
exactly when we vow to avoid them. We may vow to fast on 
Ekndasi ; that morning, somehow our hunger will howl like a 
wolf. Not to mention the numerous external temptations and 
misguides, the mind steeped in age-long Avidya suddenly lets 
us down, the senses take by ambush even the most vigilant 
and stab him on the back. Prahlada says, in the Bhagavata, 
that like half-a-dozen wives of a man, the senses, each hankering 
after its own, tear a man to pieces. 

Wb wm & 5*5^ ssftt u VIL 9. 40. 

sAnkara on sadhanaS jJ9 

Hence it is that our scriptures and teachers have insisted 
upon- an elaborate processing of our whole being through 
Sadhanas of various kinds. The acquisition of the Sudhana* 
Sampat is the first requisite. 

In his Bhashya on the Brahma Sutras, Sri Sankara, 
interpreting the first Sutra * Athnto Brahmajijmsa (srerat TO- 
fSrSTCtf) says that the significance of the word Atha (awj-'then* 
— here is that one should embark on an enquiry into Brahman 
after the acquisition of the required Sadhana sampat. 

And he further says that this Sudhana sampat consists of : 
(i) Nitya-anitya-vastu-viveka, discrimination of the 
mundane and spiritual values, the perishable and the 

(2) Iha-amutra-phala-bhoga-viraga, or simply, Vau 
rngya - non-attachment and the non-desiring of 
enjoyment of any fruit here or in the hereafter. 

(3) Sama-dama-ndi, mental tranquility, control of 
senses; Uparati or refraining from further acts; 
Titiksha, bearing or being unaffected by the dual 
condition of pleasure and pain, heat and cold, gain 
and loss and so on ; Samadhuna or concentrated 
attention ; and Sraddha or faith. 

(4) The fourth Sadhana is Mumukshutva or the 
yearning for release from bondage in Samsura. 

3^Rt f^foawgfij^:, SflS^a^fifcR:) WNpn^iPTOfo* 

gggct ^fcr \ x 

While such are the S&dhanas mentioned by a Jmnin, 
Narada speaks of the following in his Bhakti S&tras :— 

* cPE^m gnftlft WMRpft f 35 frWcWTEfc www i wtow- 
1. See also Vivekachudamani of Sankara, Slokas 17-31- 


"Of that Bhakti> the Acharyas give the Sndhanas 
as the avoidance of sense-pleasures and attach- 
ments ; ceaseless worship of the Lord ; listening 
to and singing the Lord's glory ; the grace of the 
self-realised souls and of God ; the company of 
great souls is very important ; it is difficult to get 
but once attained it never fails ; for, the good and 
godly are not different from God himself; 
therefore, one should strive and strive for 
satsanga or the company of the good, and avoid 
completely the company of the bad/' 

Acts of worship, singing of the Lord's glory and listening 
to it are both means of stabilising one's devotion and forms 
of that devotion itself. According to the dictum ' qp% sn^Rlfa 
cfl*fa sssrorft * what are means from one point of view and in 
one stage are the spontaneous emanation of the end itself, from 
another standpoint and in another stage. In fact, the whole 
thing is a continuous process, the means rising upon the 
substratum of the end, like waves on the ocean and then 
becoming part of it. 

Therefore, we shall deal with these acts of worship etc., on 
a later occasion when we study the phases and forms of 
devotion. Of singing of the Lord's glory, we have already 
spoken to some extent when we considered music as Sadhana 
and we shall come to it again later. We shall see now what 
Tyagaraja has to say on the other Sudhanas quoted above 
from Sankara and Narada. 

The Sahana song Vrake is a compendious utterance of all 
the requisites (s&dhanas) of true bhakti : 

Can Rama-bhakti be had easily by those who 
always cherish in their minds worldly life as 


the ideal to be coveted ? It must be difficult of 
attainment except for those blessed souls who 
regard family, relations and material wealth as 
evanascent ; those who have the darsana of pious 
men, serve them constantly, listening to their 
instructions, meditate in their mind on Hari, 
realising that everything is full of Hari and thus 
attain salvation, and those fortunate people who, 
discarding worship characterised by rajasa-guna, 
always chant the Mantra of mantras (viz. Rama's 
Name) shining ever on the tongue of Tyagaxaja. 

Nitya-anitya-vastu-viveka, the discrimation of the 
mundane and spiritual values, the discarding of the former and 
the prizing of the latter, and Vairugya or having no desire for 
enjoyment here or in the heavens, go together. We find 
Tyagaraja affirming the dew-like evanascence of worldly 
pleasures in Nndupai which is believed to be one of the clearly 
autobiographical pieces ; we find him condemning sense- 
pleasures, wealth, Kama and Artha and the valuing of 
mundane things in many a song of his. Both in teaching and 
practice, he shunned the rich and their flattery and the wealth 
that they would give. He asks : 

'Nidhi chala sukhama, Ramuni sannidhi seva sukhama, 

nijamuga balku manasa \ 
" Tell me in truth, mind, is treasure highly 
gratifying or the enjoyment of the presence of the 
Lord ?" 

By playing on the words Nidhi and San-nidhi, as the 
true poet that he is, he underlines that God's presence is the 
better, the greater Nidhi or treasure. Further, 

' If you want to glut yourself, take to the more 
delectable dishes of the nectar of Rama's thought 
and devotion ; why these curds, butter and milk ?* 

r Dadhi-navanlta-kshlramulu ruchiyo Dasarathi-dhySna- 4 
bhajana-sudharasamu ruchiyo \ 


1 Mamata-bandhana - yuta - narastuti sukhama, Sumati- 
Tyagaraja-nutuni kirtana sukhama.' 
' Sing of the Lord whom the wise Tyagaraja has 
praised. Do not indulge in flattery of mere men 
stuck up in their own petty egoism \ 

He refers again to the fatigue of waiting upon princes, in 
the Ritigaula song Nidaya galgute. 

To Tyagaraja, Sri Ramachandra was not only the great 
God, but, to the artist in him, God Himself was also the great 
savant and patron of Letters, who alone could fully enjoy the 
beauty and worth of his creations. Rama is the Rasika (Deva 
i?ama-Saurashtra), the Rasika par excellence, the Rasika 
Siromani. To whom else could he then, as an author, dedicate 
his works ? Let me quote the text of a song in the rare 
Ranjani Raga which has recently attained some popularity : 

4 ! Dharmntman ! When I firmly believe that 
you are my wealth, you constitute my material 
needs, you are my God, how can I bring myself 
to flatter low fellows wallowing in the mire of life 
or dedicate my work to depraved men of the 
court ' ? 

dora nivana jalaia 
Dharmatmaka dhana-dhanya- 
Daivamu nlvai yundaga 
paluku botini sabhalona 
patita-manavula kosagu 
khalula nechchata bogadani Srikara 

The contrast in Dharmntmaka and patitamnnavalu is to 
be noted ; , God, the patron par excellence is the embodiment of 
virtue, vrhereas worldly patrons are the embodimeiit of vices ; 
an<J the address Srikara at the end is also' to be noted for the 
real lasting Sri or any reward worth aspiring for by dedicating 


noe's artistic creations is to be sought from Him, the source' of 
all worldly and non-worldly treasures, not from petty chiefs 
and local zamindars who could give a few chips. The Raga- 
name again is significant : Ranjana or pleasing is the end of 
an art ; while other singers would yearn after the ' ranjana ' 
of rich men of the world, our Saint singers considered God alone 
as the proper patron for/ ranjana \ 

In his Yamuna-kalySni song, Narnyana Hart, Tyagaraja 
says : 

* Lord ! I do not rely on the transient wealth of 
the world. I shall not beg of rich men, flattering 
them with compositions in their praise. I shall 
not frequent places infested by greedy men 
possessed by the devil of desire and attachment ?' 

Long before Tyagaraja, King Somesvara, one of the music 
authorities saluted by Tyagaraja ( Vidulaku - Mnyarrtaiava - 
gaula) said in the music section of his work Munasollnsa 
(A. D. 1131), when dealing with music compositions, that he 
who, out of avarice, sings of worthless men of the world becomes 
the object of censure by the good souls ; on the other hand, 
he who sings of the Lord in devotion attains salvation : 

which shows that not only is this tradition of shunning 
narastuti long established but has been recognised even in 
theoretical texts on the art. 

Having denounced Narastuti and Artha in the above 
songs Tyagaraja condemns Kama in another set of songs. In 
his piece in Bindumalini ' Entamuddo ', he contrasts the superb 
beauty and charm of the Lord and the charms of women, and 
wonders why even great men allow themselves to be engaged 
in the thought of the latter. In Menu jUchi mosa t whose 

1. I am quoting from the ms. of the unpublished portion of this woric 


Raga, Sarasangl, was probably chosen by Tyagaraja ironically, 
he debunks the so-called features of attraction in a woman. 
' mind ! Do not get deluded by the illusory 
personal appearance of women. If you only see 
their inside, you will realise that it is only a cloak 
over filth/ 

In the Natakuranji song, whose key quietens us down to a 
calm, Tyagaraja asks : " How could Rama's grace come 
Mind, if you give yourself up to the senses, to Natas and 
Vitas ?". 

' Manasu vishaya-nata-vitulaku 

osangite mS Ramuni kripa 

galguno manasa.' 

In a Todi Divyanama Re Manasa chinthaya, Tyagaraja 
says that the Lord is a delighter of the hearts of only those, 
who have eschewed lust : * Gata - k2ma-jana - hridayarnava- 
kalsdharuni \ and in the auspicious Surati piece Patiki hurati 
he describes the Lord as the destroyer of foes like kama, ' KamS- 
diripuvidariki '; even so, the Lord is inaccessible to those whose 
hearts are obsessed with pride — ' Garva-mSnasa-dura ' in the 
Ut$ava-j>iece in SankarSbharana * * Sitakalyma \ 

We may cite the following pieces to illustrate Iha-amutra- 
phala-bhoga-viraga, L e., absence of desire to enjoy any 
pleasures here or in the heaven : In Varijanayana in Kedara- 
gaula, he says : 

* Lotus-eyed Lord! I shall not accept 

wealth, progeny etc., which will only make me 
forget you even as Sugriva did. I shall not accept 
chariots and horses and defeat kings even as 
Arjuna did. Allrthe nine treasures that I desire 
are your japa. I will not get enmeshed in vain 
material desires.' 

i. As 'GaurikalySnam' is sung in this song the Raga chosen is SankarS- 


Varalandu kommani in Gurjari expresses this aversion 
for all boons and gifts other than Bhakti and Moksha : 

' Is it fair for you to trick me by giving me boons 
when what I want is your Bhakti ? Prahlada 
stands as a witness for those who do not hanker 
after small things and on whom the true greatness 
of devotion was conferred. Even for one like 
Dhruva who would want temporal gains, you 
would give the highest and permanent position. 
Therefore, offer me no boons, offer me your grace.' 

* Varalandu kommani nayandu 
vanchana seya nySyamS/ 

All our poets, teachers and philosophers have observed 
that it is the most difficult thing to secure human birth, 
Manushya Janma, and having attained it, one must make good 
by striving for the summum borvum and not dissipate oneself 
and let go the grand opportunity given. This hard-earned 
human life is short and the careful man will be up and making 
hay while yet the sun shines. Says Tyagaraja : 

" Understanding the opportunity afforded, one 
must acquire merit ; otherwise the fool might as 
well not exist ". 

Samayamu delisi punyamularjinchani kumati 
yundiyemi poyi yemi (AsSveri). 

In his Proddu Poyenu in Todi, Tyagaraja says : 

4 Time is fleeting, ,0 Mind ! Set about in earnest 
to worship Rama. Of the life-time, a portion is 
spent 'in sleep and another in enjoyment of sense 
pleasures. Rising early, one spends his time in 
flattering men at the prompting of his three-fold 
worry (tapatraya) and goes about like a bull, 
eating at any place, anything that he can get and 
wastes himself out in ignorance. Immersed in the 


seemingly attractive samsara, he spends some 
time ; then, he spends another portion of time in 
gossip with other worldly-minded men. For a 
time, he transports himself in the joys of family 
and wealth and gets infatuated. Disappointments 
however come and then he droops down. Suddenly 
the sight of the successful neighbour oppresses 
him with jealousy. By this time, old age claims 
him and renders him decrepit; he attempts now 
to perform some meritorious rite or ritual and 
even while doing it, mistakes, greed and miser- 
liness make him a prey to Rajoguna and without 
getting any peace thereby, he gets a fresh term 
of restlessness/ 

Cf . Sri Sankara in his VivekachUdmnani : 
3T?<grf SRSFlTJ&ffTO: 5^ crft f?|5ElT etc. 

Also the well known verse in Bhartrihari's Vairngyo 
sataka — 

wn^r to* ^rchrrt si^-tsewt: 1 
^r ^nf^f^if :ora%& §3lf^fi?3fa3f etc. 

The Lord has given us excellent limbs and faculties and in 
what greater work can we employ them well than in the service 
of the Lord Himself ? Kulasekhara gives each limb of his the 
following duties : 

faff 5TPT gaF5 c TKa«^f ififaroihTO 11 Mukundamnla. 

" Tongue ! praise the Lord. Mind I adore 
him. Ears ! hear the glory of Achyuta. Eyes ! 
see Lord Vishnu, Feet! walk to his temple. 


Nose ! inhale the Tulasi of Mukunda's feet. 
head ! bow to the Lord." 

The Bhngavata also calls upon the devotee to dedicate 
every limb and faculty to the service of God. Ambarlsha, the 
Bhagavata says, did so : 

aflraftsnfafltt ssrra s n ix. 4- 18-21. 

Tyagaraja takes up this idea and pities those misguided 
men who put their limbs, bodies and faculties to other and 
despicable uses. ' Is it for these activities that the body 
has been nurtured ' he asks in a Mukhari song. 

' Without using the body for Your service and for 
getting nearer to You, people wander here and 
there, slaves to desires. Without constantly 
attempting to earn the grace of Your look, people 



cast wistful eyes upon women. Without always 
engaging themselves in singing Your name, people 
waste their time in gossip. Without using their 
hands for worshipping You, they stretch them 
for receiving gifts. Without using their legs 
to make pradakshina of the temple, people run 
about, for receiving dakshina. They do not 
acknowledge that they are Your own. Yama, 
therefore, jubilantly claims them as his own. 
Is it for this that the body has been nurtured?' 

Induka I tanuvunu benchina 
nl sevakuleka nidu chentakuraka 
asa dasudai atulitu dirigu 
niratamu nl drishti neyarjinchaka 
orula bhamalanu orajupulu juchu 
sareku namasmarana jeyaka 
yuri matalella yuraka vadaru 
karamulato puja gavimpakadachi 
dharalona leni durdaixamulaku chachu 
varamu nl kshetra varamula chuttaka 
bhuriki munduga paripari tirugu 
nivadani peru nindu vahinchaga 
navadani Yamudu nawuchu badhinchu 
ravayya Sri Tyagaraja vinuta ninnu 
bhavinchaka proddu baragottukone 

, In his better known Nilambarl song Ennaga manasu- 
kurani, Tyagaraja asks : 

" What is the use of the eyes and their brightness 
if they do not feast upon the beauty of the Lord? 
What is the use of having a body which is not for 
embracing with love the blue-hued Lord? Of 
what use are the hands which do not worship the 
Lord with flowers ? Why have a tongue which 
does not sing of Rama ?" 

Sama 67 

As to the acquisition of the Sadhanas of mental tranquility, 
self-control, sama, dama etc., in his well-known Nidhi chala 
sukhama, quoted already, Tyagaraja asks in the first charana : 

" Is it happier to bathe in the Ganges of sama 
and dama, or in the miry, stagnated well-water 
of evil sense pleasures ?" 

Dama-samamanu Ganga-snanamu sukhama 
kardama-durvishaya-kupasnanamu sukhama. 

In Samayamu delist (Asaveri), he insists of sama being 
present with Bhakti : Samatatodi dharmamu jayamegani. 

That all this incessant avarice, exertion and accumulation 
is of no point, is the burden of his Desiya Todi song, B&kalu 

'Though you may have tens of thousands of 
rupees, what you actually need is a handful of 
rice. Though you may have an immense quantity 
of clothing, you need only one for wearing. 
Though you may possess extensive territory, you 
require only three cubits of space to lay your 
body to rest. Though you may have hundreds 
of varieties of cakes, you can take only as much 
as your mouth can hold. Though the river may 
be full of water, you can draw from it only as 
much as your vessel can hold/ 

The great need for sama or mental tranquility is rightly 
emphasised by Tyagaraja in a whole song, where he drives home 
the teaching that if the mind has not ceased to be feverish, no 
learning and no austerity is of any use. Who does not know 
Tyagaraja's song in Sama ? 

" Without Santi or tranquility, there is no happi- 
ness, be he one who has controlled his senses, be 
he a Veduntin, be he possessed of family and 
wealth, be he one who has done japa and tapas, 

68 Guru 

be he a scholar in Vedas and Sastras, be he a 
performer of Yagas and other meritorious karmas 
and be he one who has established himself as a 
renowned Bhngavatar" 

Santamuleka soukhyamuledu sarasadalanayana 
dantunikaina vedSntunikaina 
darasutulu dhanadhanyamulundina 
sareku japatapa sampada galgina 
agama sastramulanniyu jadivina 
baguga sakala hridbhavamu delisina 
yagadikarmamulanniyu jesina 
bhagavatulanuchu baguga beraina 

The active cultivation of these when aided by Lord's grace 
endows us with the spiritual requisites: In his Arabhi 
Pancharatna> the Saint says that happiness born of quietude, 
self-restraint, contentment etc., is a blessing bestowed by the 
Lord Himself : ' Dama-samadi-sukhadayakudu \ 

' Acharyavan veda ' (strfNfj; %$), says the Veda. In all 
schools of our philosophy and religion, one is to imbibe the 
teaching from a Guru. The living contact of a teacher is a 
basic feature, not only of our spiritual knowledge, but also of all 
our literary and artistic knowledge. I mentioned in the previous 
chapter how Narada, the first and foremost BhSgavata-musician, 
was considered by Tyagaraja as his greatest teacher on whom 
he composed about four pieces. The absolute need of a Guru 
for any Sadhaka is the subject of a GaurTmanohari piece : 

1 Guruleka yetuvanti guniki deliyagabodu 
karukaina hridroga gahanamuna gottanu Sadguru 
leka yetuvanti \ 

" Without a Guru, whatever might be one's merits 
and qualities, it will not be possible to cut the 
deep forest of this mental disease or to acquire 
knowledge or wisdom A Guru alone will 


- ' *be able to protect one by administering, with love, 
the medicine of spiritual initiation and enlighten- 
ment, and to keep the mind free from attatch- 
ment ". 

In his Dhanyasi song Nichittamu nirmalamu, Tyagaraja 
conceives God Himself as the Guru, who like the soap-nut 
clarified his mind, like the bee stung him and converted the 
pupil into Himself, like the Sun destroyed the darkness and like 
the philosopher's stone transformed the base metal of his nature 
into gold. 

Among the Sadhanas mentioned by Narada in his Bhakti 
S&tras, which I quoted at the beginning, the seeking of the 
company of the great souls, Sat-sanga, was spoken of as highly 
efficacious. Narada considers it as the chief Sadhana and 
deems the good souls as God Himself. The Bhagavata stresses 
the need for Sat-sanga again and again. Sage Kapila says 
in his teachings to his mother Devahuti (III. 25-24-5): 

3 <$ SOT: srf^ flf «f f^f^cTT: I 

Again Rishabha, in Jlis teachings, observes that the 
resorting to great ones is verily the door to liberation. It is a 
matter of common knowledge that great conversions of worst 
men have taken place at such holy contacts. 

$s«rasgiK«n*$ ^ u V. 5. 2. 


In the Lord's own Upudesa to Uddhava in the XI book, 
we read : 

^F^Ssft^T qf^TO: 5RTRn: SW^ffffi: I 
ft&TT ftTlfTO fife ftarfWT: I 

SWlfcr fen ^if 3*ctf ss^wq; h XL 26. 8 

Neither Fogra nor Smikhya, neither Dharma nor recital 
of sacred scriptures, neither Tyaga nor any other benefactions 
and gifts, neither austerities nor sacrifices, neither holy places 
nor practice of yogic injunctions, bring God to one as the 
contact of the great men does, the contact which destroys all 
other evil associations. The Lord says : 

acnfir «?f^?«fH% ^[^ f^mr qui: 1 

*raro^ swir: qfayw^ ft srat n XI. 12. r-2. 

One of his five epic songs, in the most auspicious Raga, 
Sri Tyagaraja wholly devotes, most significantly, to the great 
souls, the Mahmubhavas : 

\ Salutations to all noble souls ! 
' Salutations to all those noble soiils who see the 
beautiful face of the Lord in their own hearts 
and enjoy infinite bliss ! 

'Salutations to all those noble souls who have 
realised the Lord of incomparable beauty, the 
delighter in the singing of Saman !' All those 
noble souls who roved the deep forest of their 
hearts and found the Lord's image ! 

Bhagatiatcts *jt 

' All those noble souls who have, offered the lotuses 
of their hearts at the feet of the Lord ; who have 
necklaces shining with the gem of the Lord's 
qualities, who with knowledge, friendship and 
grace, bless the world with their ambrosial looks ; 
who in proper form and with the knowledge of 
svara, laya and ruga, sing sublime songs on the 
supreme Lord who is the redeemer of the fallen ; 
who have the direct vision of the majestic gait 
of the Lord and get enthralled and immersed 
in the ocean of bliss ! 

'All those great ones, the noble Bhagavatas, 
sages, and gods, the Moon, the Sun, Sanaka, 
Sanandana, the Dikpalas, the Devas, the Kimpu- 
rushas, Prahlada, Narada, Tumburu, Anjaneya, 
Siva, Suka, Brahma and the Brahmans, the holy- 
ones, the great and imperishable souls that are in 
eternal enjoyment of Brahmananda ! 

' All those who have known Your mind and have 
discarded the false faiths, and who enjoy the bliss 
of singing the praise of Your gunas, Your form, 
the greatness of Your Name, Your prowess, Your 
tranquil mind and Your truthful word ! 

'All those who have known the secrets of the 
Bhagavata, the Ramayana, the Gita, the Vedas, 
SSstras, PurSnas, and the six sects of Siva and 
other deities, who have understood the mind of 
all the thirty-three crores of gods, all those who 
attain to a long life with the joy of Bhava, Ruga 
and Laya and attain endless bliss 1 

c Salutations to all those great souls, the friends 
of Tyagaraja ! 

* Salutations to all those who with hearts flooded 
with love call forth His Name and are the true 


servants of the Lord praised by Tyagaraja, saluta- 
tions to all those great souls !' 

The books are mere faggots, it is the Guru and the Sadhus 
whose contact gives the igniting spark. Says Tyagaraja, in his 
song Buddhi rudu in Sankarabharana : 

' Wisdom won't come, even though one has 

mastered all the great branches of learning, if one 

does not imbibe them through the words of the 

great ones. 

* Though one does a good deal of charity with 

grains and money, if one has not drunk deep 

of the nectar of the words of the great ones, the 

single-minded devotees of the Lord, wisdom won't 


' One may read the Bhagavata, Ramayana and 

other sacred books, but until one associates 

with those who have a true knowledge of the 

significance of God's Avatura among men, one 

will have no wisdom. 

'Though one might practice Yoga and attain 

Siddhis, wisdom will not be his, if one has not 

gained the friendship of Rama's devotees.' 

Buddhiradu buddhiradu 

peddala suddhulu vinaka 

buddhiradu buddhiradu 

bhuri vidyala nerchina 

dhanya dhanamula cheta 

dharmamentayu jesina 

nSnyachitta bhaktula 

vagamritapanamu seyaka (Buddhi) 

manaka Bhagavata Ramayanamula jadivina 

mSnushavatara charita marmajnula jatagudaka 

yogamulabhyasinchina (Buddhi) 

bhogamulento galigina 

Tyagaraja nutudau Ramadasula chelimi seyaka. 

bUTY of A OuriX 73 

We find here an excellent summary of what the Bhagavata 
has said on the value of and the need for Sat-sanga. 

In a Punnagavarali song, Tyagaraja exclaims at the gain 
of Sat-sanga, as a great good fortune : 

' Inta bhagyamani nirnayimpa 
Brahmendradula tarama ? 
Chintanlya Sri Raghava ninu madi 
chintinchu sujanula pujinchinavari.' 

< Is it possible to measure the good fortune of those 
who get and worship the great ones who meditate 
on the Lord? Dullards and people of unsteady 
minds, heinous sinners and those who have no 
hope of salvation, if only they join the company 
of those that worship you, the Matchless One, 
they will become equally blessed. 

' Those who grovel in Maya Samsara and are 
immersed in lust and similar vices, if only they 
seek the darsana of those Bhaktas who have real 
faith in the Lord and are always floating in the 
flood of Lord's contemplation, they will be equally 

' Those that follow the drab routine of life without 
knowledge of the Truth, those that do not tread 
the path of Dharma, if only they think of the 
rare fortune of the pure-minded, who meditate 
upon the bliss of enjoying the Lord's gunas, 
they will be equally blessed.' 

While it is imperative on the part of the aspirant to resort 
to a Guru, the obligation on the part of the great souls has not 
been left unemphasised. It is generally believed that the ideal 
of seeking life and trouble, again and again, to be of service 
and help to erring humanity is Buddhistic. It is really not so. 
The ideal of saints going about to bless the deserving aspirants, 


of Jlvanmuktas still continuing here for loka-sangraha, is 
found in Hindu scriptures. The entire idea of Guru and Sat~ 
sanga, which has assumed this necessary emphasis in our 
scheme of spiritual endeavour, is a complete refutation of the 
criticism. Let me quote one of the fine verses in the hymn of 
Prahlada to God Krishna in the Bhngavata. Prahlada criticises 
the mute penance-doers, retired in forests, endeavouring for 
their own single salvation, oblivious ' of the sufferings of the 
erring masses, and he says that he does not desire his own 
absolution until these pitiable people have all been taken along. 

It is in such a mood that Tyagaraja exclaims : f Are there 
no great men here to protect these pitiable people 

1 Evarina lera peddalu 
ilalona dinula brova ' 

Here again, we may note a sense of irony' in the name 
of the Raga, which is Siddha-sena. ' There are armies of realised 
souls -Siddha-sena ; would not one of these come and uplift these 
fallen souls ?' — is perhaps the suggestion. 

I have touched here upon only such songs of Tyagaraja as 
have a greater or fuller reference to the subject of Sadhana. 
There is however hardly any song of his which 'does not point 
out to us the discrimination between the mundane and spiritual 
values, does not call upon us to develop Vairngya towards 
material acquisitions and sensual gratifications and does not 
show the need to develop contentment, mental poise and love 
for the godly souls who alone can bring to .us the Kingdom 
of God. 



" Adi Kadu Bhajana" 

In all walks of life, in the pursuit of any laudable activity, 
when a large number of persons take to it, and with 
passage of time the prestige of association with that activity 
grows and could be taken advantage of, the ideals are not 
always well kept up and corruptions set in. Owing to ignorance, 
idleness, vanity, avarice, and other extraneous motives, there 
arise among the adherents misguided innocents, formal token- 
followers, imposters and several categories of exploiters. It 
therefore becomes necessary for those that realise the ideals in 
truth to endeavour to emphasise the fundamentals, criticise the 
non-essential aberrations and condemn all abuse and exploita- 
tion. In this country, where religious and spiritual : pursuits are 
with the people so much, there is no end to these- kinds 'of 
defects developing on a large scale ; and time and again, our 
writers and saints have tried to purge the movements of all 
accumulations thrown up by the deficiency of men's ability tod 
character,— Purusha-dosha. The true Bhakta and Jnnnin 
that Tyagaraja was, he saw around him dry disputants among 
scholars, tiresome ritualists among performers of Karmas and 
those who made a livelihood out of their formal allegiance 
to the role of Bhagavatas. All these, Tyagaraja deAOunced 
thoroughly. Many of these songs form interesting reading, as 
Tyagaraja empolys in them a large number of similes and 
analogies. We find in them Tyagaraja's poetic gifts, his satire 
and sarcasm. 

We had occasion to refer to Tyagaraja's ideas on how best 
the art of music should be cultivated and his criticism of those 
who had no grasp of the high significance of that art and, 
degraded it by their association. We shall presently speak of 
his reformist zeal manifesting in the field of Bhakti, 

$$ TfetJte DEVOTEE 

Tyagaraja bemoans in a number of songs the ignorant, the 
misguided and the vicious, and how they waste their time and 
ruin their life. Three long Divyanamas of his may specially be 
mentioned for the comprehensive survey the saint makes of the 
ways of these men: Enduko bnga teliyadu in Mohana, Evaru 
teliyanu in PunnagavarSli and Rama Rumakrishnu yanare in 

They do not realise that the body is perishable, 
and material possessions evanascent like dew, and 
go on building big houses, gathering servants, 
filling their stomachs and fattening their bodies ; 
employing iniquitous ways, they cheat others of 
their money, run after women like dogs after 
bitches, fall prey to several diseases, and waste 
their patrimony and become the object of derision. 

Others there are, Tyagaraja adds, in Evaru teliyanu, 
in his scathing style which comes into prominence in songs of 
this type, who wander from place to place coveting others' 
money and women ; who quarrel with parents at the instance 
of their wives ; and who indulge in falsehood and the flattery 
of the rich. 

Look at this table of vices in the Gaulipantu song above 
referred to : 

Indulging exultantly in hypocritical talks, with 
envy for others' prosperity, but still passing kind 
words to them, with sweet talk on the lips and 
poison at heart — vices, losing themselves in which 
men are unable to take to the path of redemption 
shown by Tyagaraja. 

Similarly, in three other pieces, Tyagaraja projects the 
picture of a true devotee. In a Varali piece, Karuna el&gante, 
Tyagaraja defines the person to whom the grace of God 
will come: 

He will not utter a lie, will not approach low 
people with requests, will not wait on kings even, 


will not eat flesh, will not drink, will not do 
injury to others, will not refrain from study, will 
not seek the three cravings for wife, wealth and 
progeny, will not exhibit any exultation even if 
he should become a Jivanmukta, will not be 
deceitful or treacherous, will not be fickle-minded, 
will not make himself unhappy and, believing full 
well that there is the eternal witness of the Lord, 
will not swerve from his aim. 

The blessed soul is the subject of a Kapi song Made 
dhanyudu : 

He alone is blessed who constantly meditates on 
the lotus feet of Rama and who, unflaggingly 
engaged in the singing of the Lord's name to his 
heart's delight, dances in the Lord's presence; 
who is cheerful, seeking the company of the good, 
frees himself of all worries and keeps himself 
joyous; who, realising that all else is false, wards 
off the six inner enemies which hide the real Truth 
from him, and reposes his entire faith in Sri 
Rama ; who knows the real significance of Rama 
Nama, who turns his high birth to good account, 
and who does not put on false garbs out of greed 
and does not deceive himself. 

Listen to this conduct of the devotee in Begada, Bhaktuni 
chnritramu : 

Mind! listen to the conduct of a devotee of 
Sltarama ! the devotee who, without attachment 
to sense-pleasures, seeks Him, becomes a Jivan- 
mukta and enjoys supreme bliss. Such a devotee 
should not boast of his having done Japa and 
Tapas ; he should not behave or speak like a 
hypocrite ; should not be weak, fickle-minded and 
lost in attachments ; should not regard material 
prosperity as real ; should never make distinction 

78 true ' Bhajana 

between Siva, and Madhava, should make no 
profession out of his qualifications ; should not 
allow the sway of Rajas and Tamas, should not 
desist from yogic practice and should never forget 
Sri Rama. 

Regarding the Lord's Name Tyagaraja says, it should be 
recited and repeated, but such repetition is to be impelled by 
constant devotion to the Lord. Otherwise, one does not know 
the real sweetness of the Lord's Name. A mere lip-repeater is 
like a male putting on the female's dress ; but could he under- 
stand and enter into the true character of a chaste wife ? From 
such masqueraders, no good will come ; one can as well hope to 
draw milk from a tiger in a cow's skin. This is what he says 
in his familiar Kharaharapriya song Rama nlyeda : — 

Rama nlyeda prema rahitulaku 
nama ruchi telusuna, Sita-Rama 
kaminl vesadariki sadhvl nadata 
emaina telusuna riti, — 

puli go~rupamaina ... sisuvu palu galguna. 
A song in Madhyamavati, Nalina lochana, asks : 

If one does spurious dhyunam like a crane, will 
his object of salvation be fulfilled ? 

Konga vanti dhyanamu jesine 
dana korika gonasaguna. 

If one dees penance with attachment and avarice, 
will he attain salvation ? 

Raga lobhamulato dapamu jesite 
baragati galuga rierchuna. 

It is not Bhajana as such but true Bhajana of the Lord 
that is the means of welfare in the hereafter— Para-loka-sgdhana; 
such true.' Bhajana, is what one doej> without lust, avarice, 


delusion and other sins and it is such a Bhajana that is the 
effective antidote of the ills of mundane life and the trans- 
migratory cycle. 

Smaralqbha mohadi papulanu 
smariyinchake Sri Rajnabhajana 
para loka sadhaname manasa etc. 
(Paraloka - Purvakalyani) 

The futility of 'Bhajana done for vanity and advertisement 
is mentioned in Tappagane in Suddhabangala — (Meppulakai 
koppulugalameti janula juchi bhajana). 

In his NayakI song Kanugonu saukhyamu which is one 
of the .pieces containing express mention of Tyagaraja having 
had direct darsckna of the Lord, he says in the charana : 

" Those who cheat the world by posing themselves 
as jnanins, unable to Control their mind, with 
body in ax\e place and mind in another, but 
wearing duly the appropriate garb, these can 
never succeed/' 

Tanu vokacho manasokacho 
dagina veshamokacho nidi 
janula nechu variki 

The futility erf mere learning, Japa, Tapas and Siddhis 
and the unavailing character of sacrifices, material acquisitions 
etc., are expressed in Pudavini sadbhakti in Salaga Bhairavi : 

<' It is real r status if one attains true devotion. 
Is it status to be learned in Vedas, Sastras and 
Upqnishads ? Is it status to possess wealth, wife, 
children, chunam-built house, riches and friend- 
ship with kings ? Is it status to impose on the 
world with one's japa, iapas and miracles ? Is 
it status to secure temporal enjoyment through 
Y#ga$ performed with attachment and avarice?" 


Padavini sadbhaktiyu galgute 
chadivi Veda Sastropanishattula 
satta deliyalenidi padaviya ? 
dhana dara sutagara * sampadulu 
dharanlsula chelimiyoka padaviyl ? 
japatapadiyanimadi siddhulache 
jagamula nechutayadi padaviya ? 
raga lobhayuta yajnadulache 
bhogamulabbutayadi padaviya ? 
Tyagaraja nutudau Sri Ramuni 
tattvamu deliyani doka padaviyS ? 

The Animndi siddhis referred to here, the miraculous 
powers one secures by yogic practices, are really impediments 
to the highest Siddhi of salvation, Patanjali says in his 
Yoga sutra : 

§ S*n^Kptf: 33*^ few: J 

In his song in NadavarSngini, Nripulavnla Tyagaraja 
translates the above sutra of Patanjali : 

" People desiring salvation adopt the siddhis as 
means, but they find that these prove obstructive 
to their real purpose and finally realise that they 
have been deluded." 

Apavarga phalakamamulanu, juchi addamai 
animadi siddhula mosa buchchedarayya!. 

In Edutanilichite (SankarSbharana), Tyagaraja declares 
that he cannot ask for boons : Varalu aduga jslara* 

" Adi kadu bhajana ", " that is not adoring the Lord 
says he in another piece in Yadukula Kambhoji, 

" if one at the same time hankers after greatness, 
indulges in sensual enjoyment, puts on false garbs 
to gain the approbation of people and goes on 

1, Another reading here is 'suta sudhagara\ 


" Teliaieru Rama " in Dhenuka characterises well those 
that put on the marks of devotion and are really like bulls 
driven over long distances by their own greed. 

" People who roam about with confused mind and 
with the sole purpose of earning money in the 
guise of great pious men, bathing early in the 
morning, smearing their bodies with ashes, count- 
ing their fingures as if in Japa, can never know 
the path of devotion." 

The Bindumalini song Entamuddo refers to pseudo- 
Bhagavatas, Bhagavataveshulu, who are like vessels that 
contain milk, but can never know the taste of milk. 

Attamlda kanulu asaku-dasulai satta 

bhagavata vesulairi 

dutta pala ruchi deliyu samyame. 

It is, as the Sanskrit verse says, like an ass that carries a 
load of sandal and knows the load but not the fragrance of the 
sandal : 

or as the Tamil Siddhar sang " Will the cooking pot know the 
relish of the curry ?" 

" Men of Kali can never appreciate the glory of 
the Lord. Can a bull enjoy aval ? > These people 
wear the mask of devotees, only for the sake of 
their family, wealth, name, fame and status ", 
says a piece in Kuntalavarali : 

Kalinarulaku mahimalu delipi emi phalamana leda 
ilanu velayu vara vrishabhadulakatu- 
kula ruchi deliyu chandamugSni 
darasutulakai dhanamunakai yuru peru- 
lakai bahu pedda tanamukai 
sareku bhaktavesamu gonu vSriki— * 

8a Munasa Pftja 

To those who sail under the cloak (vesha) of Bhaktas and 
Bh&gavaias, Tyagaraja makes many references. 

The observance of mere rituals, forms and empty rites 
received its due share of condemnation at Tyagaraja's hands. 
In his Abhogi piece Manasu Nilpa we read : 

" If one has not the power to control one's mind, 
of what avail is ringing the bell and conducting 
p&ja ? If one is a scamp, of what avail is it to 
bathe in the Kaverl or the Ganga ? The Soma- 
yaji' s wife has run after a beautiful paramour 
and the Somayaji expects a berth in heaven ! If 
the voluptuary and the irate perform Tapas, of 
what avail will it be ?" 

Manasu nilpa sakti leka bote . 
madhura ghanta virula puja emi jeyunu 
ghana durmadudai tamunigite 
Kaveri Mandakini yatu brochunu 
somidamma sogasugandra gorite 
somayaji svargarhudauna 
kamakrodhudu dapambonarchite 
gachi rakshinchuno Tyagarajanuta. 

In Manasu svadhina in Sankarabharana he points out 
that if the mind is not under control, there is no use of Mantra, 
Tantra and Tapas and if mental control is achieved, there, is, 
again, no use of these, 

Manasu svadhmamaina yaghanuniki 
mari mantra tantramu lela' ? 

On the other hand, in his Rltigaula song Parip&laya, he 
elaborates ' the idea of the triie worship of God in one's own 
mind, Mmasapflja or Bhuva pUja : 

My body is your favourite abode (Pajagriha); my 
steadfast mind, your golden throne ; my medita- 
tion of your beautiful feet is the Ganga water; 

god's thought the real purification 83 

my attatchment * is your beautiful dress ; my 
praise of your glory, your sandal-fragrance; my 
remembrance and recital of your name is the full- 
blown lotus for you (cf. Nmnakusumamulache)) 
the fruits of all my past misdeeds is the incense 
to be burnt before you ; my devotion to your feet 
is the all-day lamp to you ; the very fruit of this 
kind of superior worship that I do is the food- 
offering to you ; the lasting bliss that I derive is 
the pa n (Tambula) for you; my seeing you 
(darsana) is the waving of light before you x . 

"The adoption of Asramadharma, i.e., Sannyasa 
is not necessary for one who has realised every- 
thing in God." 

Anni ni vanuchu yenchina vaniki 
asrama bhedamu lela. 

In his Jayamanohari song, Ni bhahtibhagyasudha, he 
says that the mere performance of Vedic rituals will only 
increase distress and entail further bondage of birth and death. 

To those who go on plunging in water like fish, Tyagaraja 
says, in a Dhanyasi song, there is no merit in such plunges in 
holy water, but what is really wanted is purity of heart : 

" Dhyana of the Lord is itself the most efficacious 
Ganga-sw^na ; but such Dhyana should be done 
with a mind free from longing for other's wealth 
and women and which does not injure others by 
word or deed, but is wholly longing for the Lord. 
Any number of plunges in Tlrthas will not 
remove the stain of deceit and treachery/' 

1. This echoes the 'mental adoration'— Rama-mantra purascharana and 
bhavana described in cantos 13 and 14 of the Sundara Kanda of the Tattvasam* 
graha Ramayana* See my article on this work m Annals of Oriental Research^ 
University of Madras, Vol. 2£. iPart I, 


1 Dhyaname varamaina Gangasnaname manasa 

vana nita munuga munuga loni 

vanchana drohamanu karabona ? 

para dhana nartmanulanu duri 

paranindala parahimsalamlri 

dharanu velayu Sri Ramuni gori 

Tyagaraju delusukonna Rama — 

Cf . above : * the contemplation of your blessed feet is the holy 
Ganga-water * — ' Supada-dhyanamu GangS jalamu '. 

Similar in import is his equally familiar piece in Todi, 
Kotinadulu, which emphasises that it is the Lord who is 
responsible for all sanctity which shrines, holy waters etc, 
possess, Tirthakara as the Vishnu sahasrannma puts it 
effectively, and it is therefore useless merely to wander on 
Tirthayutras, without the constant thought of the Lord. 
It is indeed God who gives us the fruit of all such obser- 
vances as bath, japa, penance and contemplation : ' Snataadi 
japa tapa yogadhyana samadhi sukhaprada Sltanatha ' (Ninne 

Having pointed out the futility of mere Tirtha-snana, 
Tyagaraja speaks of the meaninglessness of long journeys to 
Kshetras, when the Lord can be seen in one's own heart ; in 
his song, Nadachi nadachi in Kharaharapriya, he observes : 
" If bathing often, fasting, closing one's eyes etc, 
constitute all that is to be done, surely there are 
others, birds and animals, who will get first places 
in Heaven." 

Tyagaraja elaborates this idea in his Saveri song Balamu 
kulamu : 

" Crows and fish dive, does it become the regular 
morning ablution ? Cranes close their eyes. Does 

i. Ci Purandaradasa's song 'Smarana onde salade* where the Saint says 
in the thirtf charana * Sakalatirtha yatreyu matidandha nikhilapunyada 
pnalavu Vittbalanu namada-smarana onde salade. 


it become divine contemplation ? Goats eat, only 
leaves. Is that UpavaSa ? Birds soar high, but 
do they compare with the sun or the moon ? 
Monkeys residing in forest do not become V&na- 
prasthas ; and unclad children cannot be deemed 

Nita kSki minu munuga 
niratamudayasnanama ? 
tetakanulu konga gurcha 
Devadevadhyanama ? 
patramalunu meyu meka 
balamaina upavasama ? 
chitrapakshu legaya surya 
chandrulaku samyama ? 
guhala vesha kotulunte 
gunamu kalgu maunula ? 
gahanamunanu kotulunte 
ghanamau vanavasama ? 
jangamulu baluka kunte 
sangatiga maunula ? 
angamu muyyani balulu 
yapudu digambarula ? 

Kathakas recite a Sanskrit verse also in this same strain : 

Vicariously * making himself the subject, in, his Darsanamu 
seya m tarama in Narayanagaula, Tyagaraja points out 

') v ) »_«»«———— * 

i. See also below under the devotional moods in the chapter on phases, of 
'Bhakti', those songs couched in a confessional style. In fact this chapter on 
'Ssdhana' can be illustrated by further examples from songs- cited in the 
chapters to follow couched in penitent mood or affirming his qualifications and 
asking for God's grace. 


graphically the difference between seeing the Lord really and 
the going to a temple, gazing there at the tower, the pillars, 
the dance of youthful courtesans, the rows of light, the 
wonderful vahanas and the ladies who come there, and in 
between talking some scandal about others. How few amongst 
us can refrain from such sight-seeing and from being* Bahir- 
mukha, and concentrate on muttering the two letters of Siva 
in the temple ? 

Darsanamu seya na tarama ? 
paramarsinchi nlvu nanu manninchavalenu Siva 
gopurambulanu kadu goppa kambhamula bhu — 
sthapitambagu silak tarunula yStalanu 
dlpala varusalanu divyavahanamulanu 
papahara ! sevinchi bahirmukhundaiti Siva 
tarali padiyaru pradakshanamulonarinchi 
paraninda vachanamula baguganaduchunu 
orula Bhamala juchi yuppongitini gani 
vara Sivakshara yuga japamu seyanaiti Siva. 

It is quite common for even the learned amongst us to set 
much store by our astrologers and to spend time, energy and 
money on the propitiation of planets* Not to mention times 
when we or those nearest fall seriously ill, when astrologers 
follow, with as little success, the doctors, we indulge in Graha 
prlti at every step in all our religious rites. When we do all 
this we should not forget that the planets reflect only the power 
of the Lord and show only the light which they derive from 
the Great Effulgence, 

and that Time itself and all its phases are only the All- 
pervading Lord, 

LORD TH£ IlLllMAtE ]?OWE& f O BLESS MAtt 8? 

Therefore to meditate on the Lord's feet- and do k thing, ! is to 
secure for the act the most auspicious time and thfc strength of 
all planets and stars : 

c$3 «5T* §J^3 c&3 WJQ& ^FS3"& c&3 i 

Purandaradas puts in a song of his the verses cited aboVe; 

which we utter in our Sankalpa at the beginning of all religious 

acts : 

Sakala-graha bala nine sarasijaksha 
nikhilavyapaka nine visvaraksha 
Ravi Chandra Budha nine Rahu Ketu nine 
Kavi Guru Saniyu Mangalanu nine 
divaratriyu nine etc. 

Taking after the master's Sakala graha bala nine* there is a 

piece of Tyagaraja in Revagupti, Grahabalamemu 

In this song in which the poet-composer manages the 
sound-effects excellently, Tyagaraja asks : 

" What is the strength of planets, Grqha-bala t 
The strength of the Anu-graAa, the blessing, of 
Rama is 1 the real strength! Wbat is the use of 
Graha-bala to those who contemplate upon the 
form, Vi-graha, of the All-effulgent Lord ? The 
torment of Q-rahas is really the effect of A-graha 
(being seized) by one's own sins and the reittfedy 
is the Mi-grra/aa, subjugation, of the inner enemies 
and the cultivation of devotion to the Lord. 

Grahabalamemi Sri Ramariu- 
grahabalame balamu 
graha balamemi Tejoniaya vi- 
grahamunu dhyaninblau> vSriki (navaf raha) 
gr&ha pldala pancha padamukna— ' 
grahamulu galakamadiripula ni~ 
grahamu jeyu Harini Bhajinchu 
Tyagarajuniki rasikagresarulaku< 


It inay be noted how Tyagaraja refers to himself at the 
end of this piece, in the mudra, as a foremost Rasika, suggesting 
thereby that one who has a true insight and sense of proportion 
will not attach exaggerated importance to astrology, for as he 
reiterates (in his Purnachandrika Divyanama), it is the Lord 
who is the ultimate strength and basis of all the forces of 
planets : Sarvagraha-adhara-bhuta. 

The doing of meritorious charities is no doubt good, but 
such charities should not be done for the sake of advertisement. 
Says Tyagaraja at the end of his Nike dayarnka in Nilambari : 
Meppulakai bahu dharmamu jesina 
migula brova tagune. 

" Has all my penance been Rajasa ?" he asks about himself 
in Entanuchu (Yadukula kambhoji). 

From the Upanishads down, it has been well emphasised 
that scholarship alone does not bring about realisation, 

Tyagaraja's condemnation of mere learning has already 
been referred to in some of the songs cited above. There are 
some more songs in which Tyagaraja devotes further attention 
to this. In his Jaganmohini piece, Mumava satatam, he 
speaks of the Lord as being too far away from those scholars in 
Slstras who have no bhakti : 

In his Vinata suta vuhana in Jayantasena, he asks : 
"Does it conduce to happiness or bring any 
benefit to indulge in disputations about different 
religious faiths ?" 

His Dlpaka song Kcdala ner 'china points out that though 
one may be well-versed in all the sixtyfour arts, they can only 
serve to earn a livelihood for him; they cannot stem the tide 
of his karma. 

Kalala nerchina munu jesinadi 

gaka emi aravai nalugu. 

Fallen braMans 89 

" Why disputation and debate — Vada-tarkamela ?" asks 
his piece Bhajana seyave in Kalyani. 

Indulging in Sastraic disputations, bewildering oneself 
and others and restlessly roaming about to do an act of dharma 
for some worldly good are again denounced in Ninu nera 
namminmiurft in Pantuvarali, in which all these are said to be 
unavailing in the absence of the Lord's grace. In a simple 
Divyanuma on Siva in Sankarabharana, he addresses Siva in 
the end as one who puts down the pride of those that have 
succumbed to the vanity of disputations of different schools: 
' mada-bheda-patita-manava-mada-satata-bhanga. ' 

" A corpse dressed in lace turban, adorned with precious 
jewels, so is a worldly-minded clever person, possessing scholar- 
ship in Pur anas, Agamas, Sustras aud Vedas and practising- 
Japa and preaching " says the charana of Bhakti hichchd 
miyyave in Sankarabharana. 

Pranamuleni vaniki 
bangaru pagachutti 
ani vajra 1>hushana — 
janalaku buranagama 
sastra veda japa prasanga 
trana galgi yemi. 

He bemoans thus the state to which Brahmans have 
fallen, in Saraslruhanana Rama in Mukhari : 

" I cannot countenance those who, day in and 
day out, indulge in revelling with others' women, 
humouring and feeding them. In the present 
world, Brnhmanavritti is almost extinct except 
in outward garb and in high-sounding speech. 
This is the time for the chaff of humanity to 


pagalureyu sarasamSdu varinolla 

go ttttDERSt ADDING OF &£At BkaMl 

brahmanikamu bayu nichula' 
bratukayenadigaka I kalilo 
brahmamaina matalu nerchukoni 
baragerayya Tyagaraja-nuta. 

From the drift of the song, we may infer that Tyagaraja 
sang this when he was probably to do some Br ahmanasam- 
tarpana, but could hardly find some worthy person and hence 
appealed to the Lord's grace, instead of doing the feeding : 
Saraslruhanana Rama samayamu 
brova, chidghana ! 

Enta nerchina enta j&china in Udayaravichandrika 
emphasises how in the absence of devotion, even learned men 
gain no benefit out of their scholarship and become slaves 
of senses. 

" One who has not bestowed thought on the path 
of Bhakti, however learned he- may be, is bound 
to be a slave to women ; he will not be able to 
refrain from vices like injuring others, coveting 
others' women and wealth, slandering others, 
ruining others and uttering falsehoods." 

Enta nerchina enta juchina enta vara- 

laina kantadasule 

santatambu Srikanta-svanta-siddhanta- 

maina marga chintalenivaru 

parahimsa parabhama anyadhana 

paramanavapavada parajivanSdulaku 

anritame bhashinchedarayya TyagarSjanuta. 

In a long Punnagavarali Bivyanuma song, he observes : 
" Who knows the real Bhaktimurgal People do- 
p&j& without knowing the real significance..,- a. 
They pretend to possess real capacity to know 
the truth and declare that the universe is unreal. 
Such is their false devotion*. G, My Father, what 

fclttJITS 6F KAR^A &HORf LlVEB g± > 

sort of renunciation is this ? There are also other 
classes of yogis, who without knowing the real 
nature of their material body, feel haughtily that 
they alone will have salvation." 

Evaru teliyanu boyyedaru 

vivaramuleni pujalu jesedaru. 

Tyagaraja's Mukhari song Kshinamai is very well known. 
In it, he gives expression to the short-lived --fruits of acquiring 
learning and miraculous powers, 8^5 <$<$ &nq; as the Gitu 
says. This is one of the pieces in which we can, clearly see how 
the musical sanchara and its higher and lower reaches, are used 
by the musicians to drive home his point that the fruits of all 
that wonderful and varied and highly prized learning in 
Sanskrit literature, drama, Alankura, Sastras,. Vedas and, 
Pumnas, the performance of Japa and Tapa dwindle ; one 
has to come down, be born again to suffer here. 

Glrvana nataka alamkara veda purana 
yajna japatapadula phalamulu 
kshinamai tiruga janminchu siddhi 
manura manasa ! 

This is again emphasised in the charana of the piece in 
Jayamanohari, Nibhaktibhagya, that the path of ritual 
involves one only in going up and coming down ; Vedoktambau 
karmanu veta^alagu gatagatamau. In Yajmdulu (Jayamano- 
hari), he condemns the path of sacrifice in a whole piece, calling 
its votaries as utterly ignorant. ' 

Yajnadulu sukhaiiianu-variki samu- 

lajnafttilu galaxa. 

They are. * bahir-mukhas ! who do not know what devotion 
to Rama is. 

It is true knowledge and devotion that make all these rites 
and learning meaningful ; in- their absence, they become mean- 
ingless* Kulasekhara says : 

§& &0D, the &eal Tlrthakar& . 

" The Lord is all glorious, without the constant 
thought of whose lotus-feet all recital of scripture 
.becomes a cry in the wilderness, the observance 
of austerites only exercises for slimming, .making 
gifts etc, an oblation thrown on ashes and the 
bathing in holy places not different from .the 
proverbial elephant's bath." 

It is the Lord who is the fountain-head of all sanctity, of 
holy waters etc., for He is the Tlrthakara as the Sahasranama 
says. In his Nata piece Nihne Bhajana, Tyagaraja states that 
it is God who makes the bath, the muttering of mantra etc., a 
source of happiness : ' Snanadi - japa - tapa-dhyana - samadhi - 

Therefore, it is true Bhakti that one should develop, for 
that alone can save. 

When you have this real devotion, it does not 
matter if you are a samsarin. Have belief in 
the Lord, surrender all fruits of Karma to Him. 
Nay, even offer all your pleasures to Him. Banish 
all thought of injury, all villainous designs 
(Samsarulaite - Saveri). 

Samsarulaite nemayya sikhi- 

pinchavatamsu deduta nundaga 

himsSdulella rosi-hamsadula gudi 

prasamsa jeyuchu ne proddu kams&rini 

jnSna vairagyamulu hlnamainatti [nammuvaru 

bhavakananamuna dirugu manavudu 

sada dhyanayoga yutudai nl namamu 

balkuchu-nanakarmaphalamu danamu 


jeyuvaru — samsarulaite nemayya 
kurapu yochanalu dirujesi tana- 
daraputrula baricharakula jesi 
sararupuni pada sarasa yugamula 
saresareku manasara pujinchuvaru 
— samsaru laite nemayya 
bhagavatula gudi bhogamulella Harike 
gavimpuchu — samsarulaite nemayya. 

The song is a reply to insistence on orange robe and 
formal accession to Sannyusa as a means to mukti. Tyagaraja 
says, even one in Samsara, a Grihastha, attains Mukti if he 
has these virtues. In the Bhagavata t the Lord calls upon 
Priyavrata not to renounce, but to lead the life of a Grihastha, 
controlling his senses, delighting in spirit and acquiring know- 
ledge ; for such a person, the house is no prison. 

v. L 17. 

Abhinavagupta says that men of true knowledge get 
liberated, whatever their Asrama* So do our Smritis and 
Srutis say : 

" One that worships God, has established himself 
in the knowledge of Truth, attends lovingly to his 
guest, performs the rites and gifts — he gets 
liberated even though he is a Grihastha. 

W5 SOT TO JN 25*4tefa % g* 5 ^ II 

In one of his; beautiful Todi songs, Tappi bratiki, 
Tyagaraja expatiates on Bhakti as the means to keep one free 
from temptations and vices. 

Is it possible to escape from being lost in the pool 
of sense-pleasUres, if- one does not worship the 


Lord with his whole heart and firm mind ? 
Without Bhakti, is it possible to develop the 
feeling that valuable metals like gold are poison, 
to remain unaffected by the sight of wily and well- 
dressed women, with charming curly hair ? 

Tappibratiki pova tarama, Rama, kalUo 
muppuna vishayatataka — 
muna munugaka dridhamanasai 
kanchu modalu loha dhana kanakamulanu 
juchi visha 

It is by developing love for God, His surpassing qualities, 
and His incomparable personality, that one can leave behind 
his weakness for the glitter of gold and the blandishments of 
women. The rise of devotion blesses one with a feeling of 
equanimity which is not disturbed by these attractions ; a 
mansion does not please him more than a forest, a foe pleases 
him as much as a friend and the red lips of a youthful lady 
raise as little enthusiasm as a clod of clay. 

%3%3 q^pgf tfjRf $ft^^^lfi§RJF: SWF: 1 


Whatever quality or act of merit one displays, that which 
gives meaning and substance to it is devotion to the Lord ; 
driving in this truth with wit and sarcasm, Tyagaraja says in 
his Bamayamu delist (Asaveri) ; 

" It is immaterial if a madman hears good poetry 
or not; it is immaterial ,whether a niggard,, .has 
riches or not ; it is immaterial if one devoid of 
devotion to Rama takes a human birth or some 
other birth." 

In another beautiful and well-known piece in Todi, which 
Raga Tyagaraja exhausted even as he did t% Anumga of 


Rama, Tyagaraja reiterates the utter worthlessness of anything 
in the absence of fihakti : 

" Of what avail is anything that one does here, if 
he does not have the blessing of the Lord ? Of 
what avail is anything that these slaves of anger 
and lust do, without knowing the commandments 
of the Lord? What if they have house and 
property and have loaded their wives' with jewels ? 
What if they are experts in sexual science ? What 
if they perform yagnas, procreate, celebrate the 
birth days of children or (if they are not able to 
beget), adopt others' children for inheritance? 
What if a palatial house has been built and fitted 
with lights ? What if one has mastered the art 
of pleasing women ? What if one gets a kingdom 
or is honoured by the people ? What if people 
are fed by him with a free flow of ghee ? What 
if men attain the position of Gurus, and for 
appearahce are really Gurus (heavy men) and 
initiate others in Mantras ?" 

Mote the rpun on ' Guru \ meaning a teacher and a fat 
pompous man and the sarcasm in the words ' Anyulaku upade- 
sinchade* — he imparts Mantras to others but himself does not 
practice it, 

Emi jesite nemi Sri Ramaswami karuna 

leni varilalo 

.karna mohadasulai Sri Ramuni kattu 

teliyanij vSrilalo 

immu kaligite nemi ? illaliki sommu 

bettite yemi ? 

kammaviltu kelini delisi emi ? * tammi 

kantivani karunaleni varilalo 

savamu je&itenemi ? ' kalimini putrotsavamu 

galigite nemi ? 


anyabija janituni goni emi ? 

Sivakara Sri Ramuni dayalenivarilalo 

meda gattite nemi ? 

chediyalanu meppincha delisitenemi ? 

rajyamelite nemi ? bahujanulalo 

pujyulaite nemi ? 

ajyapravahamuto nannamidite nemi ? 

guruvu tanaitenemi, kantiki menu 

guruvai tochite nemi ? 

varamantram anyulaku upadesinchite nemi ? 

vara Tyagarajanutuni dayalenivarilalo. 

To seek salvation in other ways is to resort to bylanes. 
Not to revel in Bhakti but in mundane pleasures is to leave off 
rich milk and cream and to drink toddy. Says he in the well- 
known piece in Kharaharapriya. 

Chakkani rajamargamulundaga sandula 

duranela ? O manasa ? 

chikkani palu migada yundaga chlyanu 

gangasagara mele ? 

The Bhakti of the Lord gives you full satisfaction, says 
Tyagaraja, in his piece Anuragamu in Sarasvati : 
Vagavagaga bhujiyinchuvariki 
driptiyauriti saguna dhyanamupaini 

I have specially quoted this song to show how Tyagaraja 
has included here an idea found in the Bhugavata x , that the 
all-satisfying nature of the happiness of Bhakti is comparable 
to that of a rich elaborate dinner; the Lord tells Uddhava : 

i. The frequent references to the 'Bhagavata' in an exposition of 
a subject of this nature is unavoidable ; apart from this, it may also be borne in 
mind that the ' BhSgavata ' in Potana's Tehigu was a daily bible of ParSyana 
for Tyagaraja, and the copy he handled has fortunately come; to us. 


XI. 242. 

It is therefore Bhakti that we should strive for, as the 
antidote to all the ills of mundane life and as the secret which 
alone renders all pious acts significant. To have that is real 
blessedness, exclaims Tyagaraja in a Kannada song ' Ide 
Bhagyamu \ 

"This alone is real blessedness to be coveted, the 

incessant worship of your lotus feet, Oh Lord, 

with one's whole heart. 

" To cast aside the bonds of desire, keeping the 

mind free, giving up the fruits of action, the real 

blessedness to be coveted is your incessant 


Ide bhagyamu gaka yemi yunnadira ? Rama ! 
sada nl pada pankajamulanu 
sammatamuga pujinchuvari etc. 

In another and better known song in Suddha Bangala, 
Tyagaraja says that Rama bhakti is the greatest kingdom one 
can wish for and the supreme Brahmmanda one should attain, 
Ramabhakti Samrajyame 1 — 
manavula kabbeno manasa (Suddhabhangala). 
" It cannot be explained in so many words ; it has 
to be known by experience alone." 

Ilagani vivarimpa lenu ; chala svanu- 
bhava vedyame. 

May this Bhakti help us to reform our worldly ways 
completely. May this kingdom of Rama Bhakti — Rama 
Bhakti Samrajya, — the supreme Bliss and Experience, — Brah- 
mmanda and Svanubhava— come to us all by the grace of 
Sri Rama and Tyagaraja ! 

1. The description here of 'Ramabhakti' as a Samrajya and in 'Ramakatha' 
as a Rajya is perhaps after the expression used by Upanishad Brahmam in 
his Upeyammaviveka-^m^*W(l%F$ fflSft^f ^r^ I 

98 tyagaraja's conception of man 

Before we close this section on Tyagaraja in the role of a 
reformer, we should draw attention to some of his observations 
in which we see his conception, not merely of a true musician 
or a true devotee, but of man as such; the musical endowments 
and the spiritual virtues should make man superior, fine and 
universally benevolent. The musical sense is nothing if it has 
not helped man to develop his keen sensibility, his sympathy and 
responsiveness, virtues whose absence makes for that callousness 
which turns man into a brute or a piece of inert matter. This 
Tyagaraja emphasises when he refers to those who are insensate 
to melody and rhythm and are no better than stones . Svara- 
layambulerungakanu silatmulai (Duduku: Gaula). In Sukhl 
evaro (Kanada), Tyagaraja says that he indeed is blessed and 
happy, who, with the twin endowments of music and devotion, 
has developed an ever-pleasing countenance, learnt not to 
swerve from truth, and making no distinction between one form 
of worship and another, or between one man and another, 
makes himself the servant of the whole humanity ! Such men 
inspire confidence and draw our love by their very benevolent 
appearance, su-mukha, and can indeed be easily recognised by 
their looks which pour, as it were, the nectar of love on the 
entire world. 

Jagamella sudha-drishtiche brochu varu 
endaro Mahanubhavulu. 



" Rctma-namame melu " 

What is there in the name, one may ask. It is name that 
is everything. Name is fame. It is by using somebody's name 
that one has to get on. When one is highly enraged or highly 
pleased, one calls names, of abuse or of praise. In the excess 
of one's hate or love, what comes out of one is mere name. In 
those short exclamations that break forth, the entire surcharged 
feeling stands compressed. 

A name is therefore a tabloid form of a Guna, an attribute 
of a person. The Vishnu Sahasrannma says that Namas are 
Gaunas, i.e., based on Gunas — qrft ^m\% nfarft; and the 
Bhagavata says that the names of the Lord are each marked 
with the fame, exploit and quality of the Lord. ^ffiPFRr^T 
3rafts%nfa (1.4.11). And of the Lord who is possessed of infinite 
excellences, the names are also infinite. 

The earliest outpourings of man praying to the divine 
powers are seen in the Riyvedic hymns, in the form of praises 
of the names and qualities of' different deities, Agni, Indra etc. 
In the Satarudriya, the same deity Rudra, who is conceived 
as everything, is praised with different and numerous names. 
Even in the Upanishad, Brahman; which is really Nirguna, is 
yet characterised by expressions like Satya, Jnmia, Atlanta, 
which an author named Paramasivendra Sarasvati, the Guru 
of Sadasiva Brahmendra, collected together as Upanishan- 
Nama-Sahasra, to be of help in the contemplation and 
realisation of the SvarUpa of Brahman. 

It is a matter of common experience, as the Bhagavata 
say&r— qcf^rf|qqi nfcT: — that when one keeps on muttering the 
name of a thing, one's mind develops a love for and a gradual 
absorption in it. Tyagaraja similarly says, in his Janaranjani 

ioo forms of Numa-Klrtana 

piece, Smarane Sukham, that the constant listening to Rama 
Nama, establishes the form of that name in the heart and fills 
the heart with love. 

Rama Nama sravanamu valla nama rupame 
hridayamunindi prema butta jeyaga leda. 

In a more effective manner, in one of his visions of 
realisation, Tyagaraja exclaims of his Lord " Are you the letters 
of the Name I repeat in my Japa, taken shape like this ?" 

Na japa varna rupama (NajiVadhara in Bilahari). 

It is with the help of a word, the name of an object, that 
one can recollect and fix an object in one's mind. Names, 
therefore, serve as nails to fasten the Lord's personality in our 
mind and heart. Varying the metaphor, Tyagaraja compares 
the drinking of the nectar of the Lord's Name as something 
that lifts one to the presence of the Lord, verily the flight 
of steps leading one to God : ' Nl namamrita-panamuyanu 
sopanamu dorikenu' {Venkatesa nm^-Madhyamavati) *. 

In seeking a person through praise, there are three forms : 
firstly to describe in varied and poetic manner, the greatness 
of the person sought ; secondly, to refer to his varied glory by 
several significant attributes in the form of manifold names ; 
and lastly, to call him forth for our help by the repetition of 
only one name of his. Under the first category come all poetic 
hymns, under the second, the Sahasra Nnma, Ashtottara 
Nama hymns and the Numavalis sung in Bhajans, and under 
the last comes Nama puruyana or the repetition of a single 
name, Rama, Siva etc. 

It has been held that with the gradual deterioration in the 
faculties and abilities of men, as ages pass on towards Kali, the 
sages devised further and further easier paths, for the salvation 
of suffering humanity. It is with this purpose in view that the 

i. The imagery is based on the local fact of the numberless steps of the 
Seven Hills of Tirupati which ctevQte^s mount an4 traverse uttering the 

tifERATtiRE ON J$amd lot 

path of Bhakti or devotion was developed. Kali is predomin- 
antly an age of emotion and it is through this emotion that 
man has to be saved. This is achieved by turning the flow of 
his emotion in the direction of a Supreme saving Personality. 
To draw man's heart in love towards the Supreme Being, the 
emphasis was shifted from knowledge to devotion and from an 
abstraction to a Personality endowed with infinite excellences, 
in fact another human form itself in which Divinity frequently 
incarnated. When BhakH was thus evolved and developed, 
further processes of simplification were introduced, so that 
anybody and everybody, in whatever standard of equipment of 
mind and character, might have some means to take to. * Along 
with temples, worship of images, adoration with acts of worship, 
the singing of the Lord's glory, the reading of or listening to 
writings on His glory or even the mere recitation of His Names 
developed. Thus were the Himalayan waters of the Upanishads 
brought to the plains, to irrigate the hearts of the masses of the 
entire country. All glory to these spiritual engineers who 
undertook these works, the Pauranikas, the Bhagavatas, the 
Alwars, and Nayanars, the Saints and Bhaktas and musicians of 
this country, to which galaxy our Tyagaraja belonged ! 2 

The literature of Bhakti bearing in particular on the 
doctrine of the Lord's Name as the supreme means of salvation 
is quite considerable. Besides some of the later Saguna 
Upanishads, portions of the Mahabharata, the Gitu, the 

i. That the doctrine of Name redeems the humble and the learned alike is 
given expression to by Dikshitar in a song of his on Rama in Mahuri (Mamava 

Raghuvara) : ^TW^^'TRR^-'OT^ I 

2. Like the Mahratta saints on the South West, and Ramananda and his 
followers in the North, Sri Chaitanya on the East was responsible for making 
the whole country resound with "Han-bol". In their doctrines, the Chaitan- 
yaites go to the length of holding " Name " itself as a form of the Lord ; and 
though capable of other significances also, two passages in Tyagaraja may lend 
themselves to an interpretation that the composer knew the tenet that Kama 
was itself a Rupa of the Lord : * Na Japa varna rupama ' in his * NajlvSdhara* 
in Bilahari, and * NSma rupame hridayamuninti ' in his • Smarane" sukham ' in 

io2 Japa-yajna 

Vishnu Sahasranuma, the' Purunas alnd especially the 
Vishnu and the Bhagavata Par anas form the main authorities 
of this school of thought. A number of religious writers contri- 
buted treatises on the theory of the subject of Nctma-muhatmya, 
in which they seek support not only in the above mentioned 
texts, going up to the later minor Upanishads, but also to the 
Rig Vedic hymns themselves. The basic Vedic text on which 
they take their stand is Rig VMa, 2.2.26 : gnw ^TT^dt 3m 

f%f|fiFeR *r?$ ftsoft g^fS *?3frct t 

Of the Upamshads referred to, I shall mention briefly 
here only one, the Kalisantaranopanishad^ which specially 
concerns itself with the means of salvation appropriate or most 
efficacious in Kali or to get over Kali. According to this text, 
at the end of Dvapdra and the opening of Kali, Narada asked 
his father Brahma how he could cross over Kali. Brahma gave 
him the remedy : " You can shake off Kali by reciting the 
Name of the Lord Narayana, the Prime Being." 

5iTtf^ *k$ mm smm $«r srstc; *rr qfe^ $f& spcfcjfafcr \ 
3 stow «n $m s&sfcr stg %*s^f AW cf^sj $& %?<$m\i cif^fa 1 

, The Gita added its weight to this school of thought when 
it said that of all forms of Yajna, the Lord was of the form of 

Tyagaraja says that the Lord is never more pleased than 
when a concourse of devotees raise their voices, singing aloud 
his Name : Nama-ghosha-janita-santosha (Paripulaya mam- 

The full significance of this exaltation of Japayajna in the 
G-ita is brought out later in the Great Epic, in the introduction 
to the Vishnu Sahasranama. Having listened to all sorts of 
Dharma, Yudhishthira, still not satisfied, asked Bhishma again : 
" What do you consider to be the greatest, the Dharma of 

SfcfrERiORiTY of Nama-japd io$ 

all Dharmas ? By reciting what will beings as such be liberated 
from the cycle of birth and transmigration ?" Bhlshma replied 
that in his view, the devoted adoration of the Lord with hymns 
of praise and by His thousand Names is the Dharma that is 
superior to all other Dharmas. It was in reply to this question 
of Dharmaputra that Bhlshma gave the world the thousand 
Names of the Lord. The superiority of this Japayajna or 
Nmna-stoira, over other Dharmas and Yajnas meant here is 
well explained by Acharya Sankara in his Bhashya on the 
Vishnu Sahasranuma. Sankara says : "What is the ground 
of superiority of this adoration in the form of the hymn ? Its 
superiority over other kinds of Yajnas consists in the following 
points in its favour : It does not involve injury to a being in 
the form of sacrifice ; it is an Ahimsu-yuga. For doing it, you 
n,eed no collection of men, money or material, nor observe any 
particular time, place or procedure. 

are? ^ftwFW 3$*^ 3flfae# ft ^bk^p 3*qft— ftnft. 

And Sankara then quotes a large number of verses from 
several Puratias to bear out his explanation. The Vishnu 
Pur ana says : " Meditation in Krita yuga, sacrifices in Tret a, 
worship in Dvapara,— what these give, that one attains in 
Kali by merely uttering the Name of the Lord. 

^Rtftt ct^Rtfa g>lt rfeftrf %*rern II 6.2.17. 

" One can cast off this sheath of sin by uttering the Lord's 
Name even as one walks, stands, lies down, drinks, eats or bends 
down. In every Karma, gaps or lapses occur and expiations 
for them have to be done ; if those expiations are further 
Karmas of penance etc., further lapses are in store and there 
is infinite regress, Anavastha. So, the expiation of all expia- 
tions is the thought of the Lord with the uttering of His Name* 
The singing of His Name reduces all sins, even as fire, all dross. 
In Kali, Name alone is the means ; there is no othej: path/' 

104 &di THE a ^e F0R Nama-japa 

TB&fenPswt *ift ft* 5 * gwr*«MT i 
por $tftft s$$ g^ tttowi; ii 

anfimF«rthiftr s<T:wferaift 1 1 
^nft Swrartirl fwngwfr to^ n 

tow $&* «wn ftsw^wj^w^i 

35pH$WI<TRt «IT^nft9 TITO: II 

-^ strife* OTt sp% srsgan ii 

&$fa 3W=f *T*h *T*T sfotf H I 

^ ^re^r irre^i *wsdn iEK*m u 

Again, " You need not recite iftAs, Yajus, or Snmans. 
Sing the Lord's Name. There is the Lord's Name, there is 
the tongue under one's control, still men fall into hell, 
what a wonder !" 

TT ^ m ^QRI 5RT flW 95 ftwi 

The Bhagavata is the Pur ana of Purunas for this school 
of Bhaktas and worshippers of the Lord's Name. Owing to the 
great facility of attaining salvation through Name, Kali 
becomes meritorious, in spite of its many defects, and indeed 
those that know hold Kali in great regard for this. 

$3?Nft3t u^ 3T$cr m^t mm 3°t: « 

<tfafa «ww 3^$W: <tf 3$3; l» XII. 3. 51. 

TO S^t^fo 3#: ^iqfsfiRwq^ |i XI. 5. 36. 

According to the Bhagavata, even the great Jnanins and 
Paramahamsas, though they have nothing to do or gain, revel 
in the Personality, Names and songs of the Lord. In fact, the 
Ptirana holds that the liberated state of pure Jnuna, without 

Tfifc cult of Naina in Chotadesa I05 

any act, if it is to be devoid of the love of the Lord, is not good. 
To sing of the Lord's glory is the only beautiful thing ; it is 
eternally fresh and charming ; it is an incessant festivity for the 
mind ; it alone removes men's sorrows completely. The speech 
and writing in which the glorious Names of the Lord are 
imbedded, that is the flood that washes away the sins of 
humanity, though every verse of it may be full of grammatical 
lapses. That literature, however wonderful, which is barren 
of the glorification of the Lord, is like the pool where crows 
splash the dirty water, not the Manasa lake in which the swans 
of liberated souls sport and delight. 

cfa v% *fkt *i M 

^ff^^^I#sg^q% II XII. 12. 49. 

*OTPcT TRf?cT ^°I^cT giro II 

* sxtvfc |rh3 fousrcqj I. 5- 10-12. 

It is in accordance with this that great Advaitic teachers 
from Sankara downwards have all been Bhaktas and have sung 
many a hymn of devotion. It is in accordance with this that 
many distinguished scholars, Bhaktas and Sannyasins gave a 
fresh fillip to the school of Numa Siddhnnta in Chola Desa 
(Tanjore District) in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
The most noteworthy amongst these propagators of this Nama 
Bhajana is Sridhara Venkatesa, popularly known by his 

to6 ftAMA-Ui>ANISHAi)S 

reverential name ' Ayyaval ', who wrote the Akhyu Shashti * 
or Sixty verses on Lord's Name, as also a treatise on this subject 
called Bhagavan Nama Bh&shana. He was followed by 
Sri Bodhendra, a Sannyasin who wrote four works 
expounding the details of this doctrine, the Namamrita Rasa- 
yana, the Namamrita Rasodaya* the Namamrita S&ryodaya 
and the Bhagavan Namamritarnava. The Guru saluted by 
Tyagaraja in his Nauka Charita, Sri Ramakrishnananda, was 
also probably an expounder of this Nama Mahatmya. 
' Nama-paras ', adherents of the path of Name, are mentioned 
separately from those who take to the six philosophical systems 
etc., by Tyagaraja in his piece Nijamarmamulanu in 
Umabharana. And it is significant to note here that one of the 
manuscripts in Tyagaraja's library, which has come down to us, 
is of a work called Devata Nama Mahatmya. 

Of the Saguna form of Sri Ramachandra, as the object of 
Tyagaraja's devotion, we shall speak in extenso in the next 
chapter. Here, we shall cover some ground to understand 
further the literary and historical background of Tyagaraja, his 
devotion to Rama Nama, and the ideas he has expressed on this 
subject in the course of some of his songs. Of the later Saguna 
Upanishads mentioned by me, three deal exclusively with 
Rama, the Rama Rahasya and the P&rva and Uttara Rama 
Tapanis. In those as well as in the Kali Santaranopani- 
shad cited already, the doctrine of Numa is given to us in the 
form of Rama-Nama. After Brahma told Narada that Kali 
could be crossed over by the recital of the Lord's Name, Narada 
asks again ; ' What is that Nama ?, and Brahma replies : 
c Rama and Hari and Krishna \ 

*K$: 3*: TOW OTW ftftft i ST ffc^ f?WT&— 

^ xm & m iw *w $ i^t i 
l^ ? s*r ?l $wr ffsor s^r ^ $ ti 

i. See my edition of « Akhysi Shashti * -with introduction, translation etc., 
in the Sri Kamakoti Series, B. G, Paul & Co., Madras* 

Rama Nnma the Taraka-mantra toy 

In the Rama Rahasyopanishad, Rama says that one 
escapes from all sins by repeating His Name, ninetysix crores 
of times : 

Towards the close, this Upanishad expounds the 
significance of the syllabic constituents of the Name, Rama. It 
is said Siva knows this significance well. The Name Rama is a 
synthesis of the essence of the Narayana Ashtaksharl and the 
Siva Panchakshart, its two letters being extracted from the 
two Mantras. 

It is because Rama Nnma is dealt with so fully in the 
Upanishads that Tyagaraja describes that Name as Veda- 
varnaniyamau namamuto (jEfeartfcae-Devamanoliari) and Veda- 
saramau namadheyamunu (TalachinantaneMukhlxi). 

The Rama Uttara Tapani says that Rama Mantra is 
called Taraka, 2 as it enables one to cross over this Sarn$ara. 
In Raghupate Rama (Sahana), Tyagaraja characterises Rama 
as Taraka-namadheya, 'He whose Name saves one', In fact 
' Taraka Nama ' is a very common epithet of Rama (see pp. 129, 
I 73» 37°* 382, 399, 417; also in Sujana jivana-Khamas). 
Taraka is Brahman and Rama is Brahman. And this Rama 
Taraka Mantra is imparted to every dying man at the 
Avimukta Kshetra or Benares, at the Manikarnika or any 
part of the Ganges bank, by Siva Himself. Benares or VSranasI, 

1. The detailed procedure to be followed for the performance of the Koti- 
japa of Ramanama is set forth in the Tattvasamgraha Ramayana, Kishkindha, 9> 
Siva-PSrvati-Samvada. See my article on this work m the Annals of Oriental 
Research, University of Madras, Vol. X. part I. 

2. Indeed Rama has been adored as the Nama-tspraka par excellence; 
cf . Dikshitar also in his Vasanta song on Ratna, 'R^machandram JBhavaySmi' — 
• Nama*Klrtana-t5rakam\ 

±6$ Nnma as form and Upeya 

where the two rivers Varana and Asi meet, is really the 
juncture of the brows and the nose, and here is the spot to be 
concentrated upon by Yogis. Rama tells Siva : 

st^% 5R?^# sr g^ *i^n fife n 

This imparting of the Turaka Mantra of Rama Nama by 
Siva at Benares is further dealt with in the KaSikhnnda. 

When Vasishtha gave the name Rama to Dasaratha's first 
son, Kalidasa says that the Guru was prompted to do so because 
of the charming personality of Rama ; tw ^Tftm$°T *s*n cf^ 
^cT; and the poet immediately adds that the name became the 
foremost auspicious thing of the world : srocSWWIf^n i Tyagaraja 
says that the name chosen was as charming as the person : 
Ramabhirama Ramaniyanama (Darbar). Rama Nama is also 
the Victorious Name which bestows success in the mundane as 
well as spiritual spheres: Jayakara-Nama (Dinajanauana in 
Bhupala); cf. the custom of Parayana of the Ramayana or the 
Sundarakanda that we do according to formulae like ^reijfr 

As already observed, one of the tmets of the worshippers 
of the Lord's Name is that the Nama itself is the R&pa, 
the Form. Accordingly, to the worshippers of Name 
with such a belief, the Name is not merely an Upaya, 
means to reach the Lord but is Upeya, the end itself. It is 
this tenet that Tyagaraja refers to, as already pointed out, in 
the two pieces Smarane Sukham in Janaranjani and Najiva- 
dlmra in Bilahari, where he says ; * Nama-rupame hridaya- 
munindi ' and ' Na Japa varna rupama \ This tenet of Name 
itself being first the means and then the end, both Upaya and 
Upeya is expounded in the treatise just referred to, the Upeya 
nama-viveka ' of Upanishad Brahmam, which Tyagaraja should 
have known. Upanishad Brahmam says : 

doctrine of Upeya Nama 109 

The Name has two phases, even as the Brahman has the two 
phases, Saguna and Nirguna. The former is the Upaya, the 
means and the latter, the Upeya, the Absolute to be attained. 

^S 5fC S{C 5f* 

The Upuya-Nama or the Name as normally understood 
has itself four phases, from the gross to the subtle, sth&la, 
sUkshrna, bija and turya, each of which forms, in an ascending 
order, the object of worship as the aspirant evolves higher and 
higher. In the fourth, the turya, the devotee sees not any differ- 
ence between himself and that state which Rama Nama would 
endow him with ; that is, he has reached the non-differentiating 
advaitic stage here. On the attainment of this fourth stage, 
the aspirant becomes qualified to realise complete one-ness in 
which the body and the world cease to exist for him and he is 
just the disembodied consciousness itself, Vikalebara-Chaitanya; 
this is the stage of Nama itself as the Brahman and the goal, 
the Upeya. 

1. I got a Ms. of this work from the Upanishad Brahma Math, Kanchi- 

2. Frithjof Schuon, The Transcendent Unity of Religions, Faber and 
Faber, p. 182. "The Divine Name is thus a manifestation of the Supreme 
Principle, or to speak still more plainly, it is the Supreme Principle manifesting 
itself ; it is not therefore in the first place a manifestation but the Principle 
itself/ 1 

no traditions about tyagaraja's Rama Nama japa 

The first three stages of adoration of Upaya-Naina are 
stages of duality of the worshipper and the worshipped ; the 
fourth is a stage of unity but the next stage of Upeya Nama is 
the final realisation where there is no question of duality or 
non-duality ; it is the absolute impartite state of realisation. 

This detailed introduction ls needed to understand 
Tyagaraja's practice of Rama Nmna Japa and the full meaning 
of his songs on Rama Nama. Just as the wanderings and doings 
of Sri Sadasiva Brahmendra along the Kaveri banks, (still 
a fragrant memory with us) are a proof to us in recent times 
of the glory of the high AvadhUta state, so is the life and 
Siddhi of Tyagaraja a proof of the efficacy of Rama Nama as 
a potent means of salvation. He was an exponent of the 
school that the Nama-japa of the Lord is the most 
effective path and that other paths need not be thought of : 
Rama-namamu Sarame gani anya - marga ~ vichara me tike 
Manasa [Sarame, Pantuvarali). According to a tradition in 
one of the schools of Tyagaraja's pupils, (that of Umayalpuram), 
Tyagaraja embarked in the prime of his youth, his twentieth 
year, on the great Tapas of reciting Rama Nama ninety-six 
crores of times ; and it took him twenty-one years and fifteen 
days to finish this Japa; at the end, Tyagaraja had the darsana 
of Sri Ramachandra and he sang his first piece, Ela nl dayaradu 
in Athana. 

In this connection, we may bear in mind that the Rama 
Rahasya Upanishad lays down that Rama Nama has to be 
chanted ninety-six crores of times for the attainment of Siddhi, 
Whether the form of the tradition in the Umayalpuram School 
is true exactly or not, there is no doubt that Tyagaraja did 
attain Siddhi through the Japa of Rama Nama. In more 
than one song does Tyagaraja refer to his having had the visit 
of Rama or His sight : Kanugontini (Bilahari), Bhavanuta 
(Mohana, in charana i). To utter the Lord's Name became 
a second nature to him. " If the Tamil Saiva Saint prayed to his 

tyagaraja, a Garbha-Bhagavata in 

Lord that even if he forgot the Lord, his tongue should go 
on repeating the Lord's Name (Narrava: Unnai nan marakkinum 
sollu na Namassivayave), Tyagaraja prays for nothing more than 
that his tongue should become used to continuous repetition of 
the Lord's Name : Ma rasanamuna nl namamu maru maru 
balkanu daya cheyumu (Sri Raghuvara-Devagandhari)*. In 
TJiake (Sahana), he affirms that this king of Mantras, viz., 
Bama-Nama, was ever shining on the tongue of Tyagaraja : 
Tyagarajuni jihvapar rajillu vara-mantra-rajamunu. He should 
have developed this practice of Nama Japa very early. 
Attention may be drawn in this connection to those songs of 
his in which he himself tells us that he was devoted to Rama 
from his early years : " chinna nade yanusarmchu " in Pahi 
mum Sri Rumachandra in Kapi ; ' chinna nade nlchelimi 
galuga gori — chintimpa leda Sri Rama ' in Nannubrova in 
Abhogi ; 'anatimodalu ninu vediti' in the Bhairavi-song Ananda- 
munanda ; ' ne chinnatanamu nade ' in his Ninne nera nam- 
minnnura in Pantuvarali; in 'chinnanata nundi ninne gani 
nenanylu nammitina , in Innullu dayarakunna (Narayana- 
gaula); in Nivegmi in Bilahari, he describes the Lord as a 
treasure earned and handed down from the elders of his family 
(Munu mavamsamuna galugu peddalu tapamulanu jesi yarjin- 
china dhanamu); and in his Pahi mam Hare, a Divyanama 
piece in Saurashtra, he even says that he was born into this 
world with the name Rama on his lips and had steadfastly 
kept it up. 

Pahi Rama yanuchu bhuvini bagabuttidi-Pahi Rama 
yanuchu gatti pattu battidi. 

He was thus a Garbha- Bhagavata, like Prahlada. It is 
not unlikely, when we recollect tifie fact that his father Rama 
Brahmam was a classmate of Sri Upanishad Brahmam and both 
of them were Rama Bhaktas, and Upanishad Brahma Yogi, the 
author of the treatise on Nama called Upeya-Nama-Viveka, 
was one of the teachers of the cult of adoring Rama Nama. 

i. Cl John Damascenes : " We must learn to invoke God's Name more 
often than we breathe, at all times and everywhere and during all our labours." 

ii2 Siva, the prime teacher of Rama Nama 

In the same song in Saurashtra quoted above, Tyagaraja 
says that he had secured the precious pearl of Rama Nama — 
Pahi Rama Nama muktaphalamuleriti. 

One of the doctrines of this Rama Nama Siddhanta 
which we saw mentioned in the Rama Upnishads is that Siva 
knows the value and taste of the sweet name of Rama and that 
He imparts it to people dying in Benares. This tenet is basic 
to the entire body of Tyagaraja's songs. When the composer 
introduces his Mudra or signature at the end of all his pieces in 
expressions like 'Tyagarajanutuni ', the expression means Rama 
praised by both poet Tyagaraja and by God Siva, Tyagaraja 
being the name of Siva at the composer's birth place, Tiruvarur. 
In his Kapi song, Inta saukhyamani, Tyagaraja makes an 
explicit and full reference to this : — 

"Is it possible for me to describe the ananda 
one derives from chanting Rama Nama ? Who 
knows its measure and quality ? Only true and 
great devotees know it. Lord Sankara, who 
delights in drinking the nectar of music with the 
sugarcandy of Rama Nama, knows it well." 1 
Inta saukhyamani ne jeppajala 
ento emo evariki delusuno 
svara raga sudharasa mandu 
vara Rama nama mane kanda chakkera 
misramu jesi bhujinche 
Sankaruniki delusunu 
At the end of the Kapi piece Rama Raghukula jala- 
nidhe t there is another reference : " You made Sankara utter 
in the ears of men of this Kali, Your Taraka Mantra" 
Kaliyugamanujulakunu nl tarakamu 
nitila-netruni chetanu vmula balkanuga jesina. 

i. St. Bernard : " The Name of Jesus is not only light ; it is also nourish- 
ment. All food is too dry to be assimilated by the soul if it is not flavoured by 
this condiment; it is too insipid unless this salt relieves its tastelessness. I 

have no taste for thy writings if I cannot read this Name there it is honey 

for my mouth, melody for my ears, joy for my heart, but it is also a medicine," 


NityarUpa in Kapi says (t Kaslpati ni Namamu balkada "; 
Ka?ia kana ruchira in Varali cites Siva as a witness to the 
efficacy of Rama Nama : c Kailasa sadanudu sakshi '; Vadern, 
the well-known piece in Pantuvarali says in the third foot that 
Siva initiates the ignorant folk of the world in this Taraka- 
mantra so that they might cross over the Samswra : 

Dari deliyaleni ajnulaku 

bhava nlradhi dati 

moksha mandutaka 

nirajari-dharudu upadesinche 

taraka Namamutonu velasina. 

Sarame gmii in Pantuvarali is another piece which cites the 
example of Siva. By making reference to the initiation of 
VsClmiki in Rama Nama by Narada and to Suka teaching Hari 
Nnma to King Parlkshit, the song emphasises to us the primary 
position which we should give to the Rmnnyana and the 

"Did not Siva, the delighter in Sama Gctna, drink 
with all earnestness the nectar of Rama Nama 
besides unceasingly uttering it to his holy consort 
Parvati and explaining to Her its great efficacy 
and significance ?" 

Sama gana loludau 

rajata giri dhamudaina 

Tyagaraja Sivudu atinemamuto 

namamrita panamu yemarakanu 

jesi, Rama Rama Rama yanuchu 

satatamu Srlmadadi Gaunki 

sringariki ya mahimalan a rahasyamulan 

ati premanu upadesincha leda. 

The reference to Siva explaining to Parvati the greatness 
of Rama Nama is to passages like the oft-quoted verse 


ii4 Rama-Nnma essence of siva and vishnu namas 

We noted above the interpretation of the significance of 
Rama Nama given by the Rama Rahasyopanishad, that it 
is an essence extracted out of both the Nurnyana Ashtaksharl 
and Siva Panchakshari. The doctrine is set forth fully by 
Tyagaraja in his JGiaraharapriya song Evarani : 

" What do people determine you to be and how 
do they worship you ? As Siva, Madhava, Brahma 
or the Supreme Absolute ? I prostrate before 
those wise ones who found the solution by 
extracting and combining the soul of each of the 
two mantras, Ra from Om Namo Narayanaya 
and Ma from Om Namas Sivaya" x . 

Evarani nirnayinchirira nin — 

etla aradhinchirira, Naravara 

Sivudano Madhavudano Kamalabhavudano 

Para Brahmano 

Siva-mantramunaku Majivamu 

Madhava-mantramunaku Rajlvamu 

I vivaramu delisina ghanulaku mrokkeda. 

A further point in this process of extraction of the essences 
of the two mantras is also suggested by Tyagaraja when he 
says ' I vivaramu delisina ' and calls the two extracted syllables 
the "jiva" or life of the two mantras. This 'vivara' or 
further detail of how these two syllables constitute the ' jiva ' 
or life of the two mantras is that if " Ra " is taken out of 
" Narsyanaya ", the word becomes " Nayanaya " and would 
mean " It helps not as the path for the aspirant " and if " Ma" 
is taken out of " Naraas Sivaya " the expression becomes " Na 
Sivaya " meaning *' not for good ". 

i. In the song the actual order of the syllables as set forth by Tyagaraja 
is not Ra-ma but Ma-ra which according to some imaginative interpreters is a 
reference to the sage Valmiki of whom Tyagaraja is adored as an incarnation 
and the story of Valmiki, who unable to utter Rama, was going on uttering 
Mara-mara so that in the concatenation, the correct name Rama was auto- 
matically formed ; even such an utterance is considered efficacious according 
to Nama-siddhanta, as explained here below* 


This is all set forth by Upanishad Brahmam at some length 
in his Upeyanamaviveka : 

fNm^Ta; wRwart Wcftfcr » ^ffosffi an? — 3Rra*rfcr 

5WTO 5? ^^riq *r%?i;i 

*T*rciffcr snfeftTO^r^srw: ft *&$&$ bus— 

cRI fiRROTOT mfa * 4m: II 
wncsiRiwrat to TOctf gftwq% 1 

Another tenet of the Afema-worshippers must now be 
referred to, as on this question, Tyagaraja keenly asserted his 
reformatory zeal. One of the further developments in the 
direction of the glorification of Nama as the easiest of means is 
the view that just as fire burns even if it is touched without 
knowledge, the Lord's Name saves one, if it comes from any 
quarter and in any form, even if it is uttered unconsciously or 
in play, ridicule etc., and even if the letters constituting the 
name Rama, Siva, etc., occur as part of other sound-combina- 
tions in sentences of other meanings. The Vishnu Purma 
says, and this and other similar verses are quoted by Sankara 
in his Vishnu sahasra nama bhushya ; 


pre; %*$ to* ftw^iftft n x 6. 8. 19. 

The Bhngavata also upheld this view and illustrated it 
with the classic story of Ajamila, who, having spent his life in 
dissipation, called out at the time of his death, the name of his 
last beloved son, which was Narayana. The moment the sound 
Narayana came out of that sinner's mouth, all his sins vanished, 
and the emissaries of Vishnu rushed to prevent those of Yama 
from claiming Ajamila. It is declared on that occasion that 
whatever the spirit or manner in which one uttered the Lord's 
Name, he is saved. The medicine does not expect one to know 
it, to give him the cure. 

qfcTcfTO&at W:'#J8WH TOST: I 

awpfdsmwaor a^W^sqptnps w vi. 2. 14, 15, 19. 

Ajamila uttered the whole name, though it was as referring 
to his son. To illustrate the case Sunketya, Bhagavatas tell 
some stories and illustrations. One is the conversion of Valmiki 
by Narada, which incident is referred to by Tyagaraja in the 
Vagli piece, 1 menu galiginanduku. But the Bhagavatas say 
that Valmiki — the hunter could not, as already referred to, 
utter 'Rama', but, as a man of the forest could utter 
' Mara \ the tree ; Narada ingeniously asked him to repeat fast 

1. This verse is echoed by Tyagaraja in his Kapi piece 'Rama Pahi 
Meghasyama ' where he gives the same simile of Nama-recital being the lion's 
roar that keeps away the wicked ; 

" Durjana ganamula varjmchutaku N§.ma,garjana gatiyantini O Rama " 
which shows how these texts of the school were constantly in the composer's 


Mara-Mara-Mara, so that in the chain,< as it were, 'Rama' 
automatically sounded. 

Ayyaval, the predecessor of Tyagaraja and one whose 
teachings on the subject of Nrnna-Mahatmya held the field in 
Choladesa, subscribed to this view and in some verses in his 
hymn on the Lord's name, Akhyn Shashti, referred to the 
Name Siva saving one even if its sounds were somehow 
introduced in the speech of a man, for instance, 8?feqru%gsr&; 
' Where does he live ' asks one; ' on the beach ', says another ; 
in the answer, the sound combination Siva occurs ! 

This, Tyagaraja fe!t, was carrying it too fan The uttering 
of the Lord's Name, he insisted, should be informed by love 
for the Lord. Those who do not love the Lord know not the 
relish of His Name. 

Rama nlyeda prema rahitulaku 

nama ruchi deiusuna (Kharaharapriya) 1 

Besides, Rama means the essence of Siva and Vishnu ; 
Rama is Brahman itself ; what is the use of repeating the sound 
Rama, without any knowledge of its meaning or as referring to 
another person or object ? Tyagaraja elaborates his view by a 
series of telling similes. 

" The Name must be uttered with a knowledge 
of its significance and with contemplation of 
Rama. Closing the senses up for a minute and 
realising the real truth of the Taraka-rUpa of 
Rama, one should utter the Name. 

" Rama means a woman ; that leads to lust etc. 
Rama is the name of the Supreme Brahman too ; 
that removes all the distress of mortal birth. 

" Arka is the name of a poisonous plant ; Arka 
means the Sun that dispels all darkness*- 

1. See ths previous Chapter p. 78. 

tiS ME true meaning oe Rama-Nnrtia 

"Aja means a goat; Aja means also Brahman, 
who would bless you with success". (Song in 

Telisi Rama chintanato Namamu 

seyave manasa — 

talupulanni nilipi nimishamaina 

taraka rupuni nija tattva mulanu telisi — 

Rama yana chapalakshula peru 

kamadula boruvaru vera 

Rama yana Brahmamunaku peru 

a manava jananartulu dlru 

arka manuchu jilledu taru peru 

markata buddhulettu dlru 

arkudanuchu Bhaskarnuniki beru 

kutarkamanedu andhakaramu dlru 

aja manuchu meshamunaku beru 

nijakorika lella gi deru 

Ajudani vaglsvaruniki beru 

vijayamu galgunu Tyagaraja nutuni. 

It may be noted how Tyagaraja's words here echo those 
of Upanishad Brahmam in his Upeya nnma viveka : 

— ?& *i*Rrs^r scqnftm *nntaft t 

Cf. Tyagaraja : Ramayana Brahmamunaku peru. 

Explaining the full implications of the name Rama as the 
quintessence of the Upanishadic MahaVakhya "Tat tvamasi", 
Upanishad Brahmam says : 

WRwrf: $ SOTfcW siHTir^F qftcTO- 

Qualifications of a nama-reciter it§ 

And for the words of the Pallavi " Telisi Rama Chintanato 
Namamu ", the following in Upanishad Brahmam may be seen: 

That Nwma Klrtana is not a mechanical process, that 
a real practice of this means a full equipment of knowledge, 
self-control, purity of mind, devotion, concentration, etc., has 
also been emphasised in the books. In his comments on the 
name Visva, which leads the one thousand Names of Vishnu, 
Sankara says that it is only one who has realised the truth that 
God is Visva, Everything, that can utter the Nama. Sankara's 
teaching here in his comments on the Name Visva is summa- 
rised by Tyagaraja in the last foot of his Bilahari song 
Intakanna ynnanda — Ni Japamulu velanl jagamulu nivai 
rajillunaya. Such a realisation would make one completely 
refrain from himsa etc., and such a person deserves to sing 
the Lord's Name. Some texts go so far as to say that only the 
realised souls that have become one with the Lord that can 
take the Name ; others should not vainly take it, «flS<sg : 

We have already drawn attention to the fourth and fifth 
stages of Nama Pwrnyana which are stages of advaita* 
Upanishad Brahmam says in his Upeya nama viveka that the 
repetition of Rama Nama should be attended with the non-dual 
contemplation, advaita-bhavanu. 


120 Nama - aparadhas 

Passages in Tyagaraja giving expression to this advaita- 
bhavana are quoted below at the end of the last chapter when 
dealing with the highest phase of Bhakti. 

In the Padmapurma, ten pitfalls of the enthusiasts of 
Nama kirtana are set forth and their avoidance is insisted 
upon. They are characterised as ten offences against the Lord's 
Name, Nama-aparadhas. The first is the deriding of good men, 
Ninda of Sadhus. The second is to see difference between 
one form of Divinity and another, e.g. Siva and Vishnu. 
Then, disregard for Gurus, denouncing the Vedas and Sastras 
as needless, considering that the glorification of Nama is in 
fact an exaggeration, committing sins on the strength of the 
Nama, absence of purity of mind achieved through 
refraining from injury to others, from lying, stealing, incon- 
tinence and receiving gifts. The next is to desist from all 
Karrnas and Dharmas on the excuse of the Numa-Japa. 
Then, teaching the Name to the faithless and the un-interested. 
And lastly, failing to cultivate benevolence and continuing to be 
dominated by Ahamkara and Mamakara } the sense of 
' I' and ' Mine \ 

few sftfowih y ?? s*hoti% sr^n i 

fmi fire *tifa s *sT§ 5f^l%F$T: 
# * * 

nftn wraw g mife i %%% to qtfifsfc: u 

«c*rfa hot *m&A «R sTft^%dts«w: i 

We find in Upanishad Brahmam's Upeya nama viveka :— 
gfiRfaftr t^s^cwr sft^i^JMfc 

Mata-Bheda condemned I2k 

Tyagaraja was one of those who considered the recitation 
of Nama a high form which only qualified people should resort 
to, if they should reap the benefit. To the second and partly 
to the seventh Aparudha referred ' to above, Tyagaraja's 
Sukhi Evaro in Kanada, gives expression ; 

" Who is the blessed one that enjoys the bliss of 
Rama Mama, the highest of mantras calculated 
to save men from bondage ? Who is that blessed 
one who, unflinching from truth, serving all 
humanity and free from hatred towards other 
Gods, sings sweetly the Rama* Nama ?" 

Sukhi evaro, Rama nama sukhi evaro — 
satyamu dappaka, sakala lokamulaku 
bhrityudai daivabhedamu leka 
nityamaina susvaramu ganamuto 
There is again reference to the second Aparadha in the 
essentials of a true devotee described by Tyagaraja in his 
Bhaktuni ChaHtra in Begada, ' Siva Madhava bhedamu 
jeyagaradu ' *. In Vinatusuta (Jayantasena), Tyagaraja 
condemns as useless disputations about different faiths. 

In the Sankarabharana song on Siva, Sambho Siva 
Sankara, he describes the Lord as one who always puts down 
the pride of those inferior people who revel in sectarian 
differences : 

Mata-bhed a-patita -manava- 
mad a-santata-bhanga. 
In Itaradaivamula' again, Tyagaraja says that, without 
any prejudice against other faiths, he is devoted to Rama — 
' matabhedamuleka sada madini marulu gonna tanaku ' 2 . 

i. In the Todi song on Dharmasamvardhani, * Karuna judavamma ', in 
the third charana, Tyagaraja addresses the Goddess as being Herself Siva 
and Rama. 

2. In the true spirit Of one who, while adoring one form as his dearest, 
held in respect the rest as but other forms of Divinity, Tyagaraja raised 
Subrahmanya as unequalled among ( the Gods ' Nivanti daivamu shadanana ' 
(Todi), and Devi as'the refuge of his family — Tyagaraja Kulasaranye (' Amma- 
dharma- samvardham ' — Athana). 

Hi true form of JSiarna-Bhajana 

" Only such a Rama Bhajana as is done with a 
mind free from the six inner enemies, Inst, anger 
etc., will bring salvation, and free one from the 
ills of this world." 

Paraloka sadhaname manasa 
smara lobha mohadi papulanu 
smariyinchake Sri Rama bhajana, paraloka 
jananadiroga bhayadulache 
jagamandu galgu durasalache 
tanayadi bhandhavula bhramache 
dagala nldu Tyagarajanutuni 

The very fruit of Nama-japa is that the Name purifies 
one's mind : 

Ni Namamuche nSmadi nirmalamainadi (Jnanamosa- 
grara^s-Shadvidhamargini). And hence is Rama Mama the 
most sanctifying name — Paramapavana-nama (Ramaramana- 
Vasantabhairavi ; Dasarathi ni rinamu — Todi). 

" If there is one who thus worships the Lord truly 
with His Name, — surely, who can equal him ? 

ni japamuna hridayamu vega 

rajillanu jesina ... 

Hariyanu vani sari evare (Todi). 

" Who can equal that worshipper of the Lord's 
Name, who has cleared his mind of all its mani- 
fold lumber, who has steadfast devotion, who 
discards sectarian disputes, who longs for the 
Lord, who has established the Lord's feet in his 
heart, who shuns like poison the company of 
those who do not enjoy this happiness and who 
values the company of true devotees ? Who can 
equal those whom the meditation of the Lord 
transports to ecstasy ? " {Ibid). 

Me jotf of Numa-Kirtand 12^ 

And " What can equal our owp human birth if 
we could do this adoration of the Lord with the 
flowers of His Glorious Names." 

Nama kusumamulache * pujinche 

nara janmame janmamu (Sriraga) 
and if one cannot have true love for Rama-Nama, 
of what use is his life — 

Ramachandra nl namamandu nija - premaleni 
bratukemi (Varali-P^^e paramatma) 

The Lord's Name brings prosperity here, and leading one 
on the right path, it brings one to the abode of Divinity or 
is itself all prosperity, all austerity and the abode eternal. 

Kshemamu divya dhamamu nitya nemamu 
RSma-namamu ( Vandanamu-Sahma.). 

The most elaborate expression or exclamation relating to 
the joys of uttering Rama Nama is of course the long Divya- 
nama in the auspicious Saurashtra in which Tyagaraja simply 
loses himself as it were : 

"Melu melu Rama-nama-sukham I dharalo manasa " (Text 
pp. 135-6). 

Ah Mind ! Exceedingly superior in this world is 
the bliss of Rama's Name to the joy of a thirsty 
man getting water to drink, of a pauper coming 
by a treasure, of getting water in draught, 2 of 

1. cf. in Panpalaya (Ritigattla) the idea, « Harmamasmaranamulu viru 
tamara ' and ' Hnt-kumudasumamula ' in the last charna of the Ahiri piece 
'Challare \ It is necessary to understand fully the significance when Tyagaraja 
speaks more than once of Nama-Kusuma, of the Name of Lord as the flower of 
His worship. According to the prescribed directions for the adoration of 
Rama-Nama (Rama Mantra Purascharana and Knyayoga), Rama Mantra 
itself is to be used as the flowers for the Puja , Nama- Japa is the flower worship 
(pushpa-archana). See Tattvasamgraha Ramayana already cited, Sundara, 
Cantos 13, 14. 

2> Cf. Valmiki's comparisons of Dasaratha's joy when VisvSmitra came : 

124 BLiss 0F Nnma-japa superior to everything 

a frightened person getting courage, of a hungry 
man getting a sumptuous feast, of an angry man 
calming down, of an ignoramus becoming suddenly 

Nay, Tyagaraja exalts the bliss of the utterance of the 
Lord's name above even the sweet devotional music, above 
even the bliss of contemplating upon God, or the spiritual 
experience or the realisation of Brahman itself. 

* * * 

Srlkarudau Sri Ramuni manasuna 

chintinchu sukhambukante 

# * # 

cheyatagu vedanta vicharana 

cheyaga galgu sukhambukante 

bayaka nirguna bhavamu galapara 

Brahmanubhava sukhambukante — 

Melu melu Ramanamasukham I dharalo manasa. 



" Rama nl samunamevaru ", "Rama eva daivatam" 

No poem of the world other than the Ramayana has 
given to a whole country and its countless millions a persona- 
lity which, despite the passage of ages, remains still a living 
force of insipiration for individual conduct as well as public 
life, the mere mention of whose name still thrills, draws tears 
of joy and makes people break down. Kusa, who did not 
know the identity of his father, Sri Rama, came in great excite- 
ment on hearing of a scuffle between his brother Lava and 
Lakshmana's son, Chandraketu; but there was Rama also 
standing there ; Kusa saw the personality before him, and, as his 
turbulent spirit calmed down, he said to himself, 'Ah ! What a 
form to make men's minds settle down in tranquility ! Surety, 
the poet of the Ramayana enriched the divine language through 
a fitting personality ! ' 

Bhavabhuti : Uttararamacharita VI. 20. 

We have known sceptic high-brows of our own times 
spending the evening of their lives in thraldom to the inimi- 
table charm of both the Ramayana and Sri Ramachandra. No 
wonder the Hound of Heaven of Rama and the Ramayana has 
claimed these, our own men ; but witness how even those of 
other faith have come under the spell of this personality, those 
like Kablr in the North and in our own parts, the British 
Collector of Madhurantakam, who had the vision of Sri Rama 
standing bow in hand and guarding the embankment of the 
lake from breaches during a storm, and how from the early 
centuries of the Christian era, the entire South-East Asia, from 
Cambodia to Java, came under His influence, temples were raised 
to Valmiki there, the Ramayana was read in public in shrines, 

126 Rama-rctjya 

and plays on Rama's story still continue to be enacted in the 
Indonesian Islands by masses who have become Mohammedans. 

We in the South have adored Rama for ages in the form 
in which He came to us, as ' the glorious Young Prince ' 
(Chakravarti-t-tirumahan) who renounced his kingdom without 
even the slightest fall in the excelling charm of his face. 

Bamayana II. 19.32.33- 
^srd w wilfr mw& ^ *w% 1 

Raghuvamsa XII. 8. 

In the North, Rama ruled as king over the land and hearts 
of men, and as Raja Ramachandra, he still continues to do so. 
' Rama ' ' Rama ', said everybody ; when Rama ruled, the 
world was all one Rama : 

Bamayana VI. 131.102. 

— a rule whose description Tyagaraja could not leave out 
of his songs : 

Karubaru Seyuvaru 
galare nlvale Saketanagarini 
urivaru desajanulu vara munulu 
upponguchunu bhavukulayye 
nelaku mudu vana lakhilavidyala 
nerpu galigi dlrghayuvu galigi 
chalamu garva rahitulu galeda 
sadhu Tyagarajavinuta Rama 



" Rama ! Has there been anybody who has 
reigned over Ayodhya like you, protecting the 
subjects and securing the happiness and prosperity 
of the urban and the country folk and the Rishis ? 
Your subjects had the three rains, they were 
learned in all arts and lores and learning, lived 
long, and were above all, free from deceit and 

And it is the re-establishment in this land of this 
Ramarajya that Mahatma Gandhi prayed for, a kingdom in 
which every body, looking at Rama and following him, desisted 
from mutual injury (himsa) : 

Ramnyana VI. 131.100. 

In the rich field of Sanskrit drama, when one examines 
the themes, one finds the largest number depicting the life of 
Rama. It is just as it should be, says Murari, himself the 
author of the play Anargha Eaghava (the Inestimable 
Raghava). In the prologue to this play, Murari says that no 
apology is needed for his having chosen the Rnmnyana as the 
theme and Rama as the Hero. If one should leave aside 
Rama's story as a theme much dealt with by the predecessors, 
where can one find a Hero endowed with so many excellences ? 
And how else can poets endowed with gifts of expression help 
and gratify themselves than by glorifying Sri Rama ? 

m sr si%i#4 ^OTrcg ^ifa: sritoRft %%mvft imwft stfsraspr: \ <w 
if? §** <#ftft sr?fcr mw ^fttf 

Our composer varies Murari's verse a little and asks : 
" What if sages like Valmiki and other poets 
have described you, Oh Rama, excellently 


and in a manner that true devotees of yours 
applaud? Could my yearning cease for that 
reason ? I feel the appointed service of my life is 
to sing your glory/' 

E paniko janminchitinani nan- 
nencha valadu Sri Rama ne 
Srlpati Sri Ramachandra ni 
chittamunaku teliyada ne 
Valmikadi munulu narulu ninna 
varninchiri nayasa diruna 
melmiyai yundunu sadbhaktulu 
mechchudure Tyagarajanuta ! ne 


Working a further variation of the same idea, Tyagaraja asks 
the Lord in his Elavatara (Mukhari): " For what purpose did 
you incarnate as Rama ? . . . . Was it to grant boons to 
Tyagaraja who has strung for you gem-garlands in various 
Sagas ?" — " Sata raga ratnamalikalu rachin china Tyagarajuku 
varamosagutanduka?" Without any such question, he affirms 
in Chesinadella that the very love of Tyagaraja had taken 
incarnation as Rama. 

When dealing with Rama Narna, we noted some of the 
literary and historical antecedents of Tyagaraja's adoration of 
Rama and His Name. . In the North, the Ramanandiya school 
developed the cult of Rama worship to a great extent. 
Ramananda, Tulasidas and Kabir contributed to the glory of its 
literature. The Adhyntma Ramuyana became one of the 
important works of this school. Other versions of Rama's 
story, like the Ananda and Adbhuta Rurrtayanas and the 
Brihad-dharma Parana further developed this cult. Special 
Samkitas or religious compilations like the Agastya Samhita 
were produced to set forth in great detail devotion to Rama and 
the conduct of his worship, festival etc. A few works of this 
considerable Rama-literature, like the Rama-QUa and Rama- 


Sahasranama, are referred to in the Ramarahasyopanishad 
itself. King Visvanatha Simha of Vaghela (Bundlekund) did 
for this school of Rama Bhakti what Bopadeva and Chaitanya's 
disciple Rupa Gosvami did for Krishna-bhakti, by analysing and 
systematising the Rasa of (Rama) Bhakti on the basis of 
Alamknra Sastra. A reference to these literary antecedents is 
made here to enable us to understand some allusions in 
Tyagaraja's songs which cannot be traced to the Valmlki 
Ramayana. For instance, the allusion to hunter Valmlki being 
initiated in Rama Noma by Narada and an Apsaras, turned 
crocodile and undergoing sufferings, being saved by Anjaneya 
by the chanting of Rama Nama. In his Kalakanthi piece on 
Sita, Sri Janakatanaye, Tyagaraja refers to Indra worshipping 
Sita, (which is an echo of the story of Indra sending Sita divine 
payasa, during her prison days) and to the hundred-headed 

Satavadanadyasara jaladharanile 

satamakha kirlta lasanmani gana nirajita charane. 

In another song of his on Sita, Dehi tava pada bhaktim 
in Sahana, he refers to the sage Agastya singing of Sita and to 

the hundred-headed Ravana again : Kalasaja glta mudite 

Satamukha mada damane. 

In the well known Kambhoji piece Ma Janaki, he speaks 
of Sita leaving her real form in Agni and following Ravana only 
with a Maya form. 

sikhi chentaneyundi 
danavuni ventane chani. 

All these references are to other Ramuyanas like the 
Adbhuta, in which Sita has been specially glorified. Similar 
allusions bearing on the glorification of Hanuman are also to be 
sought for in the same sources, e.g., the mention of Snjaneya 
sitting under the Parijata tree, in P&hi Rama D&ta, in 



Vasantavarali, of his reading holy Purma at Rama's bidding, 
in the piece Ralugunu Pada Niraja in Purnalalita. 1 

The reference to the third and sixth chapters of the work 
of Valmiki, in the Anupallavi of the Isamanohari piece Manasa 
Sri Ramachandruni is to the Adhyatma Rammjana, 
describing the divine origin of Rama and Sita 2 . The link with 
such Rama-literature is also borne out by Tyagaraja paying 
respects to Tulasidas as the first Bhakta to be saluted in his 
Prahl&da Bhakti Vijaya Nataka. 

In South India especially, the Ramayana of Valmiki was 
popularised to a great extent by a long succession of exponents 
and commentators, beginning with the pioneers of the Vaishnava 
Bhakti Sampradaya. Among musician-devotees who had chosen 
the Rama-form for their devotion, there was Bhadrachala 
Ramadas, whose life and songs exerted influence on the imagi- 
nation of Tyagaraja. Ramadas especially, Tyagaraja mentions 
in two pieces : in his well-known Devagandhari song, Kshlra 
sagara sayana, Tyagaraja tells Rama that he knew well how 
Rama liberated Ramadas of firm mind from the prison. 

Dhlrudau Ramadasuni bandhamu 

dfrchinadi vinnanura. 

In his Emidova Balknma in Saranga, he tells Rama, 
" Were I Ramadas, Sita would have spurred you to go to my 
rescue." — Ramadasuvale naite Sitabhama mandahnchunu nlto 3. 

Among other R&ma devotees, we may also mention here 
poet Ramabhadra Dlkshita of Tiruvisanallur, a contemporary 
of Sri Ayyaval, whose hymns on Rama were very popular all 

1. Cf. the verse recited among preliminary prayers before the reading and 
recital of the epic, 3^M|[<*T etc. 

2. Balakanda, cantos 3 and 6 : Here in canto 3 the birth of Rama is 
described like that of Krishna in the Bhagavata, the Lord first appearing in his 
supreme Narayana form before the mother, and the latter uttering a prayer to 
Him as Lord Narayana. In canto 6 in which Sita's marriage is described, 
sage Narada is introduced to point out that Rama and Sita are the eternal 
Narayana and Lakshml. 

3. Ramadas is* mentioned also among foremost devotees in ' Kaligi Yunte 
gada (Kiravani). 

rama as Para Brahman 131 

over Choladesa. Last but not least was his father's classmate 
Upanishad Brahmam, a Rama-devotee and his own father, 
Rama Brahmam, thanks to whom Tyagaraja was a Garbha- 
bhagavata. At the end of his Rama ni sam&nam evaru in 
Kharaharapriya, Tyagaraja calls Rama the treasure of his 
family, i.e., his family deity, * Kula-daivata ' and at the end 
of the Purnachandrika piece, Palukavemi, he says " My parents 
gave Bhakti and protected me/' 

Talli tandri bhakti nosagi rakshinchiri. 

In Innailu (Narayanagaula), he calls Rama again his 
heirloom ' Kuladhana ', and adds that from his early years, he 
had relied on none but Rama 'Chinnanata nundi ninne gani 
ne nanyula nammitina, O Rama/ 

From the point of view of all this religious literature 
pertaining to Rama, we may boldly say that among produdions 
distinguished both in quantity and quality, by a single poet- 
devotee like Kamban or Tulasi, the corpus of Tyagaraja's songs 
too occupies a prominent place. 

Rama, it is well known, was an incarnation of God. But 
according to this cult of Rama Bhakti, the very word Rama 
meant Para Brahmam. 

says the Ruma P&rva Tupanl Upanishad. In the well-known 
Purnachandrika song, which is specially significant here, 
Tyagaraja expressly states that the word Rama means Para 
Brahmam ; and in the twelfth foot of Pahi Kalyanarmna, he 
calls Rama Paramaina Brahmamu. In a very large number of 
songs, he addresses Rama as the one God, the first God, 
Lord of everything, source of everything, immanent in every- 
thing, the essence of everything, and so on and describes him 
in terms of the Supreme Being, devoid of beginning, middle or 
end (Adyantarahita in Ela ni daya and Adimadhyarahita in 
Nidaya ravalegcika and Ed&ri sancharintura), beyond word 


and mind (Avang-manasa-gochara in Duduku), devoid of 
modification (Avikrita in Jagadananda), impartite whole 
(Akhandarupa in Sri Rama Rama— Purnachandrika), one with 
out second (Advaita in Sundarataradeham), devoid of name 
and form (Nama-rupa-rahita in Sarvaloka — Huseni), and 
unqualified absolute (nirguna and nirgunarQpa in Hari 
Hari niyokka, Nat ha brovave and Jo Jo Rama). It is 
because by Rama, Tyagaraja meant not merely the incarnation 
of God as Dasaratha's son, but the Supreme Being itself that 
even when dealing with the Narasimha incarnation in the 
Prahl&da Bhakti Vijaya, he uses the name Rama. Thus not 
only did Tyagaraja henotheistically call his Rama the best 
amidst the Trinity (Muggurilio melaina Rama in Siggumali) 
but in accordance with the tenets of the Rama cult considered 
Rama as being something above the Trinity and the Supreme 
Being, the one Absolute, of the form of Sat, Chit and Ananda. 
In his Jagadananda, he speaks of Rama as being of the form 
of Siva, Brahma and Kesava (Purahara-sarojabhava-kesava- 
dirupa). In his Isamanohari piece, Manasn Sri Ramachan- 
druni, Tyagaraja speaks of Rama as the Supreme Being beyond 
the Trimurtis and one who ordains each of the three Murtis to 
His respective duty. 

In Nijamarmamulanu (Umabharana), he says that it was 
the Supreme Rama who set up the gauna forms of Brahma, 
Vishnu and Siva and made them play their respective roles and 
lilas. From the ant to the Trimurtis, Brahma, Siva and 
Kesava, Rama abides in all (Rama nannu brovara). In Evari- 
chchirira, in the charana, he says that the Trimurtis could not 
save Kakasura from Rama's arrow and on the fall of RSvana, 
the Trimurtis praise Rama (Emidova). In Bhakti bichcha 
(Sankarabharana), he calls Rama superior to the Trinity: 
Trimurtulakati melmi Rama ; he is the Lord of Hari, Padmaja 
(Brahma) and Sarva J (Siva) — Haripadmajasarvesah in Rama 

i. The text here, in all editions including the one m this book, reads 
$^3T; which should be corrected into Q^fcft 


em daivatam. So also in Mumm&rtulu gumig&di in Athana. 
Not only is Rama beyond the three gunas Sattva, Rajas and 
Tamas, but he is the Supreme God endowed with excellences 
which are absent from the three Gods Siva, Vishnu (Vamana) 
and Brahma who has each His blemish, of harshness, of 
deceitfulness, and of passion. Rama is indeed unique in His 
excellences and acts. It may be noted, the excellences of Rama 
with which Tyagaraja contrasts the drawbacks of the Trimurtis, 
(Endundi vedalitivo — Darbar) are all very significant and based 
on some of the most noteworthy points of greatness in Rama 
mentioned by Valmiki ; thus as against the severity that Siva 
would show at the slightest mistake is the guna mentioned by 
Valmiki in the description of Rama as ft<J<m»?fi" m&$— kind- 
hearted even towards foes. While Vamana had to adopt 
craftiness to overcome Bali, Rama in the full confidence of his 
prowess asked the enemy Ravana who was tired and had been 
rendered destitute to retire for the day and come back refreshed 
and equipped : ^rs^ig^HTftr etc.; and with reference to the parti- 
cular sin ascribed to Brahma Rama stands supreme as the 
exemplar of sexual purity, one who would not even look at 
others' women : xm§ <R3RFt *r§pikfir %?% i In fact, the things 
Rama did or said, Rama alone could have done or said— qqT 
3 <$?ltfa 33Rrfagq;i as Valmiki says. 

The immanence of Rama in all beings from BrahmS 
downwards is mentioned in Nijamuga nl mahimalu in Sahana. 
The Vagadhisvari song Paramatmudu is wholly devoted to the 
immanence of Rama as Paramatman, 

" Know all well how Paramatma shines in glory 
in everything, in Hari, Hara, Devas, human 
beings, the innumerable worlds, species of 
creations* the five elements, mountains and trees" 

(and Tyagaraja adds that) the Lord is in the good as well as in 
the bad, Sagunamulo vigunamulo satatamu, echoing the Q-ita 

134 ftAtaA, tyagaraja's Ishta-Daim 

And in the Garudadhvani piece Tattvameruga, he expressly 
states that Rama is the meaning of the Upanishadic MahS- 
vakya, ' Tat tvam asi ' 

Tattvamasi yanu vakyarthamu 

Rama nlvanu Para tattvameruga tarama. 

To proclaim this Upanishadic truth, Tyagaraja seems to have 
pitched upon a Raga with a suggestive name : Garuda, on 
whom the Lord is riding, is esoterically deemed to be Chandas 
or the Veda {&?&$ *t$c*RIH) and tllis ' Tattvamasi ' is the Vedic 
message, the Garudadhvani par excellence. That Rama is 
the immutable Supreme is also brought out in Kadaluvndu in 

That the Rama form, as such, was his ' Ishta Daiva/ 
favourite deity, Tyagaraja himself says expressly " Ishta 
Daivamu nive " in Syuma sundarnnga in Dhanyasi, and 
' Rama eva Daivatam Raghukula tilako me ' in a song in 
Balahamsa. To Tyagaraja, Rama was the God and none else. 

Vadera Daivamu, Undedi Ramudokadu, etc. 

In his Bhairavi song, Ni vanti, he exclaims : 
" Rama ! After deep reflection, I see it is 
impossible for me to find another God like you ; if 
one wants to speak, he should speak about you ; 
if one wants to sing, he should sing in praise of 
you alone; if one wants to associate with any- 
body, he must associate with you alone. 

Nivanti Daivamu negana 
Nlrajaksha Sri Ramayya 
bhavinchi juchu patla 
adina ninnada valega 
kudina ninnu gudavale 

"Who is there equal to you, Rama V' — Rama ni 
sammam evaru (Kharaharapriya), Dharanu ni sari Daivamu 
ganara Raghuvara (Varali)* 

RAMA, fHE BEST AvataVa ±35 

4i Who else but you can be the refuge ?" 
Vereware gati vemarulaku Sitapati (Surati). 
In his Kalyani piece, Karuvelpulu, he says : 

" No Devata of this universe can be equal to you ; 
to compare any one of them to you will be like 
comparing the fine table-rice to worthless chaff, 
a taper to a torch, a canal to the Kaveri, a star 
to the moon, a man to Manmatha and a lake 
to the sea." 

Karuvelpulu nlku sari karu 

karuku jilakara sampakantaramai nattugani 

divatiki dipamu riti gani 

Kavetiki kalavala riti gani 

Tammavairiki darakala riti 

kamma viltuniki kanti narula riti gani 

sagaramunaku sarassu riti 

Tyagarajavinuta dharalo nlku sari. 

And in his song in Chhayatarangini, he asks Rama : 

" To me, whose mind, without harbouring any 
prejudice towards other faiths, is constantly and 
passionately in love with you, O Rama, is happi- 
ness possible of attainment through other Gods ?" 

Itara Daiva mulavalla 
nilanu saukhyama, Rama 
mata bhedamu leka sada 
madini marulu gonnatana. 

In his Kolahala song Madi lona yochana, he says that of 
all the ten Avatara forms that the Lord put on, the Rama 
form was the best. 

Padi vesamulalo RSma vesamu bahu baganuchu- 

It is usual to say that the Krishna incarnation is the 
most complete one — Purnavatara, but to Tyagaraja, Rama is 


the complete incarnation : Purnavatara in Eaghupate Rama 
(Sahana). It is in this incarnation that God exemplified the 
highest that man could reach and thereby the Purashottama 
gained for himself the title of the ' foremost man ' — Narottama 
(in Bamnyana) or Naravara * as he is referred to in more than 
one piece (in Evarani etc.). Rama was ' Naravara ' because he 
was the embodiment of the best and most praiseworthy conduct 
— Sucharitra, Subhacharitra and Stutyacharitra, of incom- 
parable qualities and conduct (Nirupamagunaslla, in Narada- 

In a piece in Vijayavasanta, Nl chittamu, Tyagaraja says 
that whatever God he sees, he finds in them only his Rama. 

Paradaivamula juchunantane bhavamandu 
nlvai baregedavayya. 

In a more telling manner, Tyagaraja says in Raghuvara 
na?mu (Pantuvarali) that to him, the Lord's bride, while 
other Gods are like other optional jewels, Rama is the very 
Mangalya sutra. 

Para daivamulu bagu sommulu 
Suranuta mangala sutramu launa. 

Like Rama's Name, His auspicious story too is endowed 
with the power to save — Tarakacharitra and Taraka-subhakara- 
charitra — (in Mar Zg/^cfo-Sankarabharana, Enduku daya- Todi, 
Pahi Pahi~~ Saurashtra). 

It is the infinite excellences, Ananta kalynna gunas, of 
Sri Rama's personality that explain the great fascination for 
this form 2 . In JanakajaSameta in Asaveri and in Muripemu 
in Mukhari, he calls Rama, the chest of gems of auspicious 
qualities — bhavya-guna-mani-kosa and suguna-mani-kosa* 
There are, in Tyagaraja's songs, nearly fifty epithets or addresses 

1. Cf . ' Naravarain ' 111 Dikshitar*s Ramachandram bhSvaySmi. 

2. See my article Rama guna manasa or the Infinite Excellences of 
Sri Ramachandra, in Vedanta KesarU Oct, 1937. 

kAMA, As th£ ht)man personality at its best 13? 

referring to Rama as the repository of all good qualities, of 
wonderful qualities, of auspicious qualities, of countless qualities, 
of beautiful qualities. 

It is to redeem the fallen man that Rama incarnated as a 
perfect man — Naravara ; it is to teach depraved man the high 
ideals that He embodied in Himself all the infinite virtues. The 
antithesis of Rama is really the degraded human personality, 
the evils that beset men ; hence does Tyagaraja address Rama as 
Ragadi-samhara, Raga-mada-dura, Mada-manava-gana-bhlma, 
Kamadi-ripu-vidara, Kamadi-shadguna-hara, Tamasajana- 
hridayadura, Tamasa-rajasa-manasa-dura ; in fact the demons 
he destroyed may be said to be nothing more than the personifi- 
cations of the opposites of the qualities, the gunas, which he 
represented : Avagunasuragana-madaharana (Jagadananda). 
The infinite excellences, the Dharma and the Satya that Rama 
stood for constitute the culture of personality; it is the 
uncultured who are the demons; it is those barren of these 
virtues that constitute the primitive, the crude and the vulgar ; 
and far away from these is Rama in whom human personality 
reached its heights : Pamarasurabhlma {Gaurikalyctnamu) and 
Pamara(jana)dura in more than one song. 

In his Kori vachchina in Bilahari, Tyagaraja says that it 
is the infinite excellences and the great acts of Rama that had 
made him his choice Daiva. There are hundreds of epithets 
and vocatives laden with Rama's gunas, with which Tyagaraja 
describes and addresses Rama in his songs ; in all these, the 
personal qualities of Rama are extolled, but it is not possible to 
quote them all here. We can mention here only such 
important qualities of Rama as are specially described by 
Tyagaraja in the songs; of these also, not all descriptions 
bearing out Rama's divinity in general, but such qualities only 
as are known to be specially associated with the life, nature and 
actions of Rama. 


Foremost among the qualities comes RUpa, the personal 
charm of Rama's appearance. Valmlki himself gave us the 
etymology of the name Rama as c the delighter of men * when 
he said tfift W^ctf W: I Kalidasa made the explanation plain 
when he said that Vasishtha named the child 'Rama', being 
prompted to do so by his beautiful form. 

Raghuvamsa X. 67. 

" He captivates the minds and hearts of men by 
his beauty and magnanimity and is most pleasing 
to look at." 

Ramayana II. 3.29. 

" He on whom Rama's eye did not fall and whose 
eye did not fall on Rama is a cursed man, his own 
soul loathes him." 

m w * <*$5 4 ^ *rct «r <T?r% 1 

iWd. II. 17.14-15. 

When Tyagaraja tells Rama, ' You are my Ishta Daiva ', it 
is the surpassing beauty of this Syamasundara that made him 
prefer this form. 

Syama sundaranga 
sakala saktiyu nlvera 
# # * * 

Ishta Daivamu nlvera 
He adds, 

"Even Brahma, Indra and other Gods cannot 
describe the beauty of your benign look, your 
charming face, surpassing the moon in splendour. 

iris beaut y 139 

' Intanuchu varnimpa tarama 
kantunikanna ma chakkani 
Kalyana Ramachandra 
Nl sogasu intanuchu 
varnimpa tarama 


The song Muddu momu in Suryakanta, speaks of his 
captivating beauty which bewitches the sages of the forest, 
when he appears before them. 

Muddumomu elagu chelangeno— 



"How did that face shine at that time," asks Tyagaraja 
and he himself gives the reply in the suggestive name of the 
Raga here, Suryakanta. His reaching the forest was to 
manifest His prowess, which would blaze forth for the destruc- 
tion of the Rakshasas, which He promised to the sages as 
soon as He saw them. Hence His face shone forth with 
Tejas like the sun and was yet, as it always was, captivating 
like the moon, Kanta, a rare combination indeed ! The all- 
comprehensive beauty of Rama confounds the devotee, as he is 
not able to concentrate, so to say, on any one aspect, for 
everything is equally fascinating. 

"Every portion of your body, Rama, is 
captivating. Which portion shall I embrace? 
Your speech alone is speech, your lilt, alone is lilt, 
and your brilliance alone is brilliance. 

Endu kaugalintura nin — 

nentani varnintura 

Nidu paluke palukura 
Nldu kuluke kulukura 
Nidu taluke talukura 


±46 Lavanya-raMA 

All his near relatives and associates, who enjoyed the 
beauty of Rama in different ways, 

Kausalya, who kissed him on his shining cheeks, 

Dasaratha who called him endearingly — ^cptfcf ^WJ 3T°if 
«W5 as Valmiki says, — 

Lakshmana who served, Visvamitra who led, 
Ahalya, Siva's bow, Janaka, — 

and JanakI who held him by the hand in ecstacy — for the 
fortune of these in getting such enjoyment, Tyagaraja yearns 
in his Yadukula Kambhoji song ' Sri Rama Raghu Rama 
Sringara Ramayani chintinche rade manasa.' 

He envies Visvamitra specially, who had the fortune 
to enjoy the beauty of Rama's face, when its curly forelocks 
waved as Rama shot his arrows at Marlcha or broke Siva's bow. 
" 0, What raputurous delight did that sage have !" 


a Ranmuni yetu pongeno. 

Probably when Tyagaraja chose the Raga Madhyamavati 
for this piece, he thought of the middle state of freedom from 
love and hate, madhyamavastha, in which sages lived and he 
meant that even for such people as are above attachment, 
the charm of Rama was overpowering. Has not the 
Bhagavata said : 

We may see a more probable suggestion of the appropriate- 
ness of the Raga-name in the Raga Rudrapriya, f dear to Siva ', 
of the song Lavanya, for Rama and his beauty were dear to 
Siva who imparted Rama mantra to everybody. 

" Charming Rama ! Bless me with your benign 
looks ! Your mind, your charm, your ways are 
all unique." 


Lavanya Rama, kanulara judave 
ati lavanya Rama 

Ni manasu, ni sogasu, ni dinusu vere 
Tyagaraja nuta divya lavanya Rama. 

"Is it possible to see the beauty of your face 
shining with glittering cheeks, your red lip, your 
smile, your forelock and the brilliance of your 
eyes ?" 

Compare Tyagaraja's expression c Ji?'-llvanya Rama 
with Valmiki's 'flcite foroihflC. 

Sogasu juda tarama ni 

niganiga manuchu kapola yugamuche 


vara bimba sama adharamu 

chiru nagavulu mungurulu 

mari kannula teta 

Vara Tyagaraja vandanlya 

ituvanti sogasu juda tarama. 


The song Mohana Rama on the captivating beauty of this 
incarnation, to see which the denizens of the entire heavenly 
regions rushed to mortal world in the several guises of birds, 
beasts, monkeys etc., is appropriately in Mohana Raga. 

In Devagandhari, he asks his own mind not to forget Rama 
of bewitching beauty, His dignified bearing, His soft words, His 
brilliant eyes, His graceful movements. 

Maravakara nava Manmatha rupuni 
Nito, mellani mato, kannula 
teto t .,, # kuluko, * , * 
paluko, chekkula taluko, and so on. 

The captivating beauty of all these various aspects of 
Rama are again sung in the truly majestic song Meru s am ana, 
where Tyagaraja describes all these and asks Rama to come to 
him, so that he might feast his eyes with that beauty. 


Meru samana dhira Varada Raghu— 

vira jutamurara - maha (meru) — 

Sarasara oyyarapu nadalanu, 

nirada kantini nl thlvini 

alakala muddunu, tilakapu tirunu 

taluku jekkulache danaru nemmomunu 
' Come, let me see all that : ' Jutamu rare '. 
Just as Hanuman showed off to Sita his great acquaintance 
with the intimate details of the personal features of Rama, the 
Rekhas and Samudrika lakshana$, so also Tyagaraja delights 
in describing Rama's Samudrika lakshanas in the Dhanyasi 
piece, Sri Rama dasa daso'ham. This description of the 
personal charms of Rama to Sita by Hanuman in the Sundara- 
kanda is cited by Tyagaraja to show what a joy one is 
transported into, like Sita herself, on even hearing the descrip- 
tion of Rama's beauty; far sweeter indeed the pleasure if one 
should be seeing that beauty daily. 

Kanakana ruchira kanaka vasana ninnu 

dina dinamunu manasuna chanuvuna ninnu 

Pavamana sutudu nidu mahima delpa 
Sita delisi valachi sokka leda yarlti 
ninnu kanakana ruchira. 

In Lekana (AsSveri), he refers to the several aspects of 
Rama's attractiveness, as a result of which everybody was hover- 
ing round him, one to enjoy his beauty as his wife, (Sita), one to 
carry out the commands of his eyes (Lakshmana) and so on. 

Lekana ninnu juttukonnaru ? 

eka hridayulai nityanandamu. 

Otherwise, how could they, with single-minded 
devotion and constant delight, crowd round you 
like that ? 

Look at me. I cannot move out of you and see 
another. You have cast a spell, mantra, as it 
were, and bound me, 


Kattu jesinavu Ramabandu 
kattu jesinavu 


No wonder, Tyagaraja calls Rama in many a piece 
' Sringara Rama ', ' Sringara jaladhe ' and ' Sringara Sekhara ', 
and piles epithets and addresses on the charm and appeal of 
every limb of Rama and says that His form is such that it 
gratifies everyone of the senses : Indriyamulakahladakaru 
michchu rupamu (Nammakane). 

Next to Rama's personal beauty, comes the charm of his 
speech. To speak softly and sweetly, always and to* everybody, 
is a rare virtue and those who have to serve or to wait on 
somebody who is superior know this very well. Next to a 
confidence-inspiring form, are soft pleasing words. Valmiki says 
again and again of Rama, that he spoke first when he met 
another, (and did not stand stuck up in his own importance), 
spoke endearingly and always prefaced his words with His 

fasrpteratf , qjfatt 8l*W: f faratf * *w%, 

( Valmiki). 

One may speak harsh things to Him, He would not reply. 
3*POTfcft <ftf Stat sfiiw% t 

Ramayana II, 

These qualities of Rama's speech Tyagaraja mentions 
frequently: Mridubhasha in Jaya Jaya Sri Raghurama (Gauri); 
Mellani matalu in Intanuchu ; Mellani mato in Maravakarn ; 
Mridu subhasha in the Arabhi Pancharatna and in Rama ni 
sarmnam evaru. 

" How wonderful is your power of winning people 
by sweet words, suited exactly to the person 
addressed 1" 

Emani mataditivo Rama, (Todi). 


The sweetness of Rama's words makes Tyagaraja exclaim 
about it in ecstatic terms. "See, the sweetness of Rama's speech 
surpasses that of sugarcandy." 

Paluku kanda chakkeranu gerune 
panatulara judare 

and in yet another song, he addresses Rama as one whose 
speech is sweet like nectar : 

Sudha madhurya bhashana 

( Sindhuramakriya) . 

and in still another (Jagadatianda — Nata) : Sudhamaya- 
vachobrinda and Madhuralapa in Bhavasannuta. The high 
value attached to the soft pleasing word is borne out by more 
references to this quality : Subhashana in Nalinalochana 
(Madhyamavati); Mridubhashana in Paripalaya Dmarathe 
(Sankarabharana) and Varalila (Sankarabharana); Mridutara- 
bhasha in Jo Jo Rama (Ritigaula); Varamridubhasha in three 
pieces {Muripemu, Ni day ache, Tam daso'ham) and 
Sanmridubhashana * (Sri Raghuvara Karunakara). Another 
aspect of the attractiveness of Rama's speech is referred to 
when Tyagaraja describes Him as Lalitabhasha (Kshirasugara- 
vihara) and Salalitavachana (Dinajanavana). Negatively 
also Tyagaraja describes Rama as not countenancing people 
who indulge in traducing others (Para - dushana-janagana- 
bhlshana in Narayana Hart). When he performs Harati to 
Rama, the first attribute of Rama, the Master, which Tyagaraja 
mentions is ' Atimridutara-sattva-bhashana \ Rama's speech 
was not only sweet but appropriate to the occasion : Yukta- 
vachana (Mamava satat am -Jaganmohini). 

In some songs, Tyagaraja yearns to listen to Rama's words 
and to enjoy conversation with him. 

Ci Valmxki II, l While describing Rama's gimas : 'q $fa:' 


Palukavemi na Daivama parulu navvunadi 


aluga karanamemira Rama nl 

vadinchinatu yldina nSto 


The smile that prefaced his words and sweetened his 
expression — f^^Hi?*n<sft — is referred to in the Saveri piece 
Sri Rama Rumasritulamu — chiru navvuvadanu ni. 

When I draw attention first to Rama's qualities, as 
described by Valmiki, I request readers to bear in mind the fact 
that Tyagaraja himself speaks of such descriptions by Valmiki, 
for instance, in Natha Brovave in Bhairavi, he asks : 

" Have the words of Valmiki, who had described 
you as one of an easy and accessible disposition, 
proved false ?" 

Salalitudani munu palikina Valmlkula 
vakkulu kallalayena ?" 

This quality of easy accessibility of Rama, Saulahhya, is 
to be seen in many a passage in the Rumayana. As he returns 
from an engagement, he alights and enquires after the domestic 
welfare of every citizen as if he were his own kith and kin. 

qfaF^r5R#*c4 $tt# <ri^S*9% \ II. 2. 38. 

It is also illustrated by his behaviour towards Guha, Sabarl 
and the monkeys ; when, after the fall of Ravana, Sits was 
being brought by Vibhishana in a palanquin, to Rama, and 
Vibhlshana had the monkeys lathi-charged for rushing to see 
the lady for whom they had waged that war, Rama flared up, 
criticised Vibhishana for treating the monkeys like that and 
asked Sita to get down and walk. He called the monkeys 
< hi s own '— sratsqf ^srct *TO \ 

Such saulabhya came natural to Rama, as he treated 
everybody equally ; this again is a quality of Rama specifically 


mentioned by Vslmlki— sn$ : dfe*rifa and Tyagaraja echoes it 
in TJndedi when he says Sarva-samudu. 

Next to his matchless appearance, lovable speech and easy 
behaviour, come the qualities for which He took incarnation. 
It is for the re-establishment of Dharma whenever it gives way 
before the forces of Adharma that the Lord incarnates. It was 
above all to exemplify Dharma that Rama appeared ; and of all 
the characterisations of Rama by Valmiki, " Dharmatma >7 is 
the basic and the most important. 

*ffiW, IHft stfgclf Wn ^OTlfgft# *T#: (ii 2. 29.), 

*n? wfeflRT facT:, ^ %JHWC stf: I etc. 

In his song ( TJndedi in Harikambhoji) in which he says 
that there is one, Sri Rama, thanks to whom we need not go to 
ruin, Tyagaraja characterises Rama as 'Dharmatma '. This 
chief epithet of Rama occurs in other songs too. 

The same is emphasised negatively by Tyagaraja's 
description in several places, of Rama as opposed to and as the 
destroyer of evil forces : 

Dalita-durmataava, durjana-dura, dushtaj ana-dura, krura- 
jana-vidura, kumanojanaganabhlma etc. 

Close upon Dharma comes Rama's Satya. Rama was a 
Satya-sandha : stjtW SS^F^. 

In Paripalaycu mam (Darbar), Tyagaraja uses the same 
expression of Valmiki — Satyasandha (Charana 2) and adds that 
Rama protected those that were truthful — Satyajanavana, In 
Endaro (Ch. 8) appears again, along with other qualities, 1 the 

1. Of the other qualities mentioned here may be noted RSma's capacity 
for being unruffled in the face of extreme provocation. ' Santamanasa ', 
There could be no greater event than the coronation-crisis and Valmiki 
describes the composure which reigned supreme on Rama's face in memorable 
verses : 

* *m «HRfl ttf <a*w«|sTO|ft 1 

3JWRIW ^RRW^ewft^ m (I 


' Vachana-satya ' of Rama. Rama did not speak twice; once he 
spoke and he carried it out and did not go back upon his word: 
W$ f|^f^T*%f which Tyagaraja translates in Eti yochanalu 

' Rendu mStatede vadu gSdani 

* * * * chandamounulu ada \ 

It is for the protection of the Satya of his father that he 
went to the forest* 

" Such a one is the God who has earned undying 
fame for all time, for never failing the word 

Adina matalu dappadanuchunu 
a chandrarkamu girti galigina 
vadera Daivamu manasa. 

Rama's authority had Satya for its basis ; how can anybody 
transgress it ? 

Satyamaina yajna mlra 
samarthyamu galada, Nityarupa 


Ekapatnivrata was another chief Dharma that Rama came 
to establish. When Bharata, not finding Rama, asked his 
mother Kaikeyi why Rama had been banished to the forest and 
whether he had violated the person of any lady, Kaikeyi tells 
Bharata, ''Others' wives, Rama does not even see with his eyes." 

Ramuyana II. 72.49. 

In Natha brovave Tyagaraja says that he cannot forget 
Rama for this reason : 

" When women, charmed by your radiant face 
approached you, you treated them as your 
daughters, Matchless One \" 

I 4^ Ekapatnivrata 

Kalakalamanu mukha 
kalakani purabhSmalu 
valachaga tana sutalavale 
juchu Raghunatha brovave. 

' ParanSrlsodara '— ' One who treats other's women as his 
sister ' and ' Parabhamini-dura ' ' one who keeps himself away 
from others ' women ', are addresses to Rama in the Arabhi 
Pancharatna and the SahSna piece Raghupate Rama. 

The matchless prowess, chastity and truth of words— One 
arrow, one woman and one word,— these three, the essence of 
Rama's personality, are given to us in the song, Oka. msta : 

' Oka mata yoka banamu, oka patnlvratude manasa - 
Oka chittamu galavade, oka nsdunu maravakave '. 

(Hari Kambhoji). 
It is for these that not only Tyagaraja but none amongst 
us could ever forget Sri Rama. Not for Tyagaraja alone, 
but for this whole country is Rama the prop of its life 
'Na Jlvadhara'. 



"Vaga vagagu bhujiyinchu vuriki yaurlti 
Saguna-dhyanamu — " 

The sentiment of devotion takes manifold forms, and the 
main emotion of Bhakti is also made up of a variety of accessory 
feelings, which appear as billows on the sea and go to strengthen 
the main emotion. We shall deal in another chapter with the 
various Bhavas through which Tyagaraja's Bhakti Rasa 
expresses itself, analysed according to the Alankarikas of the 
Bhakti School. We shall presently speak of the major forms or 
Prakaras of Bhakti according to the Acharyas of the Bhakti 
School. The well known classification of Bhakti in these major 
forms occurs in the Bhugavata: Hiranyakasipu comes to 
Prahlada at school and asks him to tell him the best thing that 
he had learnt during those days. Prahlada says : 

' That I consider the best lesson, worthy to be 
learnt, if man could practise devotion to the Lord, 
characterised by nine forms: listening to the 
Lord's song and glory, singing of the Lord, 
contemplation of the Lord, worshipping His feet 
especially, saluting Him, serving Him like a 
servant, moving with him as a friend, and 
offering oneself to Him \ 

WT $cft fjwfc S^of qR$*RH« 
Bfj* eRFT Sfltf SWnwftftFBl II 

Narada, in his Bhakti Siltras, says that though Bhakti is 
a single emotion, it takes eleven forms. They are of the form 
of attachment to the several aspects of the Lord, as well as 
attachment to Him in different capacities or roles ; (a) Attach- 
ment to the Lord's qualities or Gunas and to His Form or BUpa 
(two) ; (b) Attachment to three acts of devotion towards the 


Lord, viz., worship or P&jn, constant memory or contemplation, 
Le., smarana and surrendering oneself to Him, atmanivedana, 
(three); (c) Attachment in four roles, as servant, dasya ; as 
friend, sakhya; as child, vatsalya; and as beloved, kmtasakti, 
(four) (d) lastly, two stages of Divine Love in its climax, viz., 
seeing everything as the Lord or being completely absorbed in 
and becoming one with Him, Tanmayusakti ; and inability to 
bear His separation, Aviraha (two, making a total of eleven). 

Of these eleven forms of Narada, his pupil Prahlada, 
mentions in the Bhagavata, as we say above, JPQju or Archana, 
Sakhya, Smarana, Dasya and Atmanivedana; Prahlada's 
Sravana and Kirtana — the listening to and singing of the 
Lord's exploits and personality comprehend Narada's first two 
forms, of loving Lord's Guna and R&pa. The Lord's infinite 
excellences and the incomparable attraction of His Form, we 
have already dealt with. Taking the Nnrada Bhakti S&tras 
and the Bhagavata together, we have thus on the whole, 
Sravana, Kirtana, Smarana, Padasevana, Archana, Van- 
dana, Dusya. Sakhya, Atmanivedana, Vntsalya and Kantu- 
saktL Of Narada's Tanmayatva and Aviraha, we shall speak 
in the end. 

The roots of some of these forms of devotion can be seen 
in the several devotional attitudes and similes employed by the 
earlier poets, beginning from the Vedic Rishis *. We may remind 
ourselves here of one of the closing verses of Arjuna's hymn 
to the Lord on his seeing the Lord's Visvar&pa, in the 
Bhagavadgitfi, when Arjuna asks the Lord to excuse his own 
shortcomings, even as a father would those of his son, a friend 
of another friend and a lover of his beloved. 

/ fa*te JJsRSf ^ WSjp 

U See my article 'The Vedas and Bhakti', in the Vedanta KesarL Pec. 1955 . 

Sravana x$x 

Here we have Vntsalya, Sakhya and Knniu forms of 
Bhakti and of these, Arjuna himself is the exemplar of Sakhya 
or love in the role of a friend. 

i. While different persons may specialise in anyone of 
these different forms, it is also possible that the same devotee 
experiences or passes through all the states characterised by 
these terms. In his long and rich enjoyment of Rama Bhakti, 
Tyagaraja exemplified all these forms. Sravana, the listening 
to the glory of the Lord, comes first ; it is the starting point. 
Of the AchSryas of Bhakti, Garga accords it such foremost place 
as to define Bhakti itself as love for the Lord's story — 3>«rrf^qfcT 
*ri|: \ It is by hearing about the Lord, again and again, that 
we can slowly convert ourselves and take ourselves away from 
all mundane pre-occupations. If one develops a taste for it, 
gradually his ears educate themselves against tuning themselves 
to anything else. 

' The drinking of the ambrosial Rasa of Rama's 
story would confer on one a veritable kingdom. 
It would give one Dharma and all other fruits ; 
it would give one firmness of mind, spiritual bliss, 
material happiness and destroy all the shackles 
of Karma and the many ills of Kali/ 
sings Tyagaraja. 

RSma kath2 sudha rasa plnamu oka 
rajj^amu jesune 

dharmadyakhila phaladame, manasa 
dhairySnanda saukhya niketaname 
karmabandhajvalanabdhi nSvame 
kaliharame TySgaraljavinutudagu. 

In Sudhn mndhurya bhmhana in Sindhuramakriya!, 
Tyagaraja says that his long hunger had been appeased by the 
ambrosial story of Rama, to listen to which he had avoided the 
wicked and resorted to the devotees of the Lord. 

Kathamritamuche bahukalamu yakali 

dlri yunnanu brovumu etc, 

152 Kirtana* Smarana 

2. The entire life and output of Tyagaraja exemplifies the 
second iormr—Ki rt ana. In El&vatara, he goes to the extent 
of saying that the Lord Himself incarnated to draw out 
Tyagaraja's Kirtana. In Intasaukhyamani (Kapi) and 
Intakannayunanda (Bilahari) Tyagaraja says that there can be 
no joy greater than that of singing of the Lord and dancing 
with the praise of the Lord on one's lips. We have spoken of 
this form of devotion, in the chapter on Nnma and Nama- 
ktrtana 9 and also to some extent in the chapter on 
Reformist Zeal. 

3. The third is Smarana, the constant memory of the Lord 
and meditating upon Him, Dhyana. The constant thought 
of the Lord has been emphasised by Tyagaraja in any number 
of songs. While dealing with his conception of Nama-japa f 
we saw how according to him, Nama-japa was futile if not 
lighted up all through by the glow of the thought of Rama. In 
his Nagasvaravali piece, he specially mentions Chintana or 
Smarana as his very life, 

Srlpate ni pada chintana jlvanamu. 

The thought of the Lord is the best thing - ' Rama 
chintane chalu ' (Bama Kodanda Rama — Bhairavi). 

Smarane sukhamu in Janaranjani says that happiness is 
in the constant memory of the Lord and His Name. In Mara- 
chuvudana, Tyagaraja speaks of it as an impossibility to 
forget Rama. 

Marachu vadana: Raima ninu Madanajanaka 
MaxakatSnga nl yokka madinenchavaladu. 

According to Narada, a poignant pang, even in a momentary 
gap in the Lord's constant thought, is the true criterion of 

4. Padasevana or the worship of the Lord's feet in. 
particular is a devotional mode exemplified by Bharata and 
the adoration of Rama's Paduka. The adoration of the Lord's 

Padasevana 153 

feet is a common form of worship in both Hinduism and 
Buddhism. Literary, historical and monumental evidences bear 
out the prevalence in ancient India of the wide-spread practice 
of worshipping the divine foot-prints at particular holy spots, 
Vishnu pada, Buddha pada, Siva pada and Rama pada. 
Rama's feet had two great exploits to their credit : the re-crea- 
tion of Ahalya from her accursed stone-state, and through their 
sandals, ruling over the kingdom of Ayodhya. Poets have spent 
their fancies over both these episodes and Tyagaraja has two 
songs to adore both these exploits of Rama's feet. Both are 
cast in Ragas of appropriate names, AmritavahinI, the feet that 
bring immortality and ambrosial bliss and, Ramapriya, Rama's 
beloved sandals : 

'O Blessed feet of Rama ! Suffices it if I could 
secure your grace. Come and take your home in 
my mind. Taking compassion on Ahalya, you 
redeemed her and restored her human form. 
Can I not crave to be blessed similarly ?* 

Sri Rama padama ni kripa jalune 

chittaniki rave 

darini silayai tapamu talaka 

varamu kannirunu ralchaga 

sura Ahalyanu juchi brochitivi 

ya riti danjmseyave Tyagarajageyama ! 

'0 Rama, pray clear my doubt. Are your holy 
feet, worshipped by Nanda, great, or your 
elegant sandals great? The great sages who 
worshipped your feet secured a status equal to 
yours, but Bharata who worshipped your sandals 
got yourself \ 

Sandehamunu dlrpumayya 
Saketanilaya Ramayya 
Nandarchita padayugamulu melo* 
nagarlkamagu padukayugambulu melo 

i$4 Pudasemnti 

vara maunulella charanambulanu 
smariyimpa nldu padamosangene 
BharatSrchanache pSdukalu 
dharani ninnosage Tyagargja bhagyamsu 

Note how Tyagaraja qualifies the sandals, as the elegant or 
refined sandals ; nagarlkamagu paduka. Naganka is the exact 
Sanskrit word for civilisation, the refinement of the city or 
nagara; Rama's sandals, Tyagaraja deftly suggests, were not 
destined to tread the jungle, they belonged to the city and to 
the city they naturally hastened back, as soon as possible* 
Also, the address here to Rama as Saketanilaya, ' stationed in 
Ayodhya', is significant, for, though absent in body, at the 
forest, Rama was personally residing and ruling in Ayodhya, 
through his sandals. 

In a third song, in Begada, Tyagaraja cites again the 
case of Ahalya, as also the third exploit of Rama's foot, the easy 
kicking off, with ease, the huge carcass of Dundubhi to relieve 
poor Sugrlva's anxiety about Rama's capacity to give fight to 
Vali; and on the strength of these, Tyagaraja says he has 
reposed implicit faith in the lotus feet of Rama. 

Nl padapankajamulane nera namminanu 
kopamuto munu tapasi yichchina 
sapamunanahalya anudinamu 
chSparati tanu tapa morvani 
yapenu gani paritapamu dlrchina Sankrandana 
tanayuni badha sahimpani Virochana 
sutu madi galigina bhaya megayaga 
ghanatama Dundubhi benutala dannina etc* 

In his Raghunuyaka in Hamsadhvani, Tyagaraja says 
that he could never give up Rama's lotus feet, 
" RaghunSyaka nl padayuga 
rajivamula ne vidajala*\ 

In Sri Mnninl manohara in Pumashadja, Tyagaraja 
affirms that his only long cherished desire, which needs no 

Archana 155 

reiteration, is to do Rama's padaseva, even as it was done by 
His brothers. 

Sii mSninl manohara 

chirakala maina mata yokatira 

vemaru balka jalara 

Srimantulau ni sodarulu 

jeyu rlti pada seva koritini 

Will my passionate longing be fulfilled until I stroke 
your lotus feet everyday ? 

Anudinamu nldu padabjamula 
nottuchunu tiruna naloni (saveri). 

In a Devagandhari piece, Tyagaraja says that the 
constant thought of the Lord's feet constitute his very life and 
breath — ni pada chintaname jivanamu. 

5. The fifth form of devotional propitiation of the Lord is 
to do His worship daily and incessantly — Archana. Parasarya, 
i.e., Vyasa, an authority on Bhakti defines Bhakti itself as the 
constant delight in the worship of the Lord. ({snf^KFT ff% 
TRT3r4: I In Induka i tanuvu quoted in an earlier chapter, 
Tyagaraja says that the supreme thing for which one has been 
endowed with hands is to do the Lord's worship. This form, 
Archana, is exemplified by two important factors of Tyagaraja's 
life and work, — ■ one is Tyagaraja' s daily pUja of the Rama 
idol, and the other, the collection of the songs, called Utsava 
sampradaya kirtanas, composed for the several items of the 
celebration of a Rama festival, including the songs that he sang 
for the several stages of his own pHJ3 and its sixteen kinds of 
Upacharas offered to the Lord. Of these songs, Hechchari- 
kagu rnra he Rumachandra in Yaduknlakambhoji expresses 
welcome, svngata, to the Lord, Rura Sitm amanl manohara 
in Hindola vasanta, and Chetulnra Bringwra in Kharahara- 
priya, deal with the alamkura or the dressing and decorating 
of the Lord. See what a delight Tyagaraja had in decorating 
the Lord! 


Chetulara sringaramu jesi chutunu Sri Rama. 

I shall decorate you with my own hands so 
beautifully as to elicit the admiration of even 
Brahma and other devotees and enjoy the sight 
myself. You shall have golden anklets for your 
feet, laced clothes, fragrant Parijata foi your tuft, a 
golden girdle, a charming tilaka on youi forehead, 
pendants for the forelocks and sweet sandal paste 
for your body. Having finished your make-up to 
my heart's content, I shall kiss you and hug you 
to my bosom. Sarasvati will come and fan you. 
In that exultation, I shall exclaim, 'Well done, 
well done' and so doing, I shall cut asunder all 
my bonds. 

With a Kedaragaula song, Tyagaraja performs the Archana 
of the Image, offering Tulasi, Bilva, Malli and other flowers to 
the several parts of the Lord's body, Angap&ja- 
Tulasi bilva mallikadi jalaja 
sumapujala gaikonave 

uramuna, mukhamuna, siramuna, bhujamuna 
karamuna, netramuna, charanayugambuna 
karunato nenaruto-paramanandamuto 
niratamunu Sri TySgaraju-nirupadhi— 
kudaiyarchinchu . 

' Aragimpa ' in Todi offers the Lord Naivedya, butter, milk, 
chitranna, cakes etc., and ' Vidamau seyave' in Kharaharapriya 
requests the Lord to accept Pmsupctri. Of the other upachmras 
of the Puja, Upach&ramulanu in Bhairavi, offers the following : 
Chatra, (umbrella), Chamara (chowries) and Vyanjana (fan made 
of flower). Luli Inli in Harikambhoji, offers the upach&ra of 
Andolika or swing and rocks the Lord. TJyynla in Nflambari, 
Lull ttgave in the same xaga and Rama Sri Rama in 
Sankarabharna offer the same swing and express Tyagaraja's 
great delight in waiting upon Rama as He rests on the swing. 
Note the appropriate Raga here, Sankarabharna, which means 

Vandana 157 

the ornament of Siva, i.e., serpent ; it is the serpent that the 
Lord rests on. Next, Tyagaraja performs Harati to the Lord 
in the auspicious Raga of Surati, Patiki Harati re. In P&la 
panpu mlda in Ahiri, he offers a bed of jasmine flowers, milk, 
pan and sandal paste and in the appropriate Nilambari again, 
Sri Rama Rama Rama, sings Rama to sleep. Bowli then 
heralds the break of dawn and Tyagaraja prays to Rama to 
wake up and protect the world. 

Melukovayya mammeluko Rama 

Another piece in Saurashtra is also sung asking the Lord 
to wake up, Meluko daymidhi, and teach the guardians of 
the quarters how to rule. 

Rajarajadi digrajulella 
vachchinaru Raja niti teliya Meluko. 

Koluvamare in Todi and Lali Lalayya in Kedaragaula 
are two more songs offering PUja with all the upacharas. 

6. The sixth form, Vandana or pajdng obeisance to the 
Lord, is illustrated by Vandanamu in Sahana, and Dandamu 
pettedanu ra in Balahamsa. 

7. Lakshmana, in whose form also the Lord incarnated, 
exemplified the ideal of service as servant, Kainkarya or 
Da$ya. The word Lakshmana etymologically means 'one 
endowed with Lakshmi' and the Lakshmi with which Lakshmana 
was endowed is Kainkarya Lakshmi, the wealth or beauty of 
service. Tyagaraja, while describing Rama, mentions Lakshmana 
also often as attending upon him as the most accomplished 
servant of Rama, who knows Rama's inner intention, Ingita, 
as it were, and who, at the mere glance of Rama, would carry 
out his idea. This is specially referred to in the kriti Lekaria. 

Saumitri ganula jadala sukbamu. 

For the sheer delight of enjoying the sign of the eye of 
Rama, Lakshmana would serve him. The mention of this 

158 Kainkarya 

capacity of Lakshmana to understand Rama's Inyita is based 
upon what Vaflmiki has said in the original Rumuyana. As 
soon as the brothers and Sits reached the forest, Lakshmana, 
of himself, built a hermitage, carefully planning all its details 
according to the needs and desires of Rama, on seeing which 
Rama was so pleased that he embraced him and called him 
Bhuvajna, i.e., own knows the Ingita. 

In other songs, depicting Rama resting privately, for 
instance, Vidamuseyave> Lakshmana is said to hold the jewelled 
spittoon for Rama. Hanuman is another Bhakta, exemplifying 
Dasya Bhakti and in both his songs wholly devoted to Hanuman, 
Tyagaraja portrays him as sitting at Rama's feet and doing 
Padaseva : Pahi Rama in Vasantavarali and Kalugum Pada 
Niraja in Purnalalita. Besides these, there are numerous 
references in many other songs to Hanuman as the servant of 
Sri Rama. 

Tyagaraja now and then yearns to join this company of 
Rama's servants, singing ' Tava daso'ham \ 

Tava daso'ham dhara nlvanti 

daivamu ledanti sarananu konti 

' I am your servant \ Finding that there is no 
God like you, I have taken refuge in you, Tyaga- 
raja approaches you for service* 

In his Bhairavi piece Upacharamu, he requests Rama not 
to reject his application for an attendant's place in his presence 
on the plea of 'no vacancy', as already he has too many 
around him, Sfta, the servant of Ekattta, privacy, the brothers 
to carry out his general orders, and the gatekeeper, Anjaneya. 

Upacharamu chesevSru 
unnSram maruvakurS 
vakitane badilamuga 
vatstmaju unngdani 
Srikarulagu m tammulu 

Kainkarya 159 

jeri yunnarani 
ekantamunanu JSnaki 
yerpadi unnSdani 
Sri Kanta parulelani 
Sri Tyagarajavinuta, 

Tyagaraja then imagines that he should state his 
qualification and state also whether he knew the insignia of 
Rama's service ; and replies, 

" Yes, I know. Pray vouchsafe that I may serve 
you as a true servant; I am free from lust, 
arrogance, or other defects. I shall put on the 
following insignia of your service: horripilated 
hair is my coat of mail ; my metal badge has the 
words " Rama Bhakta " and in my hands is the 
sword Ruma Nama." 

Bantunti kolu viyya vayya Rama 
tuntavintivani modalaina mada- 
dula gotti nela gula jeyu nija 
romancha manu ghana kanchukamu 
Ramabhaktudanu mudrabillayu 
Rama nama manu varakhadga mivi 
rSjillunayya Tyagarajunike 


At the end of his piece Koluvai unnude in Devagandhari, 
Tyagaraja says that for Rama sitting in court, he could, as his 
servant, spread the carpet for treading upon. He asks in 
another piece, (Chentanesada in Kuntalavarali), 

' Just keep me by your side, as you do HanumSn 
and Bharata. You need not tell me much or 
often. I shall understand whatever work you 
think of and cheerfully carry it out/ 

Chentane sad! yunchuko vayys, 
mantukekku srlmantudau Hanu— 
mantu rltiga SrfkSnta 

160 Sakhya, Itrna-Nivedana 

talachina panulanu ne delisi 
talato nadachi santasillidura 
palumaru balka paniledu Rama 
Bharatunivale Tyagarajanuta. 

No wonder Tyagaraja designates himself the ' head-peon ', 
the foremost of the Lord's servants, ' dasajana - agresara- 
Tyagaraja' {Varada 2Va?;a?^^^5a-Ragapanjara). Following 
the traditional way, emphasised particularly in Srivaishnavism, 
Tyagaraja loves to be servant of the servants of the Lord : 
Ramadasadasa - Tyagaraja (Brindavanalola - Todi). More 
expressly and in an emphatic Pallavi, he declares in a divya- 
nama in Dhanyasi — ' Sri Ramadasadaso'ham.' Addresses to 
Rama as 'Natha', 'Prabho' and the like are also expressions 
of this bhava of dasya. 

7. Sakhya : Besides references in many songs to friends 
of Rama like Sugriva and Vibhlshana and their devotion, there 
is a mention in Chelimini jalajaksha* Sami-M-sari and 
Rama Rama to Rama as Tyagaraja's friend, ' Tyagaraja- 
sakhudu ', and ' Tyagarajunimitra \ 

8. We now come to the important form called Jitmani- 
vedana, or surrender of one's self to the Lord as the Lord's own, 
' Tavasmi ' ' cTgi^JT ' as has been said in the Saranagati text 
in the Raniayana. In fact Rama is the incarnation par 
excellence the Supreme exemplar of protection of those that 
surrender unto the Lord, Saranagata-rakshaka, and Tyagaraja 
does not fail to make express mention of this special feature ; in 
Surameguni (Pantuvarali), he describes Rama as ' Saranagatas 
jana-paripalana-birudanka ', the Lord who has the special title 
of the protector of those who take refuge under him; Tyagaraja 
speaks of Rama in many pieces as the protector, friend and 
saviour of the Saranagata. This complete surrender to the Lord 
is the final teaching of the Gitu too. 

kinds of Saraimgati 161 

The Srivaishnava teachers of the South have developed 
this school of Prapatti to a great extent* That he had taken 
refuge in Rama, Tyagaraja says numberless times in his songs. 
A few pieces may be cited here, which specially bring out the 
significance of Saranagati. When the devotee surrenders, he is 
to surrender everything he possesses : %^I g^N* ?ftNr as it is 
said. Tyagaraja says in Kalaharana (Suddha Saveri): 

I have wandered day in day out and finding 
refuge nowhere, I have sought your feet and 
surrendered myself, my body and its possessions 
as your own, 

Dinadinamunu tirigi tirigi 

dikkuleka saranu jochchi 

tanuvu dhanamu nlde yanti 


That he had surrendered himself and all his good deeds to 
the Lord, Tyagaraja says in his Rama Pahi Meghasyama 
(charanas 2 and 9). In JS/annu vidachi and Ertatinomu 
phalamo, he declares that he and his body are the Lord's 
property : 

" Tanuvu ni sommu " and <c Nijamuga ne ni sommaltini " 

When the devotee declares himself as a complete 
Saranagata, he is to have no more anxiety for anything ; all his 
burdens have been laid on the Lord and it is for the Lord to 
come and help and save his refugee. " Why should I feel any 
concern ?" asks Tyagaraja of Rama. 

" Makelara vicharamu ". 

The anxiety is His, for has He not promised 

i. In the same song, in support of his bhara-nyasa or laying the burden 
on the Lord, Tyagaraja describes Rama as the Sutradhara, echoing the Gita and 
the Lord's other declaration therein that He indwells and moves beings, 
rotating them as on a yantra* 


162 Markata and Mnrjnra Nynyas 

" Lord ", says Tyagaraja, " I am yours and your 
will is my fortune. Why should I be meaning- 
lessly brooding, when I have, once for all, taken 
refuge in you ?" 

Ni chittamu na bhagyamayya 
yojinchi karyamuledanuchu 
noka pari sarananu kontinayya. 

One of the angas of Saranagati is the faith that the Lord 
would save — ^tf^ftft $%m: i This faith in Rama, Tyagaraja 
expresses at many places. e.g., charana 2 of Rama 
Rama, Arabhi — Ninne nera nammiti. 

With this Saranagati is intimately connected the doctrine 
of the Lord's grace, on which the Srivaishnavas developed two 
schools of thought : the Markata-nyaya, expounding the view 
that God helps those who help themselves ; and the Marjara** 
nyuya, holding the view ' Who is man to help himself ? It is 
for the Lord to come of His own accord and, seeing the devotee 
completely surrendered to Himself, and meek and helpless, 
save him'. According as his mood varied, Tyagaraja gave 
expression to both the views. Sometimes he set forth his 
qualifications and demanded his due from the Lord ; sometimes, 
he declared himself small, sinful, meek and helpless and appealed 
to the Lord for protection, as we shall see later, under the head 

In his Kiravani piece, Kaligi unte gada he mentions the 

' Your grace will come only if I have earned it 
through meritorious actions in the past and if I 
worship you as earnestly and devotedly as Narada, 
Prahlada, Parasara and Ramadasa \ 

The Kapi song Mivalla guna dosha inclines to this Kapu 
view, where Tyagaraja fixes responsibility on himself for his 


pathetic state and says that he has done nothing to deserve the 
Lord's grace, 

' Merits and blemishes are of my own making and 
not of yours, Rama ! If the gold is not of the 
required standard why blame the goldsmith ? If 
one's daughter cannot stand labour pain, why 
blame the son-in-law ? If one failed to do charity 
to deserving persons and worship God in previous 
births, why should one blame the gods for one's 
lot ? My trouble is my own making \ 

Ml valla guna dosha meml Sri Rama 
na valla ne gani Nalinadalanayana 
bangaru baguga padi vanne gagunte 
angalarchuchu bachchunadukonela 
tana tanaya prasava vedana korvalegunte 
anaya yallunipai yahankara badanela 
e janmamuna patra meiigi danamblka 
pujincha marachi velpula nadu konela 
na manasu na prema nannalaya jesina 
rajillu Sri Tyagaraja nuta charana. 

But he sings at other times in a different manner. 

'O Rama, Your grace must come of its own 
accord. Man's capacity to earn it by his own 
exertions is poor and ineffective ', 

in Nl daya ravale in Todi. Tanayuni brova in Bhairavi, 
poses the two views in a series of similes, but inclines to the 

" Which is it ? Does the mother go to the child 
or the child to the mother ? Does the cow go 
after the calf ? Do the paddy fields go up to the 
clouds for water ? Does the lover go after the 
beloved ? Lord ! come, solve my doubt and 
show me your beautiful face '\ 

164 Vntsalya 

Tanayuni brova janani vachchuno 
tallivadda haluclu bono 
Inakulottama 1 rahasyamunu 
yerigimpumu momunu ganupimpumu 
vatsamu venta dhenuvu chanuno 
varidamunu gani pairulu chanuno 
matsyakantiki vitudu vedaluno 
mahini Tyagaraja vinuta 
rammu delpumu. 

In fact in one piece, Aparudhamida in Vanavali, 
Tyagaraja inclines to this view so much that he apologises for 
even having made an attempt to appeal to the Lord with 
his songs. 

" Does not the Lord know ? Why should I be 
impatient ?" 

Aparadhamulanu norva samayamu 
kripa judumu ghanamainana 
chapala chittudai manaserugakane 
jali bettukoui moralanidu 
sakalalokula phalamula nerigi 
samrakshimchuchu nundaga 
nannokani brova teliya 
glrtana sataka 
monarchu Tyagai'ajanuta 
na aparadhamulanu norva, 

9. Vuisalya or love towards God who is conceived as a 
child or a little boy, is a form of Bhakti pertaining primarily 
to the Krishna-incarnation. In Tyagaraja's songs there are a 
few in which the love of Rama's parents, especially Dasaratha, 
figures. In the Lali songs of the Utsava-series, in which the 
Lord is to be put to the swing or cradle and rocked, we can see 
this Vatsayla-bhava as in Rama Rama Rama in Sahana. 
Here Tyagaraja conceives of his favourite deity as a little boy 
and enjoys a father's affection for him. Tyagaraja describes, 
with some fine fancies, Rama as a boy playing with His mates. 


From the play, he calls him forth to come to the cradle ; asks 
Him if He is hungry, if His discomfiture is due to His playmates 
finding Him unsuitable for the game and sending Him back. 
" Did they try to cover your eyes for the hide-and-seek game 
and find your eyes too big to cover ? Why are your eyes 
red ? Why this perspiration ?" 

The reverse form of this Vatsalya, i.e., God as Father and 
devotee as child, is found in Tyagaraja to a greater extent. 
Besides frequently addressing Rama as Father (e.g., Janaka, 
Tandri, Mayappa, Natandri, Nayanna) he devotes a special 
song making himself the son and a member of Rama's family. 

Sitamma mayamma 

Sri Ramudu ma tandri 

Vatatmaja Saumitri 

Vainateya ripumardana 

Dhata Bharatadulu sodaralu maku manasa ! 


In Nayeda vanchana in Nabhomani Tyagaraja compares 
himself to a boy harassed by others on the street and calls upon 
God that like parents, He should come to his rescue. 

In Rama Rama (Nagagandhari), Tyagaraja calls Rama 
his most precious kith and kin — Bandhuratna. 

In Rama ninuvinu (Sankarabharana) he calls Rama his 
mother, father and brother and in Rama nlpai (KedSra) he 
describes^Rama as mother, father, friend, wealth etc. 

The remaining three forms of Bhakti mentioned by Narada, 
love as from a beloved, Tanmayata, and poignant suffering on 
separation from the Lord, represent higher stages of the emotion 
of Bhakti and as such, we shall deal with them in the 
last chapter. 

Whether in one of these forms or in all these forms, one's 
devotion has to stabilise itself into a steadfast, uninterrupted 
emotion for the Lord, the Sthmji-Bhuva of Sthira-Bhakti* 

166 Sth&yi Bkavct 

Then the Lord possesses the devotee completely; it becomes 
impossible to shake Him off, whatever the counter forces ; and 
whatever the devotee does, sees or enjoys, becomes part of his 
love of the Lord. " I will not leave hold of you until and unless 
you protect me " — " Nanu brovakanu vidavanura Rama ". 

" Rama ! It is not possible for my mind to let 

go its hold on your holy feet Whatever 

tasks I might undertake, whatever rare sights 
I might see, all that I deem as You, and I feel 

Vidajaladura na manasu vinara 
tanuvepanulaku janina mari 
kanaranidi kanugonina 
ninuga bhavanchi santa silliti 
Sri Tyagaraja nuta. 

Repeatedly, he protests that he could not seek any other 
God or any other path. {E.g. Koniyadedu). 

" My mind does not rest upon any thing other 
than you.. wherever my eyes fall, there I see 
only you "— 

Ninuvina namadi yendu niluvade... 
Nenu echata juchinanu 
nivai unnadi. 


"Weal or woe, I have not given way to grief. 
Well-treated or ill-treated, I have held fast to 
your blessed feet ". 

Chala saukhyamo kashtamo nenu 
jali jenditina sarivarilo 
pala munchina nlda munchina 
padamule gati Tyagaraja nuta 

(Bhuvini dasuda?ie-— Sriranjani)* 

Sthira Bhakti 167 

The Lord becomes the prop of one's life, the strength 
of one's body, one's wealth, one's mind's joy, and one's satis- 
faction. The Lord becomes everything to the devotee,- 
Tyagaraja-sarvasva in Dinamanivamsa. Even one's enjoy- 
ments, one considers as God : My youth, my love, my beauty 
and its display, my dressing, - everything is the Lord. 

Na jlvadharamu 

na subhakaramu 

na menu balamu 

na chittanandamu 

nadu santhoshamu 

na muddu vesamu 

na manoharamu 

nSdu sringaramu 

nadu yauvanamu 

Pahi Kalyanarama 

Pavana guna Rama (Kapi). 

1 The light of our eyes, the fragrance of our nose 
is all Himself. Means and End, Sadhana and 
Sadhya, it is all Himself '. 

Na jivadhara 

na chupu prakasama 

na nasika parimalama 

na japa varna rupama 

Nadu puja sumama 

TySgarajanuta, Na jivadhara * (Bilahari), 

1. Cf. also Na prakasama ('Evarura'-Moliana), Na jivadhara (' Nerama" '- 
Saurashtra), Na bhagyama (Melukovayya— Bauli)- 




' Nava rasa yuta kritiche bhajiyinchu 

In the last chapter, I dwelt on the various forms of Bhakti 
as the teachers of Bhakti-marga had described them. These I 
called Bhakti-prakaras, the same thing in different forms, 
like the same sweet substance being once sugar, sugarcandy 
at another time and so on. The subject of study in the present 
chapter is another aspect of the varied expression of the senti- 
ment of devotion in the songs of Tyagaraja ; it will be from the 
point of view purely of their richness of feelings and moods, 
which imparts to them a lyrical appeal and briJLancc and add a 
third dimension to Tyagaraja's genius, that of poetry to his 
music and saintliness. In these songs depicting the rich variety 
of feelings and their subtle and varying shades, we also find 
Tyagaraja's musical forte of the Sangatis coming into full play, 
serving to underline and accentuate the variations of the moods. 
In the study of this aspect, which marks him off prominently 
from his two other fellow composers, we shall seek the legiti- 
mate guidance of the Alankarikas or the Sanskrit rhetoricians 
and aesthetic critics. 

Bharata, in his Natya S&stra, spoke only of eight Rasas, 
Sringnra, Vira> Karuna, Hnsya, Adbhuta, Raudrcu 
Bhayunaka and Bibhatsa. The Santa or the Masa of quietude 
had to undergo a good deal of struggle between the sixth 
and the tenth centuries, before it could be accepted by the 
majority of Alankarikas and the expression Nava-rasas could 
come into wide vogue. It is not as if that before its acceptance, 
poets did not revel in it or that literature of the highest order 
did not depict the Smita Rasa ; in this land of spirituality, the 
sentiment of Santa had a dominant place from the earliest 
times ; but what is meant is that it was only later that it was 
recognised and dealt with by theorists as a major sentiment 
capable of being shown as the leading motif of a literary 

bhakti Rasa **9 

production like a poem or drama. Similar is the story of the 
emotion of Bhakti. Despite its great vogue from the earliest 
times in this country's life, in literary compositions, the emotion 
of Bhakti as a feeling of adoration towards God, was long 
considered only as a minor feeling, a Bhava, a fit theme for 
Stotras but not capable of being developed into a full-swung 
Rasa as the sole theme of a whole poem or drama. In the 
tenth century, it was still struggling and Aefaarya Abhinava- 
gupta, a great devotee, philosopher, Tantrika and aesthete, 
mentions Bhakti, in his commentary on the Netty a Sastra, as 
an important accessory sentiment of the Santa Rasa which he 
strove with great effort to establish. But just as the much- 
denied Santa slowly attained to such state of primacy that it 
was considered the Rasa of Rasas, Bhakti also soon began to 
loom large and despite the lukewarmness of the general run of 
Alankarikas, had the service of some distinguished advocates. 
It is not necessary to go further into this history of Bhakti 
Rasa, but I may refer such of those as may be further 
interested to my book, The Number of Rasas *. 

It is the Bhagavata that gave the gieat impetus to the, 
study of Bhakti from an increasingly aesthetic point of view. 
Bopadeva, patronised by Hemadri, the minister of the Yadavas 
of Devagiri, was the pioneer in analysing the Bhagavata in a 
topical manner, and if Bhaktas cannot ignore the Bhagavata, 
they can as little afford to ignore Bopadeva 's analysis and 
concordance of the Bhagavata, called the Bhagavata Mukta- 
phala and Harilila. Bopadeva and his literary associates 
were the pioneers to study the emotion of Bhagavad-bhakti as 
a Rasa. It is from them that it went forth to the Bengali 
circle of SannySsin-devotees, among whom Sri Chaitanya 
Mahaprabhu appeared to set another part of the country aflame 
with God-Love. The Alankaric elaboration of B } iakti Rasa 
reached its maximum magnitude at the hands of the distin- 
guished follower of Chaitanya, Rupa Gosvamin, whose 
contribution to this subject' consist of the two works Bhakti- 
i. Published in the Adyar Library Series. "" 

170 Rasa doctrine 

rasamritasindhu and Ujjvalanilamani. We cannot omit 
to mention in this connection the work of Sri Madhusudana 
Sarasvati, the renowned Advaitic dialectician, who after scaling 
the heights of the Niraknra-Vada, establishing the Formless 
Absolute, quietly wrote at the end of that section in his 
Advaita Siddhi : 

This Advaitin-Bhakta has given a book on Bhagavad 
Bhakti dealt with as a Rasa, called the Bhagavad-bhafcti- 
rasayana. What the rhetoricians of the Chaitanya-school did 
for Krishna Bhakti, the Vaghela King, Visvanatha Simha did 
for Rama Bhakti, but his works are known only in manuscript. 
We shall take the help, therefore, of these leading Bhakta 
Alankarikas in analysing and evaluating the emotional richness 
of the outpourings of the Rama-filled heart of our poet- 

A Rasa is the developed relishable state of a permanent 
mood which is called Sthayi Bhava. This development towards 
a relishable state results by the interplay on it of attendant 
emotional conditions which are called Vibh&vas, Anubhavas 
and Vyabhichari or Sanchari Bhavas. Vibhuva means 
Karana or cause ; it is of two kinds: Alambana, the personal 
or human object and substratum, and Uddipana, the excitants. 
Anu-bhava, as the name signifies, means the ensuants or effects 
following the rise of the emotion. Vyabhichari or Sanchuri 
Bhavas are those crossing feelings which are ancillary to a 
permanent mood. A well-known illustration will make these 
concepts plain. If we take the case of Sring&ra Rasa, say 
between Dushyanta and Sakuntala, the Sth&yi Bhava, which i& 
a permanent and steadfast mood in the heart of the individuals* 
which does not go under, even on the rise of any number of 

Bhatas EXPLAINED *7± 

similar or dissimilar emotions, is Rati, the love which the hero 
and heroine have for each other. The human factors here form 
the Alambana Vibhavas ; Dushyanta is the Alambana of 
Sakuntala's Rati and vice versa. The Uddlpana Vibhava or 
the exciting causes in love are the beautiful background, 
stimulants of nature, like the moon, the breeze, the vernal 
season etc., as also the personal endowments, charms and 
blandishments of the lovers. The ensuant conditions of 
individuals in love, like their mutual side-long glances, the 
sighing, the exchange of sweet chat etc., form the Anubhavas. 
As it is by these consequential conditions that one has to 
portray a Rasa on the stage, Anubhuvas form the realm of 
Abhinaya ; appropriate vocal expression as speech or song is 
Vachika-abhinaya ; appropriate physical action, Angika- 
abhinaya; and lastly, Sattvika abhinaya, representation of 
Sattvika bhavas, which I shall explain presently. What are 
the Vyabhichari or SanchaH bhavas ? They are, as already 
stated, these feelings which rise as accessory feelings to heighten 
the permanent mood ; they have been given as thirty-three in 
number and are despondency, fatigue, suspicion, jealousy, 
intoxication, exhaustion, languor, dejection, anxiety, bashful- 
ness, exultation, pride, sadness, yearning, anger, fear, cogitation, 
and so on. 

^^^fT^r: eraqywm etc. 

How these feelings arise, say, in a state of love, needs no 
elaborate elucidation. Eight more emotional features are to be 
added, namely the Sattvika-bhavas ; these are separately 
mentioned, because they are prominent reactions in the 
condition of the body when it becomes overfilled with a 
particular emotion. They are stupefaction, tears, hair standing 
on end, perspiration, pallor, trembling, choked voice and loss of 
consciousness. These again need no elucidation. By the -inter- 
action of all these, the permanent mood of a Sthuyi Bh&va like 
Rati gets nourished into a delectable state of relish called the 
Sringara Rasa. 

ijr2 Bhakti as Rasa explained 

We may now easily apply these terms to our Bhakti Rasa. 
At the end of the last chapter we spoke about the steadfast 
devotion of Rama-bhakti in Tyagaraja. The Sthayi Bhava of 
Bhakti is the mental state of either Rati, love, for God, as 
distinguished from Rati for a mortal personality or, as Madhu- 
sudana Sarasvati explains in his Bhakti Rasayana, it is the 
mind attaining the Lord's Form, ^s^TOI?. This is a 
permanent state not disturbed by any condition. The object 
of this devotional emotion is the Lord Rama. He is therefore 
the Alambana Vibhava. Of this Lord, the Alambana, His 
infinite endowments of RUpa and Guna, which excite the 
devotee's love and adoration, come under Uddipa?ia-Vibhava. 
Of these also, we have spoken in the chapter on Ishta Bevaia. 
The other excitants are the company of Bhaktas, Sadhus and 
Bhagavatas, holy places like Kshetras and Tirthas, which we 
have dealt with in the chapters on Life and Sadhanct. Love 
feeds and grows on itself and what issue forth as outward 
manifestations or Anubhavas, themselves act as further 
stimulants, even as the side-long glance, the smile and a one- 
third profile of the beloved excite the lover's feeling further. 
Therefore, the Anubhavas or Lakshanas of Bhakti or Bhaktas, 
like listening to the Lord's story, Katha-sravana, Klrtana or 
singing His glory — these also would excite and intensify the 
devotion further and thus come both under Anu-bhava and 
Uddipana Vibhava. Some of the forms of Bhakti dealt with 
in the previous chapter like the act of worshipping Rama, 
worshipping His feet, serving Him, hearing of His glory, would 
all come under Anu-bhava too, as these are the spontaneous 
manifestations of acts resulting from Bhakti. Some of the 
Anu-bhnvas have also been dealt with under Sadhdna. The 
most manifest Anu-bhava of Tyagaraja in his state of Bhakti 
is in the realm of Vachika, namely his Klrtanas. 

The eight Sattvika bhavas referred to, such as becoming 
benumbed, perspiration, horripilation, tears etc., are manifesta. 
tions of an advanced state of emotion and will be illustrated 
in the last chapter. 

moods of Bhakti 173 

Now we shall tackle the Sanc/mri Bhavas, or the different 
moods of the devotee. When I say ' tackle ' I do so purposely; 
for it is somewhat of a task to sift and analyse the outpourings 
of the Saint under this head, and these are the most numerous 
among his songs. One mood shades off into another and in the 
same song, there is the play of more than one feeling. Leaving; 
the order of these Sanchari Bhuvas, as enumerated by Bharata, 
we shall proceed in our own sequence and illustrate some of the 
more important moods. Broadly classified, these moods fall 
into two classes, those of union or gain or success and those of 
separation or loss or frustration. 

Let us first take the initial condition of longing for the 
Lord, Autsukya as this has been named by Bharata. Here, 
of the songs of Tyagaraja expressing his longing in specific 
forms - to recite Rama's name, hear and sing of His glory, to 
adore His feet, to worship Him and serve Him, we have already 
spoken under ' Nmna-mahatmya ', ' Sravana \ ' Klrtana ', 
' Pada-seva \ ' Archana' and ' Dusya \ Now, to some other 
specific longings of Tyagaraja, as also some songs depicting 
longing in a general form. For anybody representing a thing 
to another or expecting somebody's favour, the first thing 
needed is to catch the eye of the listener. The devotees always 
long for and pray for the Kaiaksha of God. Look at this 
in Latangi: 

" Pray, cast your benevolent look at least once 
on me, your faithful servant who is ever free from 
all evil, A look just like the one which trans- 
ported Lakshmana to ecstasy as soon as it was 
conferred on him, with Sita's concurrence, while 
he was ardently doing Padaseva to you ". 

Kanta judumi okapari krekanta judurni 
bantudai velayu bagugani tappu 
tantalella^manukonna nannu 
alanadu Saumitri padaseva 
chelaregicheyuvela Sitato balki chuchinanta 

baragina yadu Tyagarajuni (Krekanta), 

174 Autsukya 

In the Kalavati piece, his yearning is for atleast a single 
glance of the Lord. 

Okapari judaga rada. 

Longing for the sight of the Lord, Darsana in general is 
expressed prominently in some other songs. In Baghava 
in Pantuvarali, he asks the Lord to swear that he would come 
to him, whenever needed. In another KalSvati song, he asks : 

" When shall I have the privilege of seeing your 
exquisitely beautiful moon-face ? Your intimate 
devotees, your brothers, Slta etc., would be 
calling you away ". 

Ennadu jutuno Inakulatilaka-nin 

punnama chanduru bolu mukhamunu. 

A passionate longing for Rama's darsana is expressed in 
R% Ta ma intidaka in Asaveri. 

" Pray, come to my house ; I cannot stand the 
separation any longer. Give me the darsana of 
your enchanting face." 

Ra ra ma intidaka-talalera-muddu 
garu nl momunu juchuchu 

That the Lord did come to Tyagaraja's house and that 
Tyagaraja did have darsan of the Lord are seen in the pieces 
Bhavanuta and Kanugontini. 

In a long Divyanama in Saurashtra, Vinayamu nanu, 
Tyagaraja expresses his longing to have the darsana of the 
limbs of Rama, from foot to head, giving, in an epitome of the 
epic, the exploits of each of these limbs. 

Rama Kodanda Rama in Bhairavi, yearns for a single 
glance of Rama and for a word from Him. Sarvabhauma in 
Riga Panjaram yearns to listen to Rama's charming words* 

Nirveda 175 

" King of Kings ! Can you not heartily talk a 
few words to me? The charming words you 
spoke before had not reached my ears and I have 
been uneasy with an unfulfilled desire. Am I to 
keep on living, hoping to have that privilege on 
some future occasion ! " 

Sarvabhauma Saketa Rama manasara 

balka rada, Devata 

muddu mudduga mataladi nadi 
munduraka sada veta jenduchunu 
kaddukaddanuchu chirakalamunu 
karagu chunda valena ? Tyagarajanuta 

" Why is it, Lord, you do not talk to me, 
though I have always danced to your tune ? Why 
are you angry with me?" 

Palukavemi na daivama, parulu 
navvunadi nyayama ? 
aluga karanamemi ra Rama ni 
vadinchinatuyadina nato 


Nirveda is a state of despondency which overtakes one 
when a longing is not fulfilled or takes time to be gratified. 
There are quite a good number of instances of Tyagaraja 
crying in despair, being not able to get his Rama. See here 
Tyagaraja losing faith even in Bhajana, for whenever he tried, 
he failed to find Him. 

Ni bhajana gana rasikulane 
nendu ganara Rama 

saguna nirguna nijamudabbaralanu 
shanmata mula marmamashtasiddhula 
vagalu jupa santasilla gantini 
varanana Tyagaraja vinuta 



Hear his broken-hearted wail — 
"To whom shall I unburden my agonv ? My 
constant Bhajana has not produced the desired 
result. The reverse has happened. Starting to 
make a Ganesa idol, I have finished by making a 
monkey ". 

Evarito ne delpudu Rama 

naloni jalini 

kavagoni sada bhajanaseya 

garvamulanni veraye 

Gananathu jeya goraga 

gadu vanarudai tiruga. 


In four songs : Toline jesina m Suddha Bangala, 
Tolinenu jesina in Kokiladhvani, Toli janmamu in Bilahari, 
and Prnrabdha mittundaga in Svaravali, he bemoans the 
absence of the Lord from him and attributes his failure to his 
own past Karma. He has broken down so much that he who 
elsewhere asked : " What are the planets and their strength ?" 
— 'Graha balamemi', — now says in 'Toli nenu' towards the end, 
that he has failed because of starting his Bhakti at an inaus- 
picious time. 

* Bhaktavesamu veyu vela varja kalamemo \ 

He then runs himself down, in a number of kritis, as an 
undeserving man; piles, one upon another, his manifold 
disqualifications, to explain why the Lord does not show his 
grace to him. These take the character of confession. 
Tyagaraja certainly did none of these evil acts ; such confessional 
verses are found in the hymns of the most distinguished saints 
and x\charyas. Their real purpose it to serve as confessions 
for us, the reciters, who revel in these sins. 

Hymnists like Parasara Bhatta and Ayyaval, in their 
hymns on the Lord's Grace x , tell us that the Lord's Grace 

1. See my Tamil translation (with introduction) of AyyavaTs DayasatakQ* 
Kamakott KosasthSna Series, 

Dainya 177 

comes mostly to such sinners. For, what is there in the spotless 
for the grace of the Lord to do ? The sins are said to be the 
feed of the gluttonous Grace of the Lord, which goes about to 
appease her hunger. Of songs in this class, a full Pancharatna 
song gives a catalogue of the sins, i.e., Dudukugala in Gaula, 
Etula brotuvo in ChakravSka, Ennallu tirigeti in MalavasrI, 
Nenendu vetukudura in Harikambhoji, Ninnana valasina in 
Kalyani, Noremi in Varali, and Qattignnu nanu in Begada, 
illustrate this mood well. As an example, I shall cite only 
one song : 

" Rama, I do not really know how you are 
going to save me. Alas! Mine is a despicable 
record, detestable for the ear. Like a bull astray, 
I have been roaming about anxious for my food. 
I have flattered born misers to earn only my 
sustenance, doing wicked deeds in the company 
of wicked men *\ 

Etula brotuvo teliya Ekanta Ramayya 

katakata na charitamu 

karna kathoramayya 

pattigottu rlti bhakshinchi tirigiti 

puttu lobhulanu pottakai pogaditi 

dushtalato gudi dushkrityamu salpi 

rattu jesina TySgarajuni dayato. 

This self-depreciation would, from the point of view of 
Prapatti, come under Knrpanya and Naichymusandh%na. 

Another run-down state is that of dejection and meekness, 
Dainya, another important SanchaH bhnm. Tyagaraja's 
plaintive pleadings to Rama run to about seventy songs, 
amongst which are to be found some of our oft-heard pieces. 
Some of these have a biographical interest, as they contain 
references to Tyagaraja's revilers, foes in friends' guise, harassing 
kinsmen and critics. It is hardly possible even to cite their 
Pallavis, not to mention their texts to any extent, Suffice it to 


178 Vitarka 

observe that to h&ve worked so many variations on the single 
mood speaks highly indeed of Tyagaraja as a poet Just one 
9ong, I shall quote to bear this out. 

A wonderful act of the Lord in His great love for His 
devotee, a unique act of God, Devakriyn, is remembered by 
Tyagaraja in Nati rrtata marachitivo in the appropriately 
named Raga, Devakriyn. Tyagaraja reminds the Lord of it 
and asks whether He has forgotten those words of His. 

" Why are you frequently worrying yourself ? 
All this prosperity of mine (i.e., of the Lord's) is 
yours, so you said, and have you forgotten those 
words ? Do you not remember when you said 
those words ? Your coronation was over ; dancing 
girls had come in and you were witnessing their 
exquisite dance. Suddenly your eye fell on me, 
in that gathering. I was at some corner, standing 
entranced by the 'larsanu of your blessed feet. 
At once, you asked Btiarata, who was waving the 
chowrie for you, to stop lest it should hide your 
view of me ! And then you told Bharata that 
you contemplated giving me some boons. All 
that, have you forgotten ?" 

Nati mata marachitivo O R2ma chinna 
mSti matiki napai mannana jeyuchu 
etiki yochana 1 bhSgyamu nldanu 
tarunula bagu nartanamula juchu vela 
charanamulanu gani ne karaguchu sevimpa 
Bharatuni kara chamaramunu nilpuchu 
kurunanu Tyagaraja varadudani palkina. 

Vitarka is the feeling of doubt and cogitation. In 
E Ramuni nammitivo in Vakulabharana, he asks himself 
whether he has worshipped the correct Rama. And in 
Palintiivo Pnlimpavo in Klntamani, Tyagaraja says that he 
has, of course, followed his Guru's teachings and worshipped 

Amarsha 179 

accordingly but ha was not sure if Rama will protect him or 
not. In the Kalyani song, Rnma nl vndu> he says that he does 
not know whether Rama would come or not or what the effect 
of his past worship of the Lord was going to be. 

On a different plane, he expresses his doubt in the two 
pieces, Edzri sancharinturu (KantSmani) and Dvaitamu 
sakhama (Rltigaula), whether he should follow the dualistic or 
the monistic paths. 

Amarsha or anger is another leading Smchari bhzva. 
Here again, as in Dainya, there are some seventy pieces, many 
of which are popularly sung. Here too is to be appreciated 
the play of Tyagaraja's fancy. From gentle ventilation of 
grievance and remonstrance, these go up to anger and abuse. 
Again and again Tyagaraja asks Rama, if Rama could protect 
and help a mere monkey (and that, one who forgot his promise), 
a Rakshasa, a hunter Guha, who could spread only leaves for 
bed, and a huntress Sabari, who could only give her Uchchishta, 
why could He not come to Tyagaraja's rescue, (Mart mart 
ninne, Mftnamu leda, Yochana, and Paruku Nikelara.) See 
some of his other accusations : 

" You have no love for the poor and the holy " 
{Nl dmnnndusada) ; 

"Is there none to question you?" (Enmllu 
Urake) ; 

"Who has bitten your ears? Your mind has 
changed " (Nikevari bodhana) ; 

" You are capable of saying one thing at one 
time and another at another time " (Atta 
balukudu) ; 

" What pleasure do you derive by speaking 
untruth to me ?" {Chate Kallalnda) ; 

"Have you no self-respect? Have you no 
attachment ?" (Mmamu led$)< 

180 Matt 

" When I approach you with familianty you get 

stuck up, like the king that you are " (Rmw 

Rnma Rmna) ; 

"Should you show enmity to me?" {Ruma- 

bhirama in Suveri). 

" Why do you stint in blessing with your grace, 

as if you have to purchase it and dole it out ?" 


In Tanamidane in Bhushavali, Tyagaraja accepts that he 
has to lose temper and abuse the Lord. 

Okavela kopaginchi ninu duru- 
chuntigani Rama Tyagarajanuta. 

In another song too (Palinbuvo — Kantamani), Tyagaraja 
accepts that he had found fault with the Lord but asks him not 
to attach any blame to him on that score. 

Finally, look at this in Rnma Rmna Rnma Situ in 
Huseni, where, after having said all this, Tyagaraja says ; 

" Having affectionately sung your praises, should 
I, in the end, have to say all these things ?" 

Matt is clarity of understanding born of proper learning 
and valuation of things and the reaching to correct solutions 
by deliberation. According to Abhinavaguptacharya, this is a 
very intimate accessory mood of Santa and, hence, of Bhakti 
Rasa too. The reflection of a clear cultured mind that has 
appreciated clearly the issues involved in this Bhakti Yoga is 
evident in the many songs that we considered under Sudhana- 
sarnpat, showing Nitymitya-vastu-viveka, Vairngya, Santa- 
daniadi, as also those that we considered in the chapter on the 
Saint's reformist zeal. Here we shall particularly note some 
of the songs in which Tyagaraja tells the Lord about his own 
equipment and qualifications, 

In Nive nannedajesite in Saurashtra, Tyagaraja says that 
he has fully understood that he had taken to the right path, 

iSmriii 181 

when he chose devotion to Rama and proposes to continue to 
court Satsanga and chant the Lord's Name. Rama ninu vinu 
in Sankarabharana says that Tyagaraja has understood well the 
truth that Rama and His Suttvic Bhakti were the only means 
of crossing the Samsara. In Anandarmnandamayenu in 
Bhairavi, he gives quite a long list of his own qualifications : 
firm installation of the Lord's feet in his heart, prayer, 
abandoning bad company, resignation to God, fear of sins, 
subjugation of passions and sex, faith in Rama Nama, conquest 
of worries, discrimination of the real worth, or rather, the 
worthlessness of material wealth, meditation and so on. 
Manavini vinumn in Jayanarayani is another statement of 
Tyagaraja's spiritual equipment. 

Allied to this is Dhriti or contentment and happiness born 
of realisation of the objects and the absence of sorrow, even 
when some are not realised. In Ninu vim in Navarasa- 
kannada, Tyagaraja expresses a mood of satisfaction — that his 
ears are full of Rama's stories, his lips feel blessed in uttering 
His Name, whatever he sees, he sees as Rama and even 
distasteful things become- relishable and verily he has secured 
his fruit in Rama. 

Similarly in Nairn pnlimpa in Mohana, he expresses his 
gratification at the Lord coming, walking all the way, to bless 
him. His gratification (in Dusarathi nl rinamn — Todi) at 
seeing his own songs on Rama popular in distant parts and his 
expression of gratitude to 1he Lord who thus spread his fame, is 
also an aspect of this Sanchuri bhuva of Dhriti. More of this 
we shall see in the next chapter, when we review the spiritual 
experience or Bhagavad-anubhava of Tyagaraja. 

Smriti: While Mati is just an intimate accessory of 
Bhakti, Smriti, the Sanch&ri bhava of memory or remembering 
is one of the forms or is of the very nature of the Bhakti- 
consciousness. This also we have illustrated under forms of 
Bhakti, Smarana* dealt with in the previous chapter* 

182 ' Visksda 

JBarsha or delight goes with Dhriti, which manifests itself 
as soon as the object longed for in Autsukya is gained- The 
minor feeling of delight in ancillary gains alone would constitute 
the accessory feeling or Sanchuri bh&va of harsha; for, the joy 
of attaining the main object itself would be of the form of the 
main Rasa. Thus, joy at meeting Sadhus and in doing the 
various acts of devotion such as Sravam, Kirtana, Padasevana, 
Archana—m fact, in all the Anubhuvas of Bhakti- would 
constitute this Harsha. Of these joys, we have already spoken. 
The joy on obtaining the vision of the Lord or on the coming 
of the Lord Himself is the Rasa of realisation itself, which we 
shall deal in the next chapter. 

Mada : Elation on obtaining the Lord or anything 
pertaining to Him is the only kind of elation possible in Bhakti. 
This closely follows Dhriti and Harsha, the satisfaction and 
joy on obtaining the Lord's grace, vision etc. It often expresses 
itself in the words " Blessed am I " and similar forms of self- 
congratulation. For instance, in Situmanohara in Rama- 
manohari, we find Tyagaraja saying : 

" I feel blessed to hear people say that I am 
your own. I have been supremely fortunate ". 

These are all Bhnvas intimately related to realisation ; 
we have to reserve fuller reviews of these to the final stage 
dealt with in the next chapter. 

Other Sanch&ri bhavas lik:e fatigue, suspicion, exhaustion, 
carewornness, sadness are found in many of the songs 
expressing Nirveda, Dainya and Amarsha. Sadness or 
Vislmda is an under-current in all these complaints, mild or 
wild, uttered by Tyagaraja in his suffering. " How long am I 
to bear this ? How long am I to suffer," are expressions of 
sorrow that frequently occur in these songs. We shall see just 
one piece as a sample of this suffering and sorrow, Pnhi Raim- 
ramana in VarSli, which also shows Tyagaraja's poetic gifts 
iox similes and analogies : 

Chapalota 183 

" How long am I to suffer and how long to bear 
it ? Can a gentle delicate jasmine flower stand 
the hit of a rough stone ? How can a cucumber 
fruit bear a tight iron belt ? Should a parrot be 
assailed by Brahmastra? If parents abandon, 
what is the son to do ? Can butter stand the 
blow of a sword?" 

Entani sairintune 

nemani vegintu Hare Rama 

cheti malle puvu gundrati korva bodu 

dosa pandu kettu Rama tochu ninupakattu 

ahaha ! chilukakuna brahmastramunaku taguna 

talli tandri brova kunte tanayuni kedova 

Deva-deva ! venna katti debba korchu 

konuna Hare Rama. 

Chapdlata is impatience in rushing to do a wrong thing, 
under the sway of emotion. This could be illustrated by 
Apnradhamulanu in Vanavali, quoted by me in the last 
chapter in which Tyagaraja asks Rama to pardon him for his 
impatience and importunity. 

Aparadhamulanu norva samayamu 

kripa judumu ghanamaina na 

chapala chittudai manaserugakane 

jali bettu koni moralanidu. 

In fact much of what Tyagaraja said in anger, remonstrance 
and grievance, which we considered under Amarsha is caused 
by the Sanch&ri bhnva of Chapdlata. 

In another series of songs, we find Tyagaraja taking some 
liberty with the Lord and giving a jocular turn to his expression 
of the praise of the Lord or his pleading with Him, or his 
venting his anger on Him. Some of these are like the well- 
known Nind&stuU ; for instance, this : Situ Nctyaka in 
RTtigaula : 

f ' Lord of Sits ! Have you got up the mountain 
(like Tirupati), unable to stand the worrying by 

184 Narma 

the Bhaktas ! Have you run away to the island 
of Srlrangam to sleep there and prevent devotees 
coming to you with appeals of distress ? Have 
you yourself started begging Bali Chakravarti, 
foreseeing that you were likely to be troubled by 
devotees begging of you ? Have you joined the 
monkeys to scare those who come to see you ? 
Have you stolen the saris of Gopls, seeing that 
Kuchela, the ill-clad Bhakta, may come to you 
for being relieved of his poverty ?" 

The fancy pertaining to the stealing of the Gopls' sarees, in 
order to help a devotee later on, reminds us of an older 
Sanskrit verse, in which the poet says that the Lord collected 
the sarees with the knowledge that later he would have to send 
them to Draupadi in her distress. 

In a Narma-Prarthana, Tyagaraja refers to Rama's long 
wanderings in the forest and asks him to lay himself down to 
rest in Tyagaraja's heart. 

Badalika dira pavvalinchave 

sadalani duritamunu tegagosi 

Sarvabhauma Saketa Rama. 

In Rainachandra nidaya in Surati, he asks Rama why 
His grace does not flow towards Tyagaraja : 

" Is it because you are dispirited by the fatigue 
of forest life and its rigours, or because you are 
angry that you have been called a woman ?" 

The last is a reference to Slta asking Rama in ValmTki's 
original whether he was a woman to be so afraid of taking her 
along with him to the forest. 

jtfindastuti 185 

In Msmava Raghurunm in SSranga, he asks Rama if his 
store of mercy had been washed away by the ocean, when 
Rama was lying there, whether his arrows had been broken in 
the battle, if his truthfulness had gone with the forest and if 
his divinity got lost when he took the human form. See this, 
another Nindustuti, Adigi sukhamu in Madhyamavati. 

" Who has ever enjoyed happiness by asking you 
for it, O Lord ! Sita was attatched to you and 
she went to the forest, was taken away by 
Ravana and then you yourself sent her away, 
Surpanaka desired to marry you and lost her 
nose, Narada wanted to know your Maya and 
you made him a woman. Durvasas asked for food 
and lost his appetite. DevakI asked for a son 
and you gave him to Yasoda. To attain the 
Lord, Gopls had to give up their lords "* 

Referring to the drama on earth that the Lord was playing 
in Ramavatar, along with the partners, Sita, His brother, 
Hanuman, etc., Tyagaraja asks the Great Actor, 

" Why are you going about enacting this play ? 
Did your wife ask of you diamond ornaments or 
did your brothers or parents want food? Or, 
have your devotees been inviting you for a long 
time to stage this Nataka of Yours ?" 

Etavuna nerchitivo Rama 
endu kinta glsi 

Sits Lakshmana Bharata Ripughna 
Vstatmajulato nadu nStakamu 
Slu vajrSla sommulu adigiro 
anujulu dalli dandralu annamadigiro? 
sllulaina varabhaktulu bilachiro ? 
chirakalamu Tyagaraja nuta ni 

(Yadukula KSmbhoji). 



*' So'hamainade Chalu " 

Of the forms of Bhakti set forth in the previous chapter 
three were left over for treatment later as they formed the 
higher stages of devotion. They are the inability to endure 
separation from the Lord, (Aviraha), the love as that of a 
beloved, (Ksntasakti), and Tanmayatva, mentioned by Narada 
in his Bhakti Sutras. The emotion of Love has two main 
phases, separation and union, Vipralambha and Sambhoga. 
Separation is indeed the touchstone of all attatchment and 
according to the theory and practice of Sanskrit Alankarikas 
and poets, there is no nourishment of the sentiment of Love 
without the portrayal of separation, Vipralambha. 

Poets love to dwell on the presentation of love in 
separation, showing the lovers yearning and pining and 
struggling to obtain each other, rather than on love in union, 
Sambhoga. It is a well-known device adopted by Sanskrit 
dramatists to separate the first-met lovers, submit them to a 
process of separation and suffering, smelt their hearts, as it 
were, m the furnace of this separation, purge their hearts of all 
carnal dross, spiritualise their love and re-unite them finally in 
an inseparable union, — 

"air* 3E*mi m*w ^rst^ n 
as Kalic&sa says. It is well-known how, in the Bhngavata, 
the Lord, seeing the pride of the Gopls, suddenly disappears, to 
nd their hearts of dross, 

and after they had all wept themselves out in the Uopik* 
Glta He presented Himself before them again and began 
His Mmalllfa to 

Aviraha I&7 

^5: Wrt ST^ $wn?ti*3THgT: I 

A separation from the Lord is also mentioned as having 
occurred as part of the life-incidents of Tyagaraja. The idol of 
Rama which he was daily worshipping is said to have been 
taken forcibly by his irate brother and thrown into the Kaverl. 
Various songs are said to have been sung by Tyagaraja during 
this time of poignant suffering caused by the separation from 
his beloved Rama-idol. In the stories of Nnda-Bhakti-Yoga 
in the Linga Purmia and the Adbhuta Rawayana, mentioned 
by me already, we are given incidents answering exactly to this 
incident in the life of Tyagaraja : When the materially minded 
king wants the singer-saint to sing of his own royal splendour 
and this is refused, the idols of the singer-saint's worship are 
confiscated by the King, Some of the songs which we reviewed 
in the last chapter under ' plaintive pleading ' show Tyagaraja 
in search of his Ishta-Devata. While they might have as well 
been sung while Tyagaraja was searching for his lost idol, there 
is nothing to prevent us from considering them as songs by the 
devotee, who had the vision of the Lord, suddenly lost it, and is 
crying out in agony to re-capture the vision. 

In whatever manner we take them, these songs depict well 
the form of Bhakti called Aviraha by Narada, poignant 
suffering when one is separated from his God. In Sasivadana 
in Chandrajyoti, where the Pallavi-address and Raga-name 
echo each other, Tyagaraja asks if he could bear this separation. 
Sasivadana bhaktajanavana 
Sankara ne tala galanS 
ct What a sinner have I become that the Lord 
whom I used to worship with ecstatic love is not 
with me now! What shall I do? How can I 

i88 Sattvika Bhuvas 

bear ? Having once had Darsand of Sri Hari, 
the dispelkr of all sorrows, can anyone bear 
separation from Him ? Having treated me with 
affection before, is He now set with a deceitful 
mind ? Was it ordered by Brahma that I should 
undergo suffering, abandoning my hopes ? I do 
not find my beloved Lord. I have been regarding 
service to Him as my life's sustenance. My fate 
has come to this." 

Enta papinaiti nemi seyudu ha 

yelagu daludune— Oh Rama 

anta duhkha mulanu 

dirchu harini juchi 

yentavarainanu baya 

sahinture etc. (Gaullpantu), 

In Andundakane in PantuvaraEli, Tyagaraja is not exactly 
separated, but tells the Lord whom he sees, not to leave him 
to the pangs of separation. 

" Raghava, swear to me in the presence of the 
sea, that you will promptly come to me whenever 
needed. If you should forget me in the company 
of your chosen, what could I do ? If you do not 
come when I want your darsana, tears will flow 
down my cheek in streams, my whole house will 
look empty and every minute will appear a yuga" 

Kanavale nanu vela 

lekunna gannira 

kalu vaga barune* 
" When I get bewildered at your not responding 
to my prayers, I shall only be the laughing stock 
of others ". 

' Napai garuna ledani kanniraye ' — 
* I have wept before you with tears in my eyes 
that I have not been able to secure your grace * 
{Idinlku meragudura— PwmSgavarali), 

Vyudhi 189 

The Suttvika bhum of tears, *asru', occurs here: In 
Nlvsda negma, he asks, 

" Since I am your own, can I bear even a 
moment's separation from you ?" 

Sri Rmna Jayarnma in Madhyamavati is another song in 
Vipralambha. Vyndhi or failure of normal health and causing 
emaciation etc. is a Sanchari bhuva which occurs in separation 
and we can see it here. 

" O Rama of captivating beauty ! Why do you 
not take note of my suffering ? When will you 
be pleased to talk to me ? When will be that 
blessed day when you will make me happy ? I 
cannot bear any more delay. Is your hesitancy 
due to my forcing my affection on you? Can 
anybody have this happiness and blessedness 
anywhere else ? Can he have the vision of this 
beauty elsewhere ? Is it my faulty Japa or 
Tapas or have I offended you ? 

" You are my tilaka. For whom is my beauty ? 
Separation from you even for a minute makes 
life useless. My mind has turned away from 
worldly comforts. By separation from you, my 
body has been reduced to half. Sit by me, 
remove my troubles and protect me, I beg of you. 
I am in your hands ". 

Sri Rama Java Rama 
Sringara Rama 


nS kumkuma nlve 


na sogasevaride Rama 

nlvu nimishamu leni 



payaga menu 
sagamayeno Rama 

In Chelimini Jalajakshu (Yadukulakambhoji) again he 
says that owing to separation from Rama, he had become much 
reduced in body. 

Till now we have been dealing with the phase of seeking of 
and separation from the Lord, in which the play of emotions is 
of Sanchnri bhnvas like Autsukya (longing), Ni? m veda $ 
(despondency), Dainya (dejection), Amansha (anger). When 
seeking and separation end and the devotee is transported to 
joy on union with the Lord, another series of Sanchnn bhnvas 
overtake him, Mada — elation, Dhriti— gratification, Harsha-— 
delight, and in the excess of this over-powering joy when one's 
whole being is, inside and out, filled with the Lord, tears of joy 
roll down his cheeks, voice gets choked, he breaks down or 
laughs, sings and dances. This is the state of God-intoxication, 
which is the highest state one reaches. Of what use is any 
Bhakti in which one's voice does not break, eyes do not moisten, 
hair does not horripilate and one is not able to proceed ? If 
one could go about in this divine madness, now weeping, now 
laughing, now, without any shame, sing and dance, verily such 
a Bhakta will sanctify the whole world. 

«* feu *ta?# %m §m fetf 1 

fen3^f2P$OT 55^5^11 fe?l3F&?: II 
IRroWT OT& HW f%tf 

wlW ?«% «wft* 1 

few 3£T3f<i 3?q% ^ 

*?^%g€t jp3 golfer ti 


Here is Bhakti in the ecstatic state, and here is the realm 
of the Suttvika bhnvas, of horripilation, tears of joy, choking 
of voice, perspiration etc. 


Besides the realisation of the dar$ana of Raji^a at the ejid 
of his Sudhana by N&majapa, Tyagaraja refers to his having 
seen the Lord, in many songs, We have already noted in the first 
chapter, on Life, how in Pariiupamu and Giripai Tyagaraja 
had the vision of the Lord. The songs referring to his snkshnt* 
knra depict all the Sanchari bhavas of joy and elation and 
the Sattvika bhuvas. See Tyagaraja's great delight on getting 
Rama and the series of poetic similes he uses to bring out his 
great delight in the beautiful Rltigaula song, Nannu vidachi : 

" I have found you just as a diver dives deep 
into the sea and holding his breath fast, secures 
the pearl. I feel now as if I have come under 
the shade of a Kalpaka tree, from the unbearable 
heat of the sun. I have come by you, as a man 
who digs the earth finds pure gold buried deep. 
It is like the break of a hailstorm in the midst of 
hot summer *. 

The Sankarabharana song, Nannu brovakanu similarly 
expresses the great joy of Tyagaraja on getting the Lord : 

' Rama, I will not leave hold of you unless and 
until you protect me. I have secured you to rid 
myself of impurity, just as a man searching for a 
lost coin of trifling value comes by a precious 
gem, just as one expecting ragi-gruel comes by 
nectar, just as an exhausted swimmer finds a 
float for his hold and rest, just as a pilgrim 
starting for a Tirtha finds it at his feet, just 
as a woman about to lose her modesty comes 
by a cloth \ 

Vadda nundunade (VarSli) again expresses the rapture 
of the Lord's company : Tyagaraja exclaims here that he would 
embrace the Lord and dance about. 

1 Cf. V&Lmiki : 


When this vision comes, the devotee knows not what to do. 
The bliss overpowers him and he loses control of himself. He 
cannot do anything. 

" Is it an unpardonable offence on my part, 
O Prop of my life, if I forgot myself for a while ? 
The effulgence of your blessed feet dazzled me 
and I was at a loss to know whether I should hug 
them to my bosom or press them to my eyes ". 

This, in Neramn Rama Rama is the Sattvika bhava of 
Stambha or becoming benumbed. 

Kori kori nidu koluvuseyu vela 
saramaina pada sarasamula bon- 
gara juchi yuramuna nunchudamo 
kanula nottudamo yani 
kurimini brahmananda manduchunu 
konta mayi marachiyuntini gani 
TarakadhipSnana Pavana 
Sitanayaka Sri Tyagarajunipai 


Giripai records the Sattvikas of Asru, Svarabhanga, 
Romsmeha and Stambha : 

" Unerringly I have seen Rama on the hill. He 
promised me salvation in five days. My body 
was thrilled and tears of joy rolled down my 
cheeks, I merely mumbled and I could hardly 
speak out my thought ". 

nimpuchu matalada valenani 

" When I think of you, my whole body becomes 
thrilled. When I have your darsana, tears of 
joy roll down from my eyes. When I embrace 
your feet, I forget my body '\ 

Bhagavad anubhuva all satisfying 193 

" Talachite menella 
kanugona naiiandainai 
kannlru nindenu 
charana kaugilivela 
jelagi maimarachenu " 

in Dayarnni, appropriately in Mohana, the state of God-trance. 
See also the fifth charana of Rama pnhi Meghasyama (Kspi) 
where he says : 

The moment I think of you, my body gets thrilled 
with hair standing on end. 

Talachinantane menu pulakarinchaka. 

When such a realisation comes, the things around look trivial. 

" When your love comes over, the universe looks 
trivial, as a blade of grass. 

Asinchu vela jagamanta 


As Kulasekhara says : 

"When the Lord's Sakshntkura comes, the entire 
universe becomes a mere speck of dust ; all the 
encircling oceans, a little drop ; the fires, a tiny 
spark; the wind, a .whiff of breath; the skies, 
a pinhole, " 

2*$ $5*3: <wfftr $f3r$r <esjj: sgjfett $3: 

One of the rare feelings of the great devotee is found in his 
divine experience also being a complete gratification, compre- 
hending within it the realm of the senses too. This rare idea » 
gets expressed in some moods of Tyagaraja, when he feels his 
whole spiritual, mental and physical being completely trans- 
ported with God-bliss. Ninnubusi in Balahamsa expresses 


this rare idea that the vision of the Lord gratifies all the senses, 

including the mind, 

Kanulaku chaluva chevulakamritamu 
vinu rasanaku ruchi manasuku sukhamu 
tanuvuku yanandamunu galga jeyu. 

The song significantly has its final address to the Lord as 
* Puma kama '; as the image of God is stationed in his heart, 
'Tyagaraja hriddhama', Tyagaraja too becomes in this manner, 
a Purna kama, with all his pleasures fulfilled simultaneously by 
that single divine object of attachment. 

In two other songs, Tyagaraja expresses in a different form, 
this sublime all-round sense-gratification from the Lord. In 
Nammina vurini marachedi in Bhairavi and Ruma ni pai in 
Kedara, Tyagaraja says : 

" Even when enjoying material pleasures my mind 
was anchored only in you," 

Bhogamu landu vela 

buddhi ni yada nunche ( Nammina vurini) 

and " Even when I enjoy material pleasures, my mind is 
only on you ". 


b&guga buddhi nlyandu (Rama ni pai)* 

We have previously illustrated the Bhma of Autsukya> 
longing, in the pre-union and pre-realisation state. Having got 
his beloved Lord, Tyagaraja gets into a different kind of longing 
now. He desires to enjoy and serve the Lord in His ekmta* 
This delicate and delicious desire of the devotee can be seen in 
some of the pieces. In Vinamsagoni in Pratapavarlli, see 
this longing which takes the form of a curiosity to feast his 
ears with the sweet and loving chat that takes place privately 
between the Lord and Sita, while they were playing together. 
And mentioning Anjaneya and Bharata as having had that 
privilege, Tyagaraja presses his claim too. 

Kmt&sakti 195 

Vibaanasagoni yunnanurE ; 

Visvarupuda! ne 

manasaraga vliiula vinduga 

madhuramaina palukula 

Sltaramanito noma nagunta ladi gelchuta 

cheta nokari kokarujuchi yabhava merigi 

Saketadhipa nijamagu premato balkukonna 

Vatatmaja Bharatulu vinnatula Tyagaraja 


A similar yearning of his is seen in Rumubhirama in 
Dhanyasi. Here Tyagaraja longs that when Rama and Slta 
are in private, sitting on the golden bed, Rama should order 
Tyagaraja to come in and sing to Him some music. 
Ramabhirama manasu ranjilla 

balkarada ? 

bangaru meti panpupai bhamamani Janaki 
sringarinchukoni cheluvondaga ninnugani 
ponguchu malle virula bujinchuvela 
sangltamu badumani svami TyagarSjunito. 

We have thus far dealt with the AvirdhamMi mentioned 
by Narada. We first reviewed the state of separation and then 
spoke also of the state of union with the Lord. And, while on 
the latter, we also saw the heights of ecstasy Tyagaraja reached 
on obtaining the Saksh&tkura of the Lord. 

Now, to the Kmtasakti, mentioned by Narada, Like 
Vatsalya, this form of Bhakti too, pertains pre-eminently, to 
the Krishnavatara, where the cowherd damsels attained Mukti 
through their Kama or love for the Lord; 

In its essence, the emotion of devotion which a devotee has 
towards the Lord is feminine in nature. The love of a woman 
for a man has occurred to the sages and saints of all climes and 

196 Madhura JRasa 

ages, as the best image of the love which the individual soul 
should have for the Supreme Soul To the Supreme Soul, the 
sole Enjoyer, the whole universe is the object of enjoyment; the 
entire creation, masculine as well as feminine, is like unto 
a woman to that Lord, the sole Purusha. 

The Gopis are, in fact, not women ; mythologically, they 
are incarnations of Rishis : esoterically, they are the individual 
souls drawn by the magnetic Supreme Soul, to itself. This is 
made plain by the Bhagavata itself at the end of the famous 
R&salila, by three similes employed by Sri Suka. When the 
Lord reappeared, they who had drooped down, rose up, like the 
bodies on the reappearance of life. And the Lord, surrounded 
by them, shone like Purusha Himself, with his Saktis. And the 
Lord sported with the Gopis even as a child would sport with 
its own image. 

The imagery of man-woman love was employed by Christian 
mystics too. St Bernard's sermons and the writings of 
Coventry Patmore speak oi the Church as the Bride and of 
Christ as the Bridegroom. In our country, this kind of 
devotional mood is already found prominently in the Rig-Vedic 
prayers and hymns * and in the later age, it is in the field of 
Krishna Bhakti, that this form of devotion was developed 
to a great extent, and under the name Madhura Rasa* this 
received detailed treatment at the hands of Chaitanya's 
followers. In the field of music, the padas of Kshetragna and 
his fellowers are all based on this 'imagery, called popularly 
Nayaka-N&ytfca bhma. 

1. _ See my paper Vedas and Bhakti, Vedanta Kesan, Dec. 1955. 


In the writings of other devotees, devoted to Siva or Rama, 
this form of devotion is but rarely met with i. But, as I have 
said at the outset, the very feeling of Bhakti partakes of the 
character of a woman's love in its finer essence and we may see 
the emotion taking such a turn in some of the songs of 
Tyagaraja. Saubh&gya is the blessed state of a woman 
when all her beauty and endowments have their fulfilment 
in her own lord's love. Says Kalidasa. 

" Rama, Sringara Rama, You are • my 
Sau l >ha jya, the supreme Tilaka on my forehead, 
marking my Mangalya. For whom else i$ all my 
beauty ? Even a moment's separation from you 
makes life useless/' 

says Tyagaraja, in Sri Rnma Jayarnma in MadhyamlvatL 

Pankajanayana'na kumkuma nlve 
Avanijadhipa na sogasu evaride Rama 
Nlvu nimishamu leni bhavuka mele. 

" Rama ! What a life is this ! Why did I have 
it ? How long am 1 to bear it ? If one does not 
have the frequent darsana of the Lord of peerless 
beauty, have chat with Him and enjoy to heart's 
content the embrace of the Lord who knows the 
ingita and delights in music, the heart becomes 
parched up and life becomes useless ", 

Etijanmamidi ha Rama enduku galigenu 
entani sairintunu ha Rama 
sltileni marakoti llvanyuni 
mStimatiki juchi matalldani tana 

i. This devotional mood \&ith reference to Siva can be seen in Kashmir 
Saivism. See my 'Prayers, Praises and Psalms' "O. A» NateSan & Co, f 


sSreku mutyala hara yuramu pain 
garu momunu kannulara jEdani tana 
ingita merigina sanglta loluni 
ponguchu danivara gaugilinchani tana 
sagara sayanuni Tyagarajanutuni 
vegame chudaka veganu hridayamu 


In a few songs, Tyagaraja refers to God having clasped his 
hand, having done that act of marriage called pmigrahana, so 
to say, at a very early age and appeals to Him not to give him 
Tip suddenly or asks Him why He has forsaken him abruptly. 
" You took me by the hand at an early age, made 
me serve and promised protection* I cannot 
understand why you should, at a time like this, 
waver whether to hold me up or give me up. 
Pray, do save my honour "« 

Chinna nade nS cheyi battitive 
ennarani yudigamu gaikoni 
ento ninnu palanamu setunani 
ittivela vidanadudamano 
elukondamani 3^enchinavo teliya 
guttu brovave sugunavarinidhi 
goppa daivama Tyagarajanuta. 


" C% my beloved Lord has forsaken me, alas ! 
How can I live ? How can I endure it ? Is it 
fair to forsake me after treating me so long with 
fondling affection, embracing me often and 
cheering me up ? The sweet words you said to 
me, the way you took my hand, and rid me of 
my troubles, had filled my heart so much that I 
had considered myself unequalled ", 

Emani vegintune 

entani sairintu 

nS muddu Devudu 

Sring&ra N&yikm 199 

maim base nayyayyo 
palinchi Minchi 
palumaru gaugilinchi 
telinchi nanu paradesi seya docheno 
adina muchchata nadantarangamu ninda 
nldu ledani yunti nindaka sarivarilo 
edabayaka Tyagaraju nelu Sri Harini tolli 
badalika larchi na chebattinadi talachuchu. 

See this in Ghanta. 

" O Ramachandra ! What else is there for me to 
aspire for when you have taken my hand and cast 
your benign look on me? When my look and 
your look come together properly, who can know 
the happiness that I then derive? If you do not 
take my hand, I shall have to suffer like an 
unmarried virgin ". 

Rama Rama Ramachandra * * * 
ghallu ghallu nl karamubatti kl — 
na chupu nl jupu sarigajesite jeyu 
na sukhamu yevariki yeruka 
chatta battani nabhiti Rama 
bottu gattani kanyaka riti 
••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Of the Sringsra Nayiksi, classified in great detail by the 
Slankarikas and writers on Rasa *, which have been taken up 
by the Pada-composer Kshetrajna, it is in the realm of 
Parakiys Nsyiks, that the Love-form "of Bhakti, Ksntmakti 
or Madhura Bhsva, has been most prominently dealt with. 
From the Bhngavata downwards, the philosophy of Knits- 
sakti has always been based on the greater possibilities of 
devotional intensity in the symbology of Parakiya Sringzra 
or clandestine love : 

t . For aa exhaustive treatment of these, see my Sringaramanjari (Hy*W$« 
bad Archaeological Department), Introduction. 

200 Bviys-bhsm 

But Tyagaraja's Madhnra Bhsva gives us a fancy in the 
class of Sviya Nnyiks. See this, a unique fancy, in a 
Ritigaula piece. 

Tyagaraja says : 
" Just as an orphaned girl married to a man has 
no other house to turn to and clings to her 
husband, I entirely rely on you and implore you. 
How is it that you do not come ?" 
Chera ra"vademira Ramayya 
mera gadura ika Mahamerudhira Srikara 
talli tandri leni bala tana nadu goru rlti 
palumaru vedukonte pSlincha rada 

Pattividuvaradu in Manjarl again presents the devotee as a 
Sviya Nsyika. 

In fact, in one elaborate song in Yadukula Kambhoii 
Tyagaraja longs to be Rama's beloved spouse Slta, even as n 
other songs, he longs to be a servant like Lakshmana and 
Hanuman ; and he sets forth his longing to experience the joy 
that Sita enjoyed at the several stages of her Svayamvara 
and marriage. y 

" Vouchsafe to me, O Merciful One ! Your grace 
and a little of that joy which the eager Sita had 
when she was assured that Rama would come to 
that Svayamvara-assemblage of unwanted kings • 
the happiness that Slta had, when Rama himself 
came, drew himself up to his fuH stature, and thus 
drove away Slta's anxiety about his ability to 
bend Siva's bow; the happiness that Sita had 
when Rama tied the Mangalya sMra and took 
her hand ". 

Daya seyavayyg Sadaya Ramachandra 
dalachuchunna Sita sukhamu' 


mke&iri bodhana, th* shortest piece in Suddhasaveri is cast in: 
the very terminology of the Sringara padas : - ,.; , . 

" Who has poisoned your mind ? You do not 
freely talk to me ! Your mind has changed/' 

Even so is Samiki sari in Begada which opens like a 
dance-composition. Songs like Mtnmu rare (Arabhi) in which 
the ladies are called to come and see the beautiful Lord in 
procession are also couched in the imagery of Nayika (the singer) 
with the lady-friends and the Nayaka (the Lord). 

If even after these, one should have any doubts about the 
Madhuta Bhava in Tyagaraja's songs, or has any doubts on 
the real meaning of this Bhava itself, one may listen to Rama* 
bhii aitta in Darbar, where Tyagaraja says : 

"The maid, my mind, is in deep love with you, 
but you do not seem to respond and take her 
hand ". 

Manasu cheli nike marulu konnadigani 
chanuvuna cheyi batti mamula rakshimpavu, 
In the same piece we read in a further passage, Tyagaraja 
describing himself in terms of the Vasakasajjika Nayika : 
" I have provided for you a comfortable bed ". 

We may note this piece again, in Harikambhoji, where the 
mind is made the Duti, to bring the lover Rama to Tyagaraja, 
the beloved. 

" O ! Maid of my mind ! Go and bring quickly my 
Lord. Seek him eagerly and lead him to me with 
due respect. I want to enjoy happiness for a 
long time with him ". 

Chani todi teve ManasS ! 
kanikaramuto gani karamidi 
chirakalamu sukhamanubhavimpa vegame 
The third foot of Eti janmamidi in Varali describes the 
Lord as a ' SringSra Nayaka ' and the devotee as longing for 
His loving chat ajad embraces. The description as a beloved is 
feomplete in the Ghanta piece R&Aa M&ma Eumachandra^ 


already quoted. Making himself a Sviya KaayS, Tyagaraja 
pleads with the divine lover : 

" When my look and yours come together, who 
can know the happiness which I then derive? 

If you do not take me by the hand, 

my forlorn condition will be that of the unmarried 
virgin ". 

Na chupu nl jupu sarigajesite jeyu 
na sukhamu yevariki yeruka 

chatta battani nabhiti Rama 
bottu gattani kanyaka rlti. 

Thus, in manifold manner, Tyagaraja conceived and enjoyed 
the surpassing beauty of his Rama. Poet Magha defines b *auty 
as that which appears new every time we see it. 
%$ %% qsrearsqrfcf afar wA m^mm: \ 

The wonderful blue cloud of Rama assumed manifold 
shapes and everytime Tyagaraja saw it, he found it fresh 
and entrancing : 

Manasuna nitya nutanamaina chakkani 
tanamunu kanugontini Rlma Meghasyama 

{Rama p%hi> Kspi) 
The Lord says in the Git a : 

" Four kinds of men adore me, the afflicted, the 
curious, one desirous of material gain and a man 
of knowledge, jnani- Of these, the jnlni who is 
always fixed on me and is of single-minded devo- 
tion, is the best. I am dear to him very much 
and he is dear to me. All these are noble, no 
doubt, but the jnani is verily my own self ". 

fsrat & (jifrihwfat « * *w fin: u 

Abheda-bhakti zo§ 

' t The Eh&gavata endorses this view when the Lord says 
therein to TJddhava, in almost identical words : 

It is as such a jnani that Tyagaraja adored the Lord. Love 
of God, he considered as the most essential thing necessary for 
one to have real knowledge. 

Anuragamuleni manasuna 
sujnanamu radu 


The true Bhakta, Tyagaraja says, is one who has realised 
the identity of the individual soul and the Supreme Soul. 
Paramatmudu jlvatmudu yokadai* 
baraguchundu bhakta-paradhinuni 

( Karuna ela'ja nt e-Varali). 

In Siggumuli nzvale in Kedaragaula, he is sorry he has 
not realised in his heart that ' Thou art myself ': 

Ullamunanu ganinlvu nenai yunda deliyaledu. 

In Nike dayaraka in Nllambati, he asks : 
" Will one who has still to realise the identity of 
' I ' and ' Thou ', attain happiness ?" 

Ekopinchaka nenu nlvanu jnSnikelagu 
sukhamichchune Raghava. 

In Enduku peddala in Sankarabharana, he asks for know- 
ledge in the non-differentiating, monistic Vedlata* 

Bhedarahitavedantamunu delisi 

Enduku peddalavale buddhi yiyavu 

In his Kalyani piece in the Kovur-pentad, he describes the 
Lord Siva as Bhedavadarahita. 

In Jnwm mosaga r&d&> he prays for knowledge on 
ParamStraa and Jivatma. 

Paramltmudu jlvatmudu jnana-mosaga rSdS, . 



In Ms Arabhi song Ruma O Ruma Omkwradhuma, he 
insistently implores the Lord to bless him with realisation of 
identity with Rama (9th charana). Music itself he prays for as 
a means for attaining to that state of Jivanmukti which is the 
essence of the Git a and the Upanishads : 

Sltavara sanglta jnanamu 

dhata vrayavalera Rama 


bhuta jlvanmuktudagutaku 


In fact this Jivanmukta state in which one has had the 
realisation of the Supreme here itself is mentioned by Tyagaraja 
in many pieces. 

Upanishad Brahman who was one of those who influenced 
Tyagaraja, asks in one of his numerous Divyanamas — one in 
Ghanta and Misralaghu, " Rama, make me realise that 
"Thou art that "— "Bodhaya mam Sri Rama Tattvamaslti " 
and, as if echoing it, Tyagaraja asks in his well-known Garuda- 
dhvani-piece, Tattvameruga taramn. 

"Is it possible, O Rama, to realise the great truth 
that Thou art the meaning of that Upanishadic 
declaration, ' Thou art That ' ?" 

Tattvamasi yanu vakyarthamu, 

Rama, nlvanu paratattva meruga tarama ? 

" One must meditate within his own self and become one 
with you " is the burden of a Devagandhari song : 'Tanalone 
dhyaninchi tanmayame' gavalera \ The realisation of identity 
with the Lord and exulting in it is mentioned in the eighth foot 
of Karwn&jaladhe in NathanSmakriya : Nlve tSnani kulkudure. 
He ends significantly his long song describing Siva of his native 
place coming in the festive procession on the tonic note'pf the 
Lord and himself being one : Tyagaraju tananiichunu vachchu 
(MucKohatxij Madhyamayati)'. " --*.,.-•* 

According to Upanishad Brahman' this is" the' higher stage 
when the Lord's Name is not up&ya but upeya, when one 

Tanmayatva 205 

contemplates the Lord in the Name as not being different 
from oneself : 

Again : 

«f % 331$^ ^ OT tp if &ra: a 
and expatiates on the £ntft and (?i^ texts supporting this 
kind of contemplation. At the very beginning of his Upeya- 
nama-viveka, Upanishad Brahman says ; 

* * Altai wftssftwfi 1 

In his Saveri song, Inta kanna delpatarama he says that 
the Rajayoga of seeing everything as God is his Rajabhoga, 
supreme happiness. 

Nl karuna Rajayogamu maku 

Ni*mayame Rajabhogamu 

Wherever his eyes fell, there Tyagaraja saw only Rama and 
whatever he saw, he took as Rama. 
Nenu ecchatajuchinanu 
nlvai yunnadi 

[Ninuviwn nttmadi) 

Endu juchinagani 
bhSvinchana nS pai 

(Enduko nl manasu) 

This ' Nimayame ' is the Tanmayattva Bhakti, taught by 
Tyagaraja's Guru, NSrada. 

In Rnma Siturama in Balahamsa, Tyagaraja says : 
" Just as a chaste wife delights in serving her 
Lord ? just as a creeper twines round the Kalpaka 
. tree, my mind is inseparably attatched to you. I 
will not leave you even for ages, in my udvaitic 
realisation ". 

ao6 86* ham *~~ 4 1 am That * 

Satsatipati sevajeyu 
chandamuna nU manasu 

s«« *•• «»• ««# *•• «•« 

kalpa bhujamuna tlga 
katturlti manasu 
kalpamu lennaina 
yidichi kadaladu Sri Rama 
Advaita samrajyamulu 
abbinattu Rama. 

Here is embodied in part a series of similes employed in a 
verse in Sankara's Sivanandalahari, to show the gradual 
stages of Bhakti towards the final goal of becoming merged 
in the Lord : 

Like the chaste wife adoring her Lord, 
Like the creeper clinging to the tree, 
Like the river becoming one with the sea* 

w* $*wB sal f^rfcre? fc%t tifts&m, I 

When this is obtained, what greater bliss can there be ? 
Says Tyagaraja : 

" To realise that 'I am That', is best. To realise 
that You are the whole universe is the greatest 
happiness **. 

So'hamainade ch&lu 

Tjagamulu nivai 


Intakanna ySnanda memi (Bilahari) 

Bhuvanamella nivai {Brova bharanm) 
Sri Vasudeva sarva manuchunu chintinchira 
(Chede buddhi-Athma). 
One who has this realisation that all this is Vasudeva is a 
true Mahatma, And Tyagaraja was one of those rare MahStmas, 



II #5?*^W: II 
4t<|JH5Pftsfflft TO II 

II 3*ren^^^^ ii 

wis TO - 'fl^pcR*? 1 - ^nfecHsaa 



T»igiKf^% ; *«r»fc!flC ! 

<B^iri3r^jOT ! $9ftm<ur ! 

5jn**ra ! ^FRi^tgrr ! 


Songs of Sri Tyagaraja 

" GIRIRAJA SUTA " (Bangala) 

Oh! Son of Devi, the Daughter of the Mountain-King! 
Oh Merciful Lord, whose feet are worshipped by Indra and 
others ! Protect me. O Lord with the elephant face ! 

OGanesa! Supreme Lord ! Bsstower of welfare! Oh 
Thou who art like a moon to the sea of sacred lore and who 
hath the serpent-king as his bangle ! Oh devotee (son) of 
Siva, remover of obstacles, praised by Tyagaraja ! 



%m - '#m<#£r> - *rife 

*ii ifSjS ^rfiw («ft) 

* SRI GANAPATINI " (Sowrashtra) 

Oh men of devotion ! Adore Ganapati who, having 
received the worship of Brahma, is coming, dancing gloriou- 
sly ! Who, after partaking of the offering of jack-fruit, cocoa- 
nutsi jambu fruit etc., is coming, treading the earth with his 
heavy resounding steps ! Who, with the holy feet of Hari in* 
stalled in his heart* comes out dancing in a variety of 
rhythms! Ganapaty whom Tyftgar&ja praises in all humility. 



Vair&gya : Narastuti'artha-k&magarhana 

fiife %w mm ? ^^t «wy wer ! (ft) 

tf§r «ih *hr srosa «Wt ? (ft) 

3*r wig ifwarag gsnr ? <$- 

g*rft wnncra^ft #fo gw ? (ft) 


Oh my mind ! Tell me truly, which conduces greatly 
to happiness, — wealth or the sight of the Lord ?— -Which is 
more delicious,-— milk* butter and curd, or the nectar of the 
worship and contemplation of Sri R&ma ? 

Which is happier, — the control of the senses and 
forbearancei which are comparable to a bath in the Ganges 
or the bath in the well with the mire of low sense- enjoy- 
ments ? 

Which gives more happiness. — flattery of mere men 
bound up in their own conceit, or the singing of the Lord 
who has been praised by the wise Ty&gar&ja ? 




11 DURMARGACHARA " (Ranjani^ 

Oh lord ! Dharm&tma I While I strongly believe that 
you are my material prosperity and wealth and my very 
God» I can never bring myself to flatter wicked people and 
those who dedicate their literary works to depraved per- 
sons, O bestower of riches ! 



mm i§: mum 1 ft (*??) 

sftfe staft swnfeft Hg (sir) 

*tS$ *n%f %^rg $33 (srr) 

Artha*k&ma*garhana 5 

m$i ^m^\ Ww§ (*u) 

fts^ffft ^§55%fofe 3?p> (*f) 

<:. ?BT D, m <TCWr ^RiM- 

^^5Trq?r ^r^ *ft (*rr) 

"NARAYANA HARP' (Yamuna Kalyani) 

Oh Lord of Slta ! I do not rely on (wealth like) money 
and horses which are transient. I shall certainly not beg of 
rich men, flattering them with matchless (musical) composi- 
tions in their praise. I shall not frequent places which are 
infested with greedy men who are possessed by the devils 
of desire and attachment. 

I am caught in your grip, of my own accord. I do not 
know why you are persisting in your niggardliness. People 
in this world do not stand the sight of others prospering. 
It is not known whether this is due to their fate or to your 
Maya. They rush to despicable activities, but never 
apply their mind to tasks which will uplift them. Why 
associate with people who do not realize that everything 


happens in this world according to one's own past karma? 
Vouchsafe that your holy name may always be on my lips. 
Who else is there for me ? Oh R&ghava ! Let me always seek 
the company of those who delight in the glorious story of 
Sri Ramachandra. Let my eyes be fixed upon your 
refined beauty and my heart will be transported with joy. 

ArthOfkdma»garhana 7 

"NADUPAI BALIKERU" (Madhyamavati) 

Sri R&mai praised by Vedas ! people blame me as 
having divided the family. 

Convinced in my mindi as I am t that worldly pleasures 
are as evanascent as dew-drops, did I ever demand parti- 
tion of property from my Dayadins. so that I might parade 
the wealth so obtained as one having no equal ? Or, (after 
having lost all such property) did I complain that I was 
destitute ? 

Did I ever desire to celebrate daily festival of Rama ? 
I had always felt contented that I had an abode for the Lord 
in my own heart, Unable to bear the sight of others in 
prosperity» did I intrigue to divide their families ? 

I had always placed honour before life. Oh ! Srin&tha ! 
Ocean of Supreme Bliss i Have I resorted to the unworthy 
ways of disreputable people and flattered others to earn 
my subsistence? In this world you undoubtedly protect 
those who worship and adore yout and I am one such 
and am your own. 

(This song was composed in answer io accusations that 
he was instrumental in partitioning the family)* 

W0\ - '^*5^< - *lft 



\. gfirj Tftsftf^rr S£-s?s ftft^W ^*n (n) 


\ ^gcrossg mft w-wigsi3 *fW (*) 

V «&% «W% *Gfir s-c$r%<5 5*Wfr (*) 

*. qftwrftggf §fefe ftsr-wngs wr ^sfe (*) 


Worship the hero of the Raghusi the king of kings who 
has blessed Tyagaraja with boons ; give up greed and 
unworthy desires ; do not indulge in slander of others ; 
and control your five senses, deeming worldly happiness 
as nothing but poison. Understand that all things will 
not serve your purpose, but go their own way, 
knocking about hither and thither. Do not engage 
yourself in other distracting work- Do not put on false 
garbs to deceive ihe world, like the proverbial tiger in 
cow's skin. Abandon all mischievous pursuits. Let the 
crossing of the ocean of Sams&ra be your sole aim. Take 
delight in doing good deeds. Surrender all your actions to 
the Lord. Join the company of true devotees and learn 
the path of devotion. Have always in your mind Sri Rama, 
who is free from Mayai and worship him. Subjugate lust 
and other inner enemies and achieve your purpose. 

^gft ? ^ ^# ? 

K&ma-garhana 9 

gf* qm 5% %feg w*%% 

'• ENTAMUDDO " (BindumalinI) 

Who can describe the superb beauty and sweet charm 
of the Lord, adored by Ty&garaja ! 

Men, however great* easily allow themselves to be 
continuously engaged in the thought of women f (being blind 
to the indescribable and unsurpassed beauty of the Lord). 

People put on the garb of genuine devotees? though 
they are slaves to their own aunts (mothers-in-law) due to 
lust* This is like the milk-container enjoying the taste of 

SWPft - % sp qte> - ^Sllfe 




"MENU JOOCHI MOSA" (Saras&ngl) 

Oh mind ! Do not get deluded by the illusory personal 
appearance of women. If you only see their inside, it is 
nothing but a cloak over filthy excreta, blood and other 
ugly things. They carry on their amorous work with their 
eyes whichi like sharp weapons, pierce (through men's 
hearts) and with their breasts which like mounds provide 
the resting place for headst 

Therefore, do Sri Rama Bhajana well (and escape 
their snares). 

wm$% - '^fsm^* - snfc 




*n *igft §q *\$*$t ? ttcst ! ft?) 

^WFTU^S^ ^5^ (*f) 

"MANASU VISHAYA NATA n (N&takuranji) 
If your mind is given away to sense-enjoyments and to 
(the company of) dancers and voluptuaries, will my Rama's 
grace be made available to you ? 

It is like a man lending the door of his own hut to a 
neighbour (to enable him to close his own hut and go to 
witness a drama) and keeping watch all through the night, 
driving away dogs (from entering his own hut). 

Vara-nvrapSk&hatvam 11 

It is also like a woman who seeks prostitution to gain 
some bran, leaving the potful of rice, which she had pre* 
pared, to be carried away by monkeys. 

It is like imparting a holy Man tram to a deaf man. 



1. wgsr f8ftg*r srffaPFBift 

331 ^3^r Stfiro sit fircss 

9 KB* 5133 *&ft* «ftWl- 

*TO#ft VT*5 *3 (*) 


Is it fair for you to side-track and deceive me by offer- 
ing boons to me» when my mind longs for true devotion ? 
To your glory of conferring greatness on real devotees. 


whose mind does not hanker after small things, stands as 
witness Prahlada (who did not descend low to accepx 
boons, but firmly prayed only for Moksha). 

To your magnanimity in conferring the highest and the 
most permanent position even on one who prays for 
temporal gains out of ignorance, Dhruva stands as witness. 

Pray do not mercilessly offer boons to me who have 
been panting for the constant flow of your grace. 


Pr&panch ika-garhana 1 3 

"NEE DAYA GALGUTE" (Ritigowla) 

Oh Lord, renowned for protecting people, removing 
their vices like attachment, greed and arrogance ! Why do 
not people realise that to be blessed with your grace is the 
height of fortune for one ? 

They know full well that it is deplorable to get 
unduly attached through ignorance to wife and children, 
unable thereby to cross the ocean of Sarns&ra, to have 
limbs drooping out of fear, to languish out of fatigue 
having vainly waited on wealthy princes, and to get 
enmeshed in your M&y& in a variety of ways* 

They also know amply what sort of happiness they 
derive and how helpless they find themselves in the end 
by running after abject misers daily, becoming a prey to 
disease, getting reduced in body by sore disappointment 
of not having their desires for pleasure and prosperity 




Sbgftft w^igs gfo#f% 
f «5T otg *fwr«T^cg5T 

J 5 ^^ Sfe^ #*{I53§ (st) 


Time is fleeting. Oh Mind I Set about in earnest to 
worship Rama. Of the life time, a portion is spent in sleep 

Prapanchika-garham 1 5 

and another in enjoyment of sense-pleasures. Rising early 
one spends his time in flattering men at the prompting of 
his Trit&pa (three-fold worriesi adhyatmikam* adhibhowti- 
kam, adhi-daivikam) and goes about like a bull, eating at any 
place anything that he can get and wastes his time in 
ignorance. Alternately sinking and rising in the see- 
mingly attractive ocean of Samsara, he spends some time f 
and wastes another portion in vain gossJpping with worldly- 
minded men. 

For some time he transports himself with joy at the 
sight of wealth, offspring and house and gets infatuated. 
Meeting with disappointments in connection therewith, he 
gets sorrow-stricken and spends his time in distress. Unable 
to see the neighbour in prosperity, he spends his timet 
oppressed by jealousy. Old age overtakes him and robs 
him of his mental strength for some time. 

He spends some time in attempting to perform yagas 
and <>ther rituals. In doing so, he commits blunders, 
prompted by greed and miserliness and becomes rajasic 
and spends time in restlessness. People thus spend their 
time, without realising that doing Nama-Sankeertana (sing- 
ing your name) is wealth in itself and without knowing the 
real nature of Sri Rama* 

qtfm *w%$* wRW-*$*dhp» (q) 



#5t %\'5vSf{ =S5f ftf m 


Thinking that they alone are fortunate enough to 
possess corps of elephants, lovely women, palanquins and 
the like and without the fear of the other worldt people get 
bound more and more by samsara. They consider that with 
wife, children, fine clothing, habitations to dwell in* the 
world itself is paradise. 

%£R*T|55 - 'gjf^SR' - ^ 




\ *ft sregs ^-ftg^ ^r. 

Prapanckika-garhana 17 

"VARIJANAYANA" (Kedara Gowla) 

Oh Lotus-eyed one ! I am yours. Pray, protect me 
always. There is no purpose in one remaining immersed 
always in the ocean of Maya. I shall not accept material 
wealth, progeny, etc., which will only make me forget you, 
as Sugriva did; I shall not accept chariots and horses, to 
defeat kings as Arjuna did. To me, your Japa is all the 
nine treasures. ' I will not get enmeshed in these evil ma- 
terial desires. 



bottom wg-ftss $m ($) 

<v wig «wwro^ p^3 


inwft qjj srgs wfts (*) 

*« T!W% «ft ^FTC^T %cf fog 


Is It for this that this body has been nurtured ? 

Without using it for your service and for getting nearer 
you, people wander here and there as slaves to desires* 

Without constantly attempting to earn the grace of your 
look, people cast wistful eyes upon women. 

Without always engaging themselves in Namaklrtana 5 
people waste their time in gossipping on empty topics. 

Without using their hands for worshipping you, they 
stretch them out freely to receive sinful gifts. 

Without using their legs to go round your holy places, 
people run about for receiving money doles (Bhoori). 

They will not regard themselves, while living, as your 
ownt As a result, Yama jubilantly appropriates them as his 

Without praying to Sri Rama to come near them, they 
waste their time. 

Paramartha+prasamm 19 

ssrfeflr qtorarfT ?nfe%& 

5Tife%^ g?r-*nftftfe ft) 


What is the use of eyes and their brightness, if they are 
not privileged to feast upon the beauty of the Lord 
Seshasftylt which is beyond the comprehension of the 
mind ? 

What is the use of having a body which is not used for 
embracing with love the blue-hued Sri Hari? Otherwise 
it is no better than a cage. 

What is the use of having hands that are not used for 
worshipping the Lord with various sweet-scented flowers ? 
What is the use of such human existence ? 

What is the use of having a tongue which is not 
employed in singing devoutly the praise of Sri Ramamurti, 
the protector of Tyagaraja? Or, for the matter of it, what 
for is then the rosary mechanically rolling in hand ? 



^«5i^3 wing itfe 

ffag mms "i^S S^ 9 ^ *- 
vt raf g, sr^$ «ft%3 §ft 

ParamJirtha-prasamsa 21 

flPQTl WTO* q^q ! gsfRij (ft) 


I had sought the protection of all and sundry, and 
realising the futility of it* I have reposed my entire faith in 
you; pray, protect me. 

To maintain my family, I have wandered far and wide 
and found the task fruitless, I have realised with vexation 
that the benefit to be derived from the ocean of Samsara is 
only of this nature, and have therefore sought you. 

Realising that it is impossible for me to beg of small 
men and flatter them, and giving up the company of the 
wicked, I have firmly believd that you are the God that 
could undo the effects of my past karma and, with compas- 
sion, protect me always. 

I have sought your refuge, knowing fully that it is not 
possible for anybody else to give protection to sinners and 
cruel people at the time they are violently handled by Yama- 
Dutas for having, in this world, deprived others of their 
possessions without fear of the other world- 

Ohi all*pervading Raghunandana of beautiful face! 
Immediately I think of you at heart, I am filled with trans- 
cendental joy. 



JTOsgrr! TOiitvu fsftmgft sfcl (ft) 


f^Fcftg S$5ft«PlJ:l- 

5*Fawnm«RjS ^rra^i 

f%i"! earprcjsraga! (ft) 

"VIRAJA TURAGA" (Balahamsa) 
Oh king of kings ! Bless me with a life free from ail- 
ments. What do wretched men with bodies afflicted by old 
age, disease etc. achieve ? They become evil-minded, dis- 
integrating perpetually as the result of sense-indulgence 
and continuous distress, with minds tormented by endless 
qreed and lust. 







9% 'STOATS *#W 


Sama-dam&di 23 

wnqgpagg ^Tispr §1* (srt) 

Without quietude there is no happiness for anybody, 
be he one who has controlled his senses or a Ved&ntin. 

Be he possessed of family and children and of material 
wealth, or rich in spiritual sadhana like japa and tapas ; 

Be he well versed in all Vedas and Sastras, knowing 
well their inner significance. 

Be he one who has performed yagas and other karmas* 
Be he one who has acquired renown as a Bh&gavatar. 




Though you may have tens of thousands of rupees/ 
what you actually need is only a handful of rice. 

Though you may have immense quantity of clothest you 
need only one for wearing- 

Though you may possess extensive territory, for laying 
your body at rest, you require only three cubits of space. 

Though you may have hundreds of varieties of cakesi 
you can take only as much as your mouth can hold* 

Though the lake may be full of water, you can draw 
therefrom only so much as your vessel can hold. 

Oh Mind ! ( In the mad pursuit after these ) forget not 
Hari, the essence of the Universe. 

Safcsanga and Guru-bhakti : 

Sadhu-Bhagavata~pra$am$8> ; 


foft ^£553 ($) 

% %f%«rf% sparer ^$fe fa) 

Sadbhaktaprasamsa - Asadhhaktagarhana &5 

^% I stoCS ^3^1 ^ (33) 

<v WSRT ^?^ fog 

4. cf^T^t §&*£§ 3?^ 

crrc:^ $gf?r ¥^ ($) 

*flp SaflTO* gci («B) 

" KARUNAJALADHE " (Nathanamakriya) 

Oh Ocean of Mercy f Sri Rama of charming face ! the 
repository of excellent virtues ! You fill the whole Universe; 
How could I blame it (for things which happen in ways at 
variance with your nature and glory) ? 

The realisation of true Bhaktas is in one way, while the 
method adopted by the people, who do not know the truth 
about you, is in another direction. 

Do people lovingly chant your holy name and spend 
their time in meditating upon you ? 

Will people offer unto you the merit (Punya) they have 
acquired? Do they understand your Maya and live accord- 
ingly ? 


Do they heartily worship you and frequently meditate 
on you? 

Do they pant for a direct Darsan~of you ? Don't people 
insatiably crave for the happiness derived from the posses- 
sion of the nine treasures (of Kubera) ? 

Do they say and believe that you are immanent in all 
things and exult in realizing that they are identical with 
you yourself ? 

Do they engage themselves in introspection and seek 
the Lordi the redeemer from Samsara ? 




wtfa («) 

*#ngT <tw% *r- (t) 

ad*© wfaa 8$ w- (|> 

%*3 1*35 wngd 

S&dhu-prasamsa 2t 

^fefcat §fof£r<^ *r$<jprft*T 

3^=P3 ^S ^r- (?) 


TOnrwi ^gg swag 

$trew g^5 ^^ig^ri f *ira» (it) 

*. ift ^3 m ^wapsj 

«r*t 3^g3, ^p* ! ift w 
^%g 3ftros j&igsj 

*R #fog Slg sr- (?) 


^ftft TO-IPT-SWI^ star 

5% firaggs *rfefa ft?3$r mm§ 


Great souls are indeed many. Salutations to them all ! 

Many are those who see in the lotus of their hearts the 
Lord of moon-face and exquisite b3auty and proportion 
and enjoy bliss. 

1. Many are those who are foremost among the bles- 
sed ones who have had the realisation of the Lord of 
supreme beauty who delights in Sarnan music. 

2. Many are those who have the blessedness of an 
unerring Darsana of the glorious Swarupam of the Lord, 
after seeking and finding Him in the deep forest of their 

3. Many are those who unreservedly rush to offer the 
lotus of their mind (Chittam) at the feet of the Lord. 

4. Many are those who sing sincerely in choice langu- 
age the praise of the Supreme Lord, the redeemer of the 
fallen, adhering to the true path and with knowledge of 
Swara, Laya and Raga. 

Sadhu-prammsd, 29 

5. Many are the blessed Bhaktas on whose necks the 
necklace of gem-like qualities of Hari Himself shines % who 
with divine wisdom, overflowing love and solicitude for 
humanity f protect it with their divine love. 

6. Many are the glorious ones who feel immersed in 
transcendental bliss* enthralled by the direct vision of the 
Lord and his majestic gait* 

7. Many are the great souls 5 supreme devoties and 
sages, who are absolutely pure and who are blessed with 
enjoyment of the bliss of realisation of the Lord? like 
Chandra 3 Surya* Sanaka, Sanandana, Dikpalakas* Devas, 
Kimpurushas, Prahalada, Narada, Tumburu, Anjaneyai Lord 
Siva* Suka t Brahma and foremost Brahmans. 

8. Many are the great Bhaktas, who delight in adoring 
the greatness of your personal beauty and N&ma and (gunas# 
such as) prowess, courage, mental composure* generosity 
and rectitude, and who knowing your disposition towards 
false faiths which do not promote true devotion to you* 
discard them. 

. 9. Many are those who have understood the signifi- 
cance of the hidden truths of the Bhagavatai Ramayanai 
Gitai Veda, Sastras, Puranas* the six faiths of Siva and 
other gods and the thirty three crores of Devatasi and who 
acquire longevity through the joy of the music endowed 
with bh&vai raga* laya and other elements and who attain 
everlasting happiness, thereby becoming Tyagaraja's devo- 
ted friends. 

10. Many are those, who with overflowing devotion; 
meditate upon the holy name of Sri Rama and become the 
true servants of the Lord praised by Tyagaraja. 



5$! 1>^J 3^! ?OTSWTT! ^ 

sw ?rog^ w»rafr %gi (?) 

$33 to *as ^13 (?) 

#^fl ^f^ f^ffSf ^Tf3 (?) 

§|3I WS3 *fc 'www (i) 

Tmgat % 3re #^31 (?) 


Oh Merciful Lord ! Harid&sas are going in an imposing 
procession and their sight fills me with supreme joy* They 
sing devotedly iheholy names in order - Hari, Govinda, 
Naraharif Rama, Krishna etc. To the accompaniment of 
mridangam, they go along the streets, singing r brimming 
with ecstacy. In the joy that they have secured Hari, they 
forget themselves and praise your holy name as the only 
means for salvation. With girded loins they dance to th$ 

(hirii~pra$amsa 31 

accompaniment of tala, and with divine wisdom, with 
meditation on Rama, and with fine musici surrender their 
bodies to the Lord. They, in company with Ty agar aja. shine 
brilliantly, scattering flowers over the Lord of Lords- 


g#$ m& gfafe *fi*pr ^| (g) 

wfer wfa *t%*P3p ^gg-s (§) 

VTg'fe'B ^g^-^g^ 3t3 3t~ 

sr §fo ww-wFTO^rg^g (3) 

"GURULEKA" (Gowrl Manohari) 
Whatever might be one's merits and qualities, without 
a Sad Guru, to cut and clear the deep forest of his mental 
torment, it will not be possible for him to acquire any know-, 
ledge. Health, children, wealth, wife 5 relations, etc.* appear 
to disappear, thereby causing him distress. A guru alone 
will be able to protect one by administering, with love, the 
medicine of spiritual initiation and enlightenment to keep 
the mind free from attachment. 

^ f%^ #vNws^-«igR* swift} *oti ('ft) 


^3 Vgft ^^ WFOTSTgcT ! (*fr) 


Your mind is steady and taintless and so I have fixed 
my faith entirely in you. My mind is deceitful and unsteady. 
Pray do not give me up on that account, O Rama ! The Guru 
cleanses the mind like a Ssllakl Seed (which clarifies water 
by removing mud therefrom) ; he is the bee (which transforms 
the pupil into himself) ; he is the sun (who dispels the mist 
of ignorance); he is the embodiment of auspiciousness and is 
himself the highest to be attained* I have taken yourself 
as the Guru in this world who protects the devotee. 




fft 05 1% Vg ^ 3333 f|TO 



ift: *ij 1% ^-^ faE£ft* 



qri^^gS %cT WF[ fccff 3H%5T 

^f^t%tt *wgs wm srcg %m 



m?> wmfa w-arogs srftffa 

^rig^^r^Rcr-^g^ ers^ 



grig «5RT«raT wig^sT TOmwr 

vqF»^T5T55^ ^w-^s <%feftr &ra 


8a tsanga-prasamsa 33 

" BUDDHI RADU " ( SankarStbharanam ) 

True wisdom will not dawn on one, if he is not inspired 
by the words of the great saints. 

Mere mastery of all the great branches of learning will 
not secure wisdom. 

Though one may have done any amount of charity 
with grains and money, wisdom will not be vouched to 
him if he does not drink the nectar of the speech of 
single-minded devotees. 

Though one may have read ceaselessly R&m&yana, 
Bh&gavata and other pur anas, he will' not have wisdom, 
unless he associates with those who have true knowledge 
of the significance of the lives of the Avatars in human form. 

Though one may have practised yogas and though one 
may have secured all enjoyments, wisdom will not be his, 
if he has not gained the friendship of devotees of Rama* 




m$k f^rss **%rr ? fa) 

srfcsfawr ^ fa) 

qter? wron^l f* fa) 


"SATTALENI DINAMtT' (Naganandini) 

Have we fallen on godless days ? O embodiment of 
Truth ! O God who abides in the hearts of the good ! No 
doubt this is the first part of the Kaliyuga. Should people, 
on that account, pay neither respect nor regard to their 
parents and Gurus and indulge in various kinds of 
misdeeds ? 


tr#r 3*r ^s? ^sfcr $g$ ate (%) 

*WPR5P ifta *® lift ^r#cft ^r (t?) 

^ ^f^g %ft snftgf 

11 EVARIENA LERA " (Siddhasena) 

Are there no good and great men in this world, who 
could protect the helpless and let Sri Rama know of the 
poignant trouble which people experience in the sea of 
samsara ? 

Is there no one of firm mind who could now point out 
to Tyagar&ja what the acts of the low people of Kali are and 
what the acts of greedy and haughty men are (to enable 
him to avoid them) ? 

Sangitacharya-prasamsa 35 


%$$ sHfa #lta <&- (ft) 

%*$f ^n^TTOBTCK- (ft) 

5igi^3 cziTOo^r-^Ffsgi 3frR^-§^f%-^r- (ft) 

" VIDULAKU " (Mayamalava Gowla) 

Obeisance to all the learned ; obeisance to all those 
who are well- versed in music ; obeisance with joy to those 
who are well-versed in the divine music of Sama Veda 
promulgated by Siva; obeisance to those versed in the 
seven svaras whose soul is Nada ; obeisance to Lakshmi, 
Parvati, Sarasvati, Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, Narada, Indra, 
Bharata, Kasyapa, Chandikesvara, Anjaneya, Subrahmanya, 
Vighnesvara, Markandeya, Agastya, Tumburu, Somesvara, 
Sarngadeya, Nandi and other (promulgators of music) who 
are worthy of Tyagar&ja\s respect ; obeisance to those who 
know the secret of the bliss of Brahmananda. 


^ *n*wfo ©JJfinPT kSfvjqg toh ? it) 


fcsriinl *nw! fo&k 

ftfti gsigp #f%^T$ (ft) 


sicr§>H% sigfa 3g *p^ ^qj^rarft (ft) 

*flfcfigS«r stays ftfiH^r *fl§ 

sr% wftK-f ftfe ^ *F4-9£nnft (?) 


Is it possible even for Brahma, Inclra and others to 
measure the blessedness of those who worship the Great 
Ones who meditate on you ? 

Dullards, people of unsteady mind, heinous sinners and 
those who can never hope for salvation, if only they join the 
company of those who worship you, the matchless one, they 
also become unequalled beings. 

Those who grovel in the Maya Samsara and those who 
are fully immersed in lust and similar vices, if only they 

Sat$anga»pra$am$d. 3*? 

seek the Darsana of those Bhaktas who have real faith in 
you and have minds filled with nectar, will Brahma, Indra 
and others be able to measure their blessedness? 

Those who follow the routine of the karma-marga, with- 
out knowing your real truth, those who are devoid of Dharma, 
if only they think of the rare fortune of the pure-minded 
who meditate upon your form which gave birth to these 
worlds* will Brahma, Indra and others be able to measure 
their blessedness? 

<TOS *T?*T ^f% <nf&**£R39 (sft) 

TOTCT i $ sf^g ($) 

"LILAGANU JUCHU'' (Divyamani) 

Oh Paramatma ! Bless me so that I might associate 
closely with high-minded people who look upon as your 
sport (Ilia), all the worldsi with all these dullards and 


vulgar folk, the men, semi-divine beings, demons, Indra, 
Siva, Vishnu, trees, the vegetable and animal kingdom t and 
the mountains and other numerous worlds. 

^rate ti &-mm$ ^sr% ml fa) 

?rft %fo9§5 $55 5$j&to 
srp^n^ro cTi5 it? c np5 *l&re ; £~ 

^ ! TO Jfoft §feq fa) 

11 S ARVANTARY AMI " (Bhairavi) 

Is the glory of your immanence in all beings real ? It 
is a wonder how the pure-minded could tolerate the sight 
of such worthless people as those who are ignorant of the 
right path, who are indigent, and destitute, who, out of 
haughtiness, are indulging in debased religious practices, 
who are given to debauchery and who do perverse deeds 
and remain worldly^ The mystery is really perplexing, 
I do not know. 



As&dhu-garhana 39 

\. 9 ^raj *nra$ a^r qk% srgg (^) 

v- gforrag^s srfcil-sw ^rg^^qrj (*j) 

*. ^nSflFr%«wi5-«nai%i!R^[ sn% Oct) 

%.* wrong itss^r anw Srtpw; wres (*r) 

"RAMA RAM&KRISHNA" (Gowlipantu) 

O people ! You will all do well to chant the name of 
my Sitarama and Krishna day and night. 

Your heart itself will bear witness to the happiness 
that this path, as different from other paths, will bring you. 

Oh people, you who deeply desire objectionable acti- 
vities and are lost in them ! 

Who wallow excessively in low talks and who have be- 
come slaves to desires, even after reading all s&stras ! 


Who, unable, out of envy, to stand the prosperity of 
neighbours, still pass on kind words to them ! 

Who. though they talk sweetly f have poison in their 
hearts ! 

Who, though having learnt how to use speechi yet 
when the actual occasion for it comes, bring ruin on their 
intelligence (i. e. do not know how to speak) ! 

This fact is testified to by several who had no high birth, 
but were shrewd (enough to adopt this path), those like the 
serpents the pig, the elephant, the ghost and many hein- 
ous sinners. 

This path of redemption, Tyagaraja has learnt to be the 
means to achieve temporal and spiritual emancipation. 


Sftffe 3?^, ggcn (^) 

«nraR ^tftfir sgre, % 

Viseshaguruprasamsa : Narada 4l 

* ^fH%fe jjjnq («ft) 

"SRI NARADA MUNi" (Bhairavi) 

Oh ! Guru Raya ! I am blessed with your Darsana; pro- 
bably it is the effect of my tapas in previous births. I have 
sought you with all my heart. I have today feasted my eyes 
with your sight. As the result of your seva, I am rid of the 
bondage of Samsara. You alone have attained bliss through 
true knowledge ; you alone are the destroyer of ignorance, 
O Guru Raya with veena shining in your hand f you the 
sad-guru, who saved Tyagaraj. t 



sjfareel ^*#$ppr ! s*mr («ft) 



Oh Narada ! The honey-bee in the lotus of Nada, of 
auspicious form, the saviour of the honour of the distressed, 
Lord of the world, one who resembles the moon, one who 
knows well the technique of playing on veena, which has 
its origin in the Vedas, free from the three kinds of tor- 
ments that cause distress, adored by Devas, the friend of 
Sri Krishna, one whose heart is full of bliss always, the 
foremost among the sages, the giver of wealth and prospe- 
rity, adored by Tyagaraja, save me ! 



^5^ ^5 ife^ P 

fiflft W* $ft acis^ *rfcr (sir) 

Viseshaguruprasamsa : Narada 4$ 


Oh Narada Guru ! Won't you bless me now at least ? 
Why this dearth of compassion? Oh blessed pure one, 
with a body brighter in lustre than the cloud of the Sarat 
season, who has mastered the Vedas, yoga and music ! If 
not through you, at whose instance have the Puranas, 
Agamas and other charitas come into being ? How could 
the suggestion have arisen in Satyabhama to make a gift of 
her husband, if not through you ? Who fcould have helped 
munis and yatis but you ? I have reposed complete faith 
in you ; relieve me of my mental distress, you who blessed 



efprrcsl 3rcr^-^^ig*[Efg^ (g) 

" VARA NARADA " (Vijaya Sri) 

Oh Narada, the spotless one, of form similar to that of 
the autumnal moon, who constantly enjoys the bliss of 
meditating upon Narayana, bless me effectively. Sri Hari 


himself has proclaimed you as the greatest Guru of the 
whole Universe and that He and you are identical and has 
thus caused your glory to spread throughout. 



Kshetra - tirtha - rnahima 

Kshetra tirtha-atana 


^ ^r^ft «BswCTftr far) 

v %iwr ^f%$§ #9*13 

Kctveri tlrtha and Panchamda kshetra 45 

"SARI VEDALINA" (Asaveri) 

Look at K&verl. which is gloriously going towards her 
husband's house, fulfilling the desires of all people without 
any differentiation. 

She moves rapidly in one place, roars fearfully at an- 
other* she remains still with full grace at a third. 

With cuckoos singing pleasantly, she, after seeing and 
worshipping Sri Ranganata, comes to Panchanadeswara, 
who is the life of the fourteen lokas. 

She is being worshipped with flowers by Brahmans on 
either side and is praised by them as R&jar&jesvari. 


K&verl and Panchanoda 

pirft - <3f$3> 


gf^g 3Tfe^r ? sm ! s- 

■«^fty3 ! sffimis - f sfftisr ! 


rr-Mtrn-rrf -rrrr^CT ! wrrrer.. 


*RW ! §3°t ^feikr $S§ (g) 


S^3 g*a sFragss g^%5? 

sftwPr ft* wft? ! % 

ot 3ct grag Tftft 5131 (g) 

tfwf w*to ■wee 3* 
writ *fft 

5RTO ^ftBr 5HB qtft^Rft (g) 


Oh Rama ! Are you not happy (1) that you have secured 
a charming and excellent place known as Panchanada 
Kshetra, in the Chola country, beautiful in all this world, 
worthy of being coveted by Siva, on the bank of the K&- 
verli over which blows the incomparable zephyr and which 

Panchanada kshetra 47 

is studded with palatial and beautiful buildings where Brfth- 
mans worship, perform homas and chant Vedas ; 

(2) that you have in it a mantapam to live in, made of 
gold, bedecked with precious gems, surrounded on all 
sides by divine trees with sweet-smelling flowers, adored 
by sages, Suka and Sanaka, with the melody of cuckoos, 
where you are served by Sarasvati ; 

(3) that you have on either side Slta and Lakshmana 
to serve you. 


ttft ftspi^r swft ! *rf Till q"§TO[ter ft) 


^1| ?%$% w«f^^ ft) 

^srnEnRW 53 ^ spror ft) 

tKl *nro^! q^iwc! ft) 

^T^T^f fRWifincw ! ft) 



Oh Lord of the three worlds I Come and protect me I 
Give me the hold of your hand ! O you adored by Agastya! 
the bee in the lotus of the hearts of the devotees ! the gale 
which blows away the evil people ! the destroyer of my 
sins 1 



#s^i \m^ (s) 

<n$ftft 5®m> ^Utf (5) 

Panchanada kshetra 49 

qftr ^rfe sfag *to?r *sg (S) 

sngpT swc g<*<ft flhr 

%^3 33*5 §3TC ?3J0Tg*T 

cTTT^TS 3H333 %&§ (5) 


Lord Siva of Panchanada is coming out most beautifully 
in procession, with his thought fixed on Parvati, the pure 
and the beautiful ; let us all go, O ladies, and enjoy the 
Darsanam. It is not easily available even for Brahma and 
other gods. 

The Lord with his white and captivating form, bedecked 
with jewels and rich flower garlands, is seated in an orna- 
mented palanquin, with royal paraphernalia, carried by men 
of celestial bearing and with praises being sung by real 

At every stage he is being offered suitable naivedyam 
and countless services by devotees. 


He looks out for his devotees who practice always with 
great pleasure Japa and Tapas, and lovingly promises 
fulfilment of their desires. 

Seeing this glory, Bh&gavatas sing Hari-nama-klrtana 
excellently and with sweet notes and the elaboration of 
varied R&gas. The Lord is coming out wide awake to 
protect in time all good men and grant their boons/ pro- 
claiming himself as being identical with Ty&garaja. 

$OT - '^S&> - 3flj^ 




When you have not shown any mercy to me who have 
long been meditating on you, pining with devotion and 
surrendering body and soul at your holy feet, who gave you 

Panchanada kshetra 51 

the appellations of Pranatarti-hara (the destroyer of the 
distress of the devotees) and Sankara (the giver of happi- 
ness) ? 

Have I not sought refuge in you, making sasht&nga 
pran&mams to you, (with all the parts of my body touching 
the ground) ? And have I not made plaintive appeals to 
you, Oh Panchanadxsa ?. 



Wffi^g %«53 <reg<3 qr^g 

qmK %ftfo *f*£i*ft far (?) 

tpcRnw gr ^-qg *$ft 5 m (?) 

qis^r <wiwR<nt? ! R? ft) 


"DARSANAMU SEYA" (Narayana Gowla) 

Oh Siva ! Is it possible for me to have your Darsanam ? 

You must take all things into account and forgive me. 

No doubt I have seen the Gopuras, massive pillars, 
stone idols installed on the earth and dances of women, 
rows of lights, beautiful vahanas and made pradakshinas 
duly. My mind has been turned on things external. 

I have made sixteen pradakshinas ; I have indulged in 
slandering others and in exultantly gazing at others' wives ; 
but I have been unable to bring myself to do the holy 
Siva Japam. 

Is it a child's play to install your glorious and beautiful 
golden figure in the lotus of my heart and forget myself in 
constant vision of it ? 

*3Wfe ~ 'fifffiwfiH*FW Sift 


RnRnfinwwi? (%) 


WTO TO5 6R£5 #fa 

Pa?ich(mada kshetra 53 

c^tti^r ssr^ft ^f% (%) 


Why should you not chant the name of Lord Siva and 
get rid of the fears and troubles of Samsara ? 




"DEVADI DEVA SADASIVA" (Sindhunamakriya) 

Oh Sadasiva ! God of Gods ! Friend of the destitute ! 
Pray, give me devotion to your holy feet ! 




cnr%f% ift sift ifcta ? $3$-$** . i, T ^ 

1. snft swiqqsfoT 

II^T SOT ?ifc3P3[o5 
Tift 1 <fle!>i%<!$ [ ^ ^ 


Panckanada k$ketra^Dharmasamvardhani 55 

S*5* * T ^ Wfa *# 

5ft?r «rt^Pr ! *fl (q) 

^*r #^t f^T 

TF^I ? $3T 


Oh mother, Dharmasamvardhani ! Pray,, come to my 
succour ! Who can equal you in this Universe ? I have 
reposed my faith in you. Won't you enable me to realise 
your presence always ? 




3 W^npHro* *ta 


toW ! ^ Atop ? ^ (?) 

^. t^ns *pft I s-*r®<n ift 

v srtagp ^-i sitaft ! ait (<t) 


Oh Parasakti! Dharmasamvardhani ! Won't you sustain, 
and protect me? Why are you indifferent to me ! Indra 
Brahma* Rakshasas etc. pray to you for boons. Gods like 
Indra have attained immortality by worshipping you. When 
they praise you out of ecstacy, you shower your grace on 
them. Should you not see that wicked people, who forsake 
the innocent ones, do not come here ? 



Panchanada kshetra — Dharmasamvardham 57 

sfl^rc 5?ss^ era ft$ 

«igs «ri?Rr to& ! qtfgvift! (5ft) 

srcf f His *faft ^fftfcwra 
snqft sitapqft? *Mt mm ? 

5fTW5g &3FT §tq$ Jj§3 

qrafirfft «nf«Hft i (*) 

aft gm^jft ! ^ 3ft*fo &3 


'imU BROVAVALE" (Saveri) 

Oh Devi ! Dharmasamvardhani ! You must give me 
your blessed Darsana and protect me always. I have been 
searching the whole world, but I have not been able to find 
a merciful being like you. My mind has caught hold of you. 
Could I ever forget you hereafter ? 

Without minding the faults I have committed till now, 
bless me by granting my heart's desires . 

Do not play false to me* Do not make me run after 
gold which is worthless like a piece of stone. I have regar- 
ded everything as you. How long are these ordeals of 
Maya Sams&ra to last ? Why should you be still indifferent 
in granting me constant devotion to your feet ? It is not 
fair that you should not remove from me the Maya that 
you have cast. 

People do not know your glory ; by your very nature 
you protect the world. I have reposed my entire faith 
in you. 

Stfo - '^T^W 




Panchanadu kshetra—Dharmasamvardkani 59 

^gr %fam %f*rc 9$- 

S5rftreffc%! gsnr scrag; (¥.) 

*wf Hte fNg crafe- 
JR15, 8T|ff%ftr^g? ?f- 

giror gw*«j *igftf% *rr- 
3*T$f%ft %, ^ srefir ! *- 
^rh ^ *?$ 13 ?ot- 



Oh Queen of unparalleled Panchanadapura ! Beloved 
of Siva ! Protect me always with mercy. You are the prop 
of the universe and I have reposed my entire faith in you. 
Don't regard me as an unknown stranger. Don't give your 
ear any more to tales against me. I am worthy of your 

I have believed that you are the destroyer of past 
misdeeds done in ignorance and out of arrogance* I have 
begged of you the gift of devotion to your blessed lotus feet. 
How is it that it does not strike you to grant it ? Pray # do not 
keep back your grace. Don't you hear my constant 
plaintive appeals to you in my helpless condition ? Who 
else is there to protect me ? 

Oh Parasakti! My mind should not be unsteadily 
oscillating like the drop of water on a lotus leaf. What is 
the good of it ? You are the half of Siva's body. Yourself, 
Rama and Siva are not different. You ought not to give up 

fifa?%r*i*3ig*ft (ft) 


Ssftrowft ^fesfanft %* spr (ft) 

i. art g^R wro ftcjssprfi 

Panehanada kshetra—Dharmasamvardhani 61 

»?ta5 q^ag %?3pt ^rls g«ra 
iropi^* *to**ir, «£ft5sgfftf sffr 

^ «foj IfaPH *atlft «teggoy gjj; 

3^5*1 fo«tar afoft, «ft pu- 
trid qfrnfeft ofcftft 
5rc"iFr?r s?sfoft g^igs srnwrft 

"VIDHI SAKRADULAKU" (Yamuna Kalyani) 

Oh ! Dharmambika! Protector and refuge of the wise! 
Supreme Mother ! Is it possible for Brahma, Indra and other 
gods to have the darsana of your grand Sukravftra seva, 
when moon-faced damsels serving you carry the parapher- 
nalia and utter slogans of victory at every step, and 
display excellent art in dancing, when golden flowers rain, 
when devas rush and prostrate on the ground in your front, 
when you cast your side glance in joy on all this, and with 


your necklace dangling and with your gentle smile illumi- 
nating the whole place, with parrot in hand, hold conversa- 
tion with Lakshmi, when Sanaka* N&rada and others praise 
you in chorus and the brilliance of your garments spreads 
lustre all round. 

Oh ! you Mother residing at Panchanadapura, having 
eyes brimming with compassion ! 


firora%3ta? «imnnfc (fir) 

«wr #€3 tot ^KWwgp (%) 

TOf Sj^Tf; eft *f 

Panchanada fcshetra—Dharmasamvardhani 63 


Oh Sive | O goddess Dharmasamavardhani abiding on 
the northern bank of the K&verl ! Pray, protect me, you who 
grant the fruit of their desires to those who resort to you. 
When it is difficult even for the great Saraswati to praise 
your innate glory, what am I ? You give, with affection and 
love, words of encouragement and estimable gifts. You are 
the whole Universe, movable and immovable. You ought 
not to treat me with indifference. 




*J%! Sl$| ajjrfor ! VRNl *Rft (qr) 

* eft ! 33*5 fom 3?ra- 


wnft ! «nfctofft i (srr) 

Oh, Healer of the disease of Samsara, Mother of the 
Universe! Dharmasamvardhani! Why delay in protecting 
me? Having incarnated here as the consort of Lord 
Siva, you should beckon me affectionately as your son, 
forgive me my faults and bless me so that I may worship 
your holy feet in my heart always with devotion. 



Panchanada kshetra—Dharmasamvardhani 65 

wiwi &w§ %&H m 
*. wnft 3*13$ $3 life %^3 

<E$f3ff Wft% ! 

JWT *rcq% ; «rafft% ! ait 3Rf% (?) 

*\. ^5^5Sf# lis %5i% sft pigg 
*r.gfts Wft% ! 

Ifclfeft! VlJfift! ^t^ft! (?) 



fife *ifa5pSft *rffcw 9153 5 

*fe?rF%! SRT&fc! sftsRft! (?) 

Wcr «rifKSfe ! air sraft (?) 

^. Trfta*pi7 ^t^ 1 <fott ? ft- 

^M&iR: cflnrogR' torts 

"INNALLA VALE" (DSsya Todi) 

Oh Dharmambike ! Pray, do not treat me as a stranger 
as you have been doing all this time^ I have now become 
your own. There is no good in reposing faith in others. 
Oh Mother ! Can I bear these countless births ? Can you 
not stop it ? Forgive me and bless me so that my mind may 
not be tainted by sense pleasures. Don*t entangle me in 
the meshes of your Maya. Come to my rescue as a mother 
comes to the rescue of her crying baby. DonH treat my 
wail as a mere noise. 

Though you hear my plaintive appeals, why does not 
your heart melt ? You had fed babies like a live mother 

Panchanada kshetra — Dharmasamvardhani 67 

with milk* Pray, stand before me and show me your 
blessed face. Do not think that I say all this in fun. I have 

reposed my faith in you from a long time. I have been 

worshipping your holy feet several times. I have regarded 

you as the fortune of the poor, pious souls. Even Brahma 

cannot adequately praise you ; bless me ! 

*§ m 3% ; *r wrptt ! 


*g in& *m *ta« fl- 
eer ^^m wpncragS ! (*) 


Oh my mother! Dharmasamvardhani! If you do not 
protect me when I am making plaintive appeals to you, 


pining with devotion, who else will save me? Bless me with 
boons always ! 



srrcft - '^%*rf*#> - *nft 

3*TC5 *ftf% ?r?r^ aft ^nT pr\ 

«rf $§* cR§ sift ! 

"AMBA NINNU" (Arabhi) 

Oh Mother [ Dharmasamvardhani ! Why do you doubt 
me when I say that I entirely repose my faith in you, taking 

Nd,gapattom-~Nilayatakshi 69 

refuge at your feet with my whole heart in a helpless condi- 
tion and unable to bear distress ? 

$4% ^cT TCT, cT%! 



sft§ ifr era 4ft" §f 



Oh Nilayatakshi of Nagapattana ! the witness of the 
Universe ! Owing to the overpowering force of my past 
karma, I have been running after the rich men of the world, 
but they could not remove distress; I have come to thee 

You have protected the earth from being overrun by the 
sea, which seeing your heroic form had to remain submis- 
sive and desist from its purpose* 

Realising that your grace alone is my wealth, and not 
material money for which I had no desire, I came to you 
full of hope and became your true devotee. 


'^^P - $wj 

^ ^9 sit *% sft *fi%Q$ ? (<?) 

Rfir aritufl-fsrefl $ #33 (3) 

ferahmapuri - Subrahmanya ti 

V m *5?gfai% tffat* fag ft- 


Who can understand even a fraction of your prowess 
and glory? Oh Nll&yatakshi, whom I have seen at Naga- 
pattana ! 

Clad in precious golden garments, adorned with celes- 
tial flowers, with a parrot in hand, you made Siva dance. 
At that time Hari, Brahma and other Gods praised you, 
all the devata women stood witnessing gracefully and celes- 
tial damsels danced also in merriment. Seeing all this, you 
showered your grace profusely. 

You are the consort of N&gabhushana (Siva) and you 
are the wealth of the devotees. Who else is there to 
protect them ? 


* ifk |gg3, qTO* ! % % nwcf (#) 


TOP 5R#5^^ $>- 

w^rg aft srftf ifafifr (sft) 

^. 5$ 553$ Sprigs 

tot d^nai- 

TOpfir *f?Ni3 ifcmfcn (*) 

srwfaq wrwg «ft- 

WPumwpsT ! Bratfcr ! ($) 

Buhrakmanya 73 


Oh Subrahmanya, Son of ParvatI, residing at Brahma- 
puri ! It is not possible to find a God like you, nor to under- 
stand your inner significance. 

While you were playing with your mates at Kailasagiri, 
you got angry with Brahma for his having declared that He 
alone represented the significance of Pranava, called out one 
of your nine followers and bestowed upon him the creative 
power, to the admiration of devas, Vishnu and Siva. 

When Vishnu and Siva, Dikpalakas, the Sun, the Moon 
and all the heroes of the world, finding it impossible to deal 
with the treacherous demon Surapadma came in a body to 
you and sought your help, you destroyed his arrogance to 
your great glory. 

You have installed in my heart your exquisitely beauti- 
ful form which defies even a myriad Manmathas, Oh Mer- 
ciful one! 

^tq '5TCf^Ii?T' soft 




Oh Lotus-eyed Lord mounted on an excellent peacock ! 
Bestow welfare, Oh Lord who excels a crore of Manmathas 
by your form ! 

Oh Lord born in the reed*grove, whose feet are praised 
by gods like Indra ! Oh Kumara of excellent qualities ! Oh 
Fire that destroyed demons, Taraka and Surapadma I Son 
of Devi ! Heroic nephew of Rama ! Oh Friend ! Generous 
and compassionate Lord, praised by Tyagaraja ! 

wtfrfSr - '*ftfcraift> - 3flft 




# ipift ! M^-# ^35 *r ^ ? (aft) 

WONJI #r Iw-wfiiSS *n*cr ? (aft) 

Srirangam — Bangan&tha > % 

mgs qffiifc ^^qgg g- 
c9T<3 Sjs 3*53 TH *WcT 5 

" OH RANGA SAYI " (Kambhoji) 

Oh Rangasayi ! When I implore you to come 1o me, 
why should you not ? Has not Siva become Kailasapati at 
your instance ? If you (forgetful of other things) give yourself 
up to enjoyment in the company of Lakshmi, taking 
Srirangam to be Vaikuntam on earth, when is there to be an 
end to my worries and concerns ? I have suffered much, 
living in the midst of envious people who cannot stand to 
see others prosper and have come to you to have darsanam 
of your divine rupam bedecked with garlands of pearls. 



<\ . sf^Tl OTS^2 #B235 ^3$S 

TOJS 5IFW3 TOflcffre, *ffif (%) 

tmm «sa« gjjjprc wrfctft ( ! |) 


" CHUTAMU RARE " ( Arabhi) 

Oh Ladies ! Come along, let us see Rangapati. They 
say he was worshipped by Sri Rama ; he is the repository of 
all charms; he wears a costly shawl and beautiful ear- 
ornaments; he is of prime age; and above all he is 

His face defies the moon in beauty ; He speaks very 
sweetly. He gives people happiness and protects them ; 
He is of loveable personality ; he permeates all agamas and 
Vedas ; he rules the whole Universe. 


fencer *t *r& (1%) 

OTGfai ^fifiRsr! aft- 

w®\ wsa^ «Brftftr Pteftcl (f|) 


*i5T srg§ sffi wft fasrf%^ (fsf) 

11 VINARAD A " (De vagandhari) 

Oh Golden*hued Ranga of Kaverl I Lord of Sri ! Can't 
you listen to my appeal? When the ladies including, the 

Srlrangam — RanqandXha 77 

Royal party, so lovingly call you when you come out in 
procession on horse back, why should you not respond ? 
You are their treasure. 



Wife l w^' ®m 

"RAJU VEDALE'! (Desya Todi) 

Come, let us enjoy the sight. Sri Ranga Raja, bedecked 
with shining and precious ornaments and attended by prin-* 
ces on horseback, has come out in procession in Chitravlthi 
of Rangapuri, made holy by the Kaverl and made fit as the 
abode of Lakshmi. Devas enjoy the seva and worship with 
devotion and Tyagaraja sings in the procession. 



W3^! %RT-TTf§F ^RpfWn ! 

TOT ^ggtftat-sR ^sfa ^ftr% (5&) 

^r$$f 35355% %^g*FF *rr- 


Oh Paramapurusha I Our great treasure ! Kaveri Ranga ! 
Look at me with compassion and listen (to me) ; hold me 
by the hand, bless me with boons and your grace, when you 
are in glory in company with the two consorts , the twin 
Nachiyars of broad eyes, with devotees and Alwars and 
partaking of offerings made to you ! 


Sri—tapastirtha— Saptarishisa 79 

sft sirs trBw i <NfiJ fiwn^ c rc- 
«rawg <ref§ fiw^ s% ^rft ; 

V swift faro *ranc! sfaifcr ci^hR 

ww mmm ^jtotr: src Oft) 

"ISA PAHI MAM " (Kalyani) 

Oh Jagadlsa ! Saptarishisa ! Protect me ! Can ordinary 
people aspire to hava this rare Darsana of yours ? I do not 
know as the result of what Tapas I made in the past that I 
have had your holy name. This is really Bhuloka Kailasa as 
people say. I have seen it for myself several times. Who 
is your equal ? By your divine presence, all my worries and 
troubles have disappeared and my life has become blessed 
today. Who is there, but you for me ? 


3[SR ! WE® Wl-Z&ft ! ?ft *IfT (%) 

^RRTftS^f ! ^^ ! f - 

"TT55 Mtef ! i^rre^rss =5- 


Oh Mahadeva ! Pray, grant me devotion to you and 
protect me soon. 



Sritapastirtha—Devl Pravriddha-Srlmati 81 

aftftft *ft?B ^S^^FI^^ * . (55) 

^J% ^3> TO$T ? 

% ^Tg^ 5fl% list TT^j ; (55) 


Oh Lalite! Pravriddha-Srimati of Sritapastirtha 1 Oh 
Mother of beauty and ever-growing wisdom ! Am I not an 


ignorant boy ? Are you not the custodian of wisdom ? Is it 
proper that you should be indifferent towards me ? Won't 
you say a few words of comfort to me ? 

I have no one else in the world to protect me. Unable 
to bring myself to beg of people of this world, I have 
approached you as your devotee* 

I have become a befitting recipient of your brothers' 
grace. I have straight sought refuge under you. 


gi^^^fe ! f&pritft sr^t (q) 

Srltapa$Urtha — D§vl Pravriddha-Srimati 83 

" M AHITA PR AVRIDDHA " (Kambho ji) 

Oh Mother Pravriddha-Srimati ! Pray, protect me and 
grant -me devotion to your blessed feet ! 




^ sfaft* «&ft *ferf?r aft! toitP (?r) 

w^ sftei^TR 5 ?r# ifawg ire? ? 
ViiEH 1^5 stag J?3 


Ha f g^r m 

foEreifosSf, awl 
sfNsfSf sresrRgs #*f f 

"GATI NIVANI" '(Todi) 

Oh Mother ! why this forgetfulness ? After prolonged 
search and being convinced that you are the sole refuge of 
true devotees, I have come to you and fixed my faith in your 
holy feet, Protect me now* 

Is it possible even for Brahma to praise you adequately ? 
O Goddess of the form of supreme bliss, residing at Sri- 
tapastirtha ! There is no equal to you on earth. Am I not 

Kanchip ura— Varadarctja 85 

yours ? You have afforded protection to the kings of the 
earth, who, seeing that they are not fully free from their 
troubles, have joined together and approached you with 
firm faith that you are the only saviour that fulfills desires. 

It is not known what great merit people would have 
acquired to live in this place. O Goddess, residing in Sri- 
pura ! I have sought your supports I cannot beg of others. 
Pray, do not treat me with indifference. You and none else 
are my sole refuge. Do not put me off. Your glories are 

Oh Queen of the Universe ! Goddess Maya, Mother of 
the Gods! Listen. I have become single-minded in my 
devotion through your grace. Why this compassionlessness 
towards me ? When I have you as my prop, it is undignified 
for me to beg of people of this world for food and money. 
Further, it is not in keeping with your glory. 

sea 33S *tsw sfc %% SfW (3) 



" VARADAR AJA " (Swarabhushani) 

Oh Varadaraja ! Worshipped by Devas, Munis and 
Brahmans ! I have come here seeking you, having had dar- 
sana of your Garuda Seva ; I prostrate before you. Your 
place (Hastigiri) is considered to be Waikuntham itself and 
is beyond all description. You shine among the Devas 
like the moon among the stars. 

Eftr$ fr #3 *fa%, fag 

ft*T ^S &rcwr ? (ft) 

*TI w*ftl *R&! (ft) 

1. TO^5f3TO^5fT3- 

\. tap ^Rftcn^l ft- 

% ^Tc5 srrsg 5 iraififcftft (ft) 


Tirupati — Vmkatesa St 

h g*rc w% flKig *n$ft- 

*et^; ! <TOrft» ! ?rg (j|) 

"VINAYAKUNI VALENU" (Madhyamavati) 

Oh Sri Kamakshi ! Protector of the forlorn ! Pray, bless 
me as you would do Vinayaka, your own son ! Which other 
God can do this except you ? When you are there to grant 
boons even to the worst of human beings, Brahmans and 
devatas should not find themselves in distress. Should you 
not show mercy ? In response to Brahma's pleading for the 
sake of humanity, you have incarnated in the world in a 
benign and satvic form. If you delay still, I connot bear. 
Let your kind words go to me and bless me. 

%3 $«p5 T?3%^T (|) 



<T$srtsgr qfcnfea gftsw 


§$ft ^t ^s effigy (^) 

ipifrbj^ 3131 Sfos^te (^) 

"VENKATESA NINU" (Madhyamavdti) 

Oh Venkatesa who has taken abode on Seshachala and 
in the hearts of ySgis ! One should have myriad eyes to see 
you in glory with such a beautiful ruparn. You are prai- 
sed on all sides that you are the highest of the deities ; your 
mere darsana will surely secure salvation for those who pine 
with devotion for you. As probably the result of some 
meritorious deed of mine, I have tasted the nectar of thy 
sweet name and have thus secured a stepping stone to 
reach you, whose feet shine with incomparable brilliance, 

Tirupati-* Venkatesd 89 


^. ssfrvr gW^ s*rag* 

atens gi^f ^fejsrf^ (!) 

"TERA TIYAGA RADA" (Gowlipantu) 

Oh Tirupati Venkataramana ! Supreme Being ! Could 
you not remove the screen of anger, arrogance and jealousy, 
which, taking a firm stand within me, keeps me out of the 
reach of Dharma and other purusharthas including moksha? 
As the effect of this screen I am in the position of a hungry 
fish that gets ruined by grasping the bait in the angle* It 
effectively hides from vision the immaculate light of the 


lamp (Jnana) • I am in the plight of one who, while happily 
taking his dinner, gets a fly (ajnana) stuck in his throat. 
This screen creates confusion in me, as in the case of a man, 
who, while engaged in worship, allows his mind to wander 
over the chandalas' quarters. By the existence of this 
screen, my mind gets caught by evil, just as ignorant beasts 
are got in the hunter's net. 

I have been following you faithfully* (Pray promptly 
remove the screen). 

%*$ I q(fa ! *fac ! ftftsnrcro ! (tf) 

"SAMBHOMAHADEVA" (Pantuvarali) 

Pray, vouchsafe to me devotion to your holy feet — Oh 
Mah&deva ! 


Kov&r - Sundarfaa 91 

^3I3 f *5ra o 9g is (§) 

v ^ # sniffs 
site # ft^iRRregB 

^Tspj^rgft tf§rafln8gft (a) 

11 SUNDARESWARUNI" (Sankarabharanam) 

Will one have the mind to see any other God after 
having had darsanam of our beautiful Sundareswara ? He 


has his abode in Koviir, equal in grandeur to Kasi ; his legs 
have golden anklets, his hands have tinkling bracelets ; on 
his forehead shines Tilaka of Kasturi; on one .side are mar- 
shalled Brahma and other gods, on another the heavenly 
damsels. In one place Tumburu, Narada and in another, 
all devotees sing his glories. 

3HH - 'f^' - Sflfe 



3trcr% 8?#fa<srg %[- 

»5K *% 3*33 "fafe 

TO! ft$?RM &£ff! (|) 

"IVASUDHA" (Sahana) 

I have not seen in this world another God like you, Oh ! 
Kovuri Sundaresa, shining with ever-increasing glory.! Even 

Kovik - Sundaresa 93 

if one resides in your holy place only for half a minute, with 
devotion; you generously remove all worries from his mind, 
vouchsafe to him wealth and longevity, devotion to Br&h- 
mans, tejas and undying fame in the world. 


11 KORI SEVIMPARARE " (Kharaharapriya) 

Come and worship the beautiful Sundaramurti of 
Kovur and have your desires fulfilled. Devas are worship- 
ping with high class golden flowers ; Br&hmans and sages 
like Sanaka are praising him# He is promising the grant of 
prosperity to devotees. 


WHf8| -- '3fa#^T' 






Oh Sundareswara ! Treat me who have come to you 
with true faith, fairly and justly, you who beckon people 
and grant boons. You have been graciously pleased to 
incarnate on the earth as the Lord of Soundaryan&yaki at 
the imploring request of the Vedas, Agamas and Sastras, 
which had not been able to have darsanam of your holy 



Tiruvotriyik— Tripurasundarl 95 

w*u$i ^srrs&tii SI- 

*gg $foft ^i^re ^f%Sr $- 

Tg iff% TTg srtfe qf- 
Erc agg ^5 *it§ ; iM® 


mk* ^ftf af&w * 
% tfSfa *ift W tegs q- 

"KAMA TALLI" (Saveri) 

Oh my mother ! When you are by my side to prop me, 
why should I worry myself ? When one has butter in his 
hand, why should he cry for ghee ? 

I have realised that wealth, horses, huge buildings, etc 
owned by people are all unreal and that no protection can 
be given to one by others. I am not at all fond of the vain 
talk of the rich. Knowing that all these are maya, why 
should one mistake a rope for a snake ? 

SweeHongued relations, brothers-in-law; sisters and 
brothers, are with us when we are in plenty ; they desert 
us when we are in poverty. Realising this, I connot allow 
myself to fall a victim to their tricks. Will any one mistake 
a mirage for real water ? 

This body adorned with golden ornaments and nouri- 
shed with milk is not permanent. Seeing that there is not 
ev§n an iota of purity, Ty&gar&ja has dedicated all good work 
done by him every day to you and has regarded everything 
including devatas as yourself. 


Tiruvotriy&r - * Tripurasundarl 97 

3*g* ^B* * stag ftft 

SFT^ ! sftgife ^w? ? 


" SUNDARI NI DIVYA " (Kalyani) 

Oh Tripurasundarl ! Is it the effect of your grace or the 
fruit of my past worship that I have been privileged to have 
darsanam of your divine form, while the wise Gods, having 
heard of the beauty of you who are at the sacred Adipuri, 
feel worried and excited whether it would be possible for 
them to have the grand Sukravara-darsana of yours ? 

Having heard it proclaimed in congregations that in 
this yuga you are the protector of the distressed, I have 
rushed to you with great trouble in expectation of enjoying 
peace of mind» 

Oh my mother ! I have to»day achieved the purpose of 
life in that I have feasted my eyes with your darsan and 
stand in the position of a poverty-stricken man coming by 
wealth, and of withering crops suddenly getting water. 



Tiruvotriy&r— Tripurasundari 99 

*ftg§ «wfllr grog %r$ ; 

ift (§113 err <^*ft ; ftgp: (g) 



Oh Tripurasundari ! When it is not possible even for 
Brahma and other Devas to describe you, how can I ? See- 
ing the radiance of your graceful face, the moon dare not 
come to the earth- Seeing your exquisite beauty, Manmatha 
disappeared long ago; seeing the majesty of your pose, 
the ocean became stupefied and motionless; seeing your 
firmness, mount Meru became a rock; seeing your eyes, 
fishes became ashamed and betook themselves to the 
ocean; seeing the charm of your lovely smile, Lord Siva 
became peerlessly white (pale); seeing the brilliance of 
your jewels and garments, lightning became unsteady, 
unable to stand even for a minute; hearing your sweet 
voice, SaraswatI had to take her abode in her husband's 
tongue ; seeing your glory which purifies every thing, the 
sins of devotees had to flee away. 

By your unceasing grace, poets have been able to pro- 
duce lasting literary works ; the wise and the holy have 
spoken of you as the sister of Sri Mahavishnu ! 

iy^ir — Tripurctsundart lOi 

Meditating on your blesssd feet, TySgaraja cherishes 
them as his treasure. 

W*& ^^it-^t time* I $t$n (j) 


«iM ?rt& oft figi (§) 

5I^T ! srfwrRr «pftft ! 





Oh Tripurasundari ! Pray, find me out in the crowd an$ 
bless me ! Don't ignore me because it is all crowded here* 
Why don't you show compassion ? 



'gftft^ffc* *rft 

Tvruvotriyilr--*Tripura$undari 1&3 

^srossft ? $g*if feet ; 

u DARINI TELUSUKONTI " (Suddha S&veri) 

Oh Merciful Goddess ! Sister of my Sri Rama I I have 
ow known the way to salvation and have sought refuge in 
ou alone. I have learnt the path by following which Brahma, 
ldra and other Gods and devotees have reached the ocean 
E eternal bliss and swam in it, and I have found in you the 


protector of the distressed and the fulfiller of the desires of 
those who have faith in you. 

You are the mother that confers inestimable prosperity 
and wealth, that protects devotees, destroying the wilder- 
ness of their past karma. I have now understood how great 
sages of the world, by the glory of your grace, have freed 
themselves from the bondage of worldiness and attained 
eternal bliss. 

That I have been privileged to witness the Friday 
worship of yours is due to my past lives' merits. 

I have learnt why great men consider that your japam 
alone throughout one's life is the way to salvation. 



Sush ha~ Sang I ta-garh ana 



Sadhhakti-Sangita-prasamsa 105 

"RAGA RATNA MALIKA" (Rltigowla) 

Sri Hari is resplendently shining with the garland of 
songs in hundred gems of R&gas, composed by Ty&garaja 
for his salvation from Samsara. Come, we shall sing well 
and attain all the blessings. These songs contain the signi- 
ficance of the Vedas, the six Sastras, Puranas and Agamas. 
They show the path by which the great Yogis attain bliss. 
The songs are sung by eminent Bh^gavatars in congregation. 




Oh Mind ! That human life is a really blessed life in 
which the Lord is installed on the golden throne of thought 


and worshipped with flowers of His Holy names like Siva 
and Rama. 

Place Him, the reveller in the sport of Universe, the 
ornament of TySgaraja's heart, on the gem-bedecked seat 
of Swaras born out of Nada and worship His holy feet with 
the flowers of His Names. 


fipr*#*Hg *f^-fsm?nfrt, ^isgcir (g>) 

*r% %m ^fe fltfft so^g ^wger 

§ %% *f%% 5% esjnmgfr <rw ? sfaw t ($\ 


Where is that great man who, to the accompaniment 
of Mndanga and Tala, makes you delight and adores you with 
the songs which have words that convey the true spirit of 
the Upanishads, have correctness of the notes, rhythmic 
pauses,, true devotion, dispassion, simplicity and elegance 
and the mne Rasas ? Is it possible for Tyagaraja to do it ? 



Sadbhakti-Sangiia-prasamsd, 10/ 

%g *reg srpnns ¥lrc (s) 

"SANGfTA SASTRA GNANAMU" (Salagabhairavi) 

Music, as learnt and practised by discriminating Ty&ga- 
r^ja, when it has the blissful ocean of Ramakatha full of all 
rasas for its subject, is capable of securing for one the 
bliss of Sarupya, affection, devotion, attachment to good 
men, the Lord's grace, austerities, meditation, glory and 

ftfcrcswfciSS (W) 


v 9? tot sra *ra snsgs ^f%*rfcft 

*< 3Tfi[fa Sftftwi % f* i«H& ©ft 

*fa tohjs sung ara TOgg %5fe ( fir ) 

snwft cSFTCisi s^&rg ^?3f ( i%* ) 


Seeing all the good men doing bhajana all the time , 
Yama has become anxious. 

Looking at his emissaries armed with tridents and 
nooses, Yama has begun to think that the time has come for 
their enthusiasm to subside. 

As people have taken to the T&rakanama that destroys 
the terrible hell even as formidable Agastya dried up the 
ocean, Yama has become anxious. 

Yama has become anxious that even those, who wander 
without knowing the true path and would thereby come to 
him, are (now) singing the meritorious songs of Ty&garaja 

www - ■flRpig^RH 1 *Hjf! 

wiWispcr ; aft wet (^ 

Sadbhakti-Sangita-prasamsa 1 09 


OTTOS ^ 'S?^ 

" SWARARAGASUDHA " (Sankar&bharanam) 

Devotion associated with the ambrosia of Swara and 
Raga is verily paradise and salvation, O Mind ! What is the 


good of a crane and a frog trying to frolick over the lotus of 
Brahmanandam I To know and realize the nature of Nada, 
originating from Muladhara, is itself bliss and salvation. 
Likewise is a knowledge of the various resonant sthanas 
(parts of the body) from which emanate the glorious Sapta- 
swaras. One attains salvation when he becomes a Jnani 
after several births; but he who has knowledge of ragas 
along with natural devotion is indeed a liberated soul. 

Can happiness be had merely by thumping without the 
least knowledge of mridangam, talam, and gati ? Similarly 
a man doing worship without purity of mind is no better 
than a pig. 

A deep knowledge of the secrets of the Swararnava, 
imparted to ParvatI by Lord Siva is possessed by blessed 
Tyagaraja. Learn them from him, Oh Mind ! by approach- 
ing him wtth faith. 

*W$1 - '?!%«> _ aq$ 

iMfo URg DftifaMRfJjg *T3^ ? jprcn j (ty 



8 ushka- Sangi ia-garham 111 


Knowledge of Sangita (Music), bereft of devotion, is 
valueless and cannot secure salvation- The music practised 
by Bhaktas like Bhringi, Natesa, Anjaheya, Agastya, Matanga 
and Narada can alone secure it. 

Tyagaraja, who is able to distinguish between Nyaya and 
Any&ya, who knows that the world is Maya and who knows 
also how to conquer the six inward enemies of man, Kama 
etc., knows this matter well. 



ufaW Vigil (*) 

wtwk5 ^ft *ftft-«ft3rft %% jf sift (*r) 

CIS 3TSg *% *fftj fffi 

*iFiq3g«EWl3^ lift 


"MARIYADA GADURA" (Sankarftbharanam). 

Oh Merciful Lord ! It is not becoming of you to treat alike 
all and sundry. Bhagavatas who have no knowledge of 
music (R&ga-Tala), no real devotion and love, no Jnana 
Yoga or sympathy live only an animal life ! 



#anrc ! *fta p*g *rar wm^ta ! xn I (sft) 

^rafWh?ft^?9R:-ipr 5ffrpgp§pip$ (#) 

fcraro ssnfag srfR% 

11 SITAVAR A SANGITA " (Devagandhari) 

Oh the Great One, adored by Tyagaraja who revels in 
'suswara' and has direct vision of Atmarama who is none 
other than Brahman with his body of Akasa, and who realises 
that the Universe is Spirit! To be qualified tobeajlvan- 
mukta, which is the teaching of the GSta and all Upanishads, 
one must be blessed by Brahma with the gift of Sanglta Jnana. 



Sadbhakti-Sangita-prasainsa 113 

Sift - '^pftfo' «flfit 


They proclaim that for those who consider that He is, 
He is; will the words of the great become false now ? 

Why don't you come before us who desire to see your 
beautiful face with cheeks shining like mirror ? 

You are the compassionate Lord that protects those 
devotees who sing of you, casting off their sleep, taking a 
beautiful Tambura, with pure mind, with correctjntonation 
of the swaras and without swerving from the path of 

*H TYAGABAJA kirtanas 




'^^rf^lV - w&?{ 

sfar^Mg-swr P *ws ?%^ 



g*g?r fiw creragp gg*i$ |<s*rcfr 



*RI *ritg 9ft 533 ^ft *teft *ra% (3) 

\* y$ ?TT5^ JTRS-afawga wig 

V ^ft^i *i^-g?fa*p$g took 


Is it possible in this Kali, Oh Rama ! to escape, with a 
firm mind, from getting immersed in the dangerous tank of 
the senses, and survive ? 

Is it possible to have a mind that can regard valuable 
metals as poison and potsherd ? 

Is it possible to remain firm and unattracted at the sight 
of wily and beautiful women well dressed and with the 
gharm of curly hair ? 

BkakU~mahima—8am$ara~ddsha~nivaraka 115 

Without adopting the right royal way and worship- 
ping sincerely the Lord adored by Tyftgaraja with jasmine 
and other flowers, is it possible to escape getting immer- 
sed in the dangerous pond of the senses and survive in 
this Kali? 

"ENTA NERCHINAENTAJUCHINA" (Udajaravlohandrikft) 

One, who has not bestowed constant thought on the 
right path that is after the heart of the Lord of Lakshmi, 
however learned, however extensive his Kshetratanarn 
(pilgrimage), and however great he may be, is bound to 
become a slave to women. Such a one is also liable to 
become addicted to vices like cruelty to others, coveting 
other's women and wealth, slandering others, living upon 
others and uttering lies. 


srarafrwRj ^Rg ^g^re (#) 

% iiftg3 4Nmw8wft 

WFRRgsft *ng*r *T*prc (3) 


It matters little if people are samsarikas, ( leading 
family lives ) 

if they come to feel the presence of the Lord, 

Bhakti-makima^Samsara-dosha-nivilraka 117 

if they constantly believe in the Lord, refrain from (evils 
like) harming others, delight in the company of Sadhus and 
spend their time in praising the Lord, 

if, even being in the world, which discounts Jn&na and 
Vairagya, they take to Dhyana y5ga and chant the Lord's 
holy name, surrendering the fruits of all their karmas, 

if they ceaselessly worship whole-heartedly the holy 
feet of the Blessed Lord, driving away all evil thoughts and 
making the members of their families do service to Him, 

if they, with firm faith in the Lord, join the company 
of devotees, surrendering all pleasures as offering to Hari 
alone s and sing His praise with Sriraga on the Vina. 

Sift - '^w - ^nR 



15s 1 ®* ¥rw«f ^ra fit qm$i£ t^g^-ssf^ *j$m 



q&igftft fN^r§t*-§*5%| ottos *rrei|i% ($j 


Oh Mind ! Why do you not listen to the appeal of 
Tyagar&ja, the true devotee of Sri Krishna and get emanci* 
pated from the b^nds of vicious worldliness by doing 



incessant Bhajana and by using your knowledge- in discrimi* 
nating between the permanent and the impermanent (Satya 
and Asatya) ? 

Bhakti Mahatmya. 




e ? |55 ?r^ ? aft *fwt ? (^) 

$feft SrWGJ W^ 5- 

"CHAKKANI RAJAMARGAMU" (Kharaharapriya) 

Oh Mind ! While a good, royal road is available, why 
take to bylanes ? When good milk with cream is available, 
why should one go in for toddy ? 

• Devotion to Sri Ramachandra of AyodhyA whose bewit- 
ching beauty is a feast for the eyes, whose blessed name 

Bhakti-mah&tmya il& 

is on the lips of Lord Siva and who has taken his abode 
in the house of TySgar&ja,— when there is this royal road 
to salvation, why take to bylanes ? 


Sf3%3 3*^ 1TF3^ %# *Tf£r (3?) 


m ANURAGAMU LENI " (SaraswatI) 

The mind that is bereft of love (devotion) will not be 
blessed with the divine Jn^na. This maxim is well known, 
to enlightened souls. Like unto the satisfaction of one who 
is served with a variety of dishes is the happiness of one 
who meditates on the Lord with attributes (Saguna Dhy&na). 

W$l ^5<T %% ^f^sst fit) 


5fcJ ^foqfJt WT$55# ft) 


s>j$ ^{^ 3ft ? 

afar 3>fe?ri?r sB^^gr^^ (%) 

tin ^ tftogPt **Wrtfas& ^) 

% iHg %6r ? 

v. *isqirf55& sift ? ^l^rgs^ 

Bhakti*mahd,tmya 121 


Of what avail is anything done by people who have 
not been blessed with the Grace of Sri Rama and by people 
who, being slaves to lust and other passions, are incapable 
of knowing and understanding the s&straic commandments 
of Sri Rama ? 

What if they have house, properties and loaded their 
wives with jewels and what if they are adepts in sexual 
science, if they have not the Grace of the lotus-eyed one ? 

What if they perform Yagas, what if they beget sons to 
inherit their property, what if they adopt others' sons for 
that purpose, if they have not the Grace of the auspicious 
Sri Rama ? 

What if they build palatial houses and fit them up with 
rows of lights, what if they know the art of pleasing women, 
if they fail to get the Grace of the incomparable Sri Rama? 

What if they rule over kingdoms and command the 
respect and regard of the public, what if they feed people 
with rich and sumptuous meals, if they do not get the 
Grace of the worshipful Sri Rama ? 

What if they attain the status of Gurus, what if, for the 
look, they appear grand and big, what if they initiate 
others in mantras, if they are not blessed with the Grace of 
Sri Rama? 

122 TYAGABAJA ribianas 

^^3 %*5^ft 5^*t (ft) 

*R^3# 5°^ (ft) 

^ ^wif^ sta $1 *rcr- 

$fa # ^g If sft 

^toji ftF^ (^ 

" IKA GAVALAS1NA DEMI " (Balahamsa) 

Oh mind! What more is wanted ? Why should you not 
be happy when the Lord of the whole Universe has firmly 
taken his abode in you, when Sltapati, the root of all bliss, is 
ready with his sword to destroy the forest of your sins com- 
mitted in previous births, when Sri R&madhandra himself 
is by you with the sun and the moon as his eyes to dispel 

Bhakti-mahatmya 123 

the darkness of your Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Mada and 
other inward enemies, when the all-merciful Ramabhadra 
is with you unfailingly to give you prosperity and look after 
your welfare and fulfil your desires ? 



3W155 - 'mfo* - aflft 

m *rfe mww ^rrags $s%ft mm (u) 


The sight of those great souls who have been blessed 
with the kingdom of RSmabhakti itself confers supreme 
Brahm&nandam. This bliss does not admit of any descrip- 
tion in words; it can only be realised by self-experience. 

124 TYAGABAJA kibtanas 

$f&®5 #ft *fe-^^ «ns *r (si) 


v «q»ft it& wgfrr ? 

^ #r stager P *n (*t) 

tr55 <ntfa fJpsf sir ? nr (9) 

Bwcfir wrong 

wf^sS^p w (t) 

U APPA RAMABHAKTI" (Pantuvarali) 

How great and grand is Ramabhakti, devotion to our 
beloved father Rama ! It stops the wanderings of the mind 
and protects one as eyelids do the eye (involuntarily). 
Otherwise, will Lakshmi Devi come down on earth as Slta 
to love Rftma ? Will Lakshmana serve him ? Will sharp-wit- 
ted Bharata long to be seeing him and get enraptured? 
Will Sabari offer leavings to Him ? Will Lord Siva praise 

Bhakti-mahatmya 125 

him? Will the Lord bestow everlasting high status on 
Swayamprabha ? Can a monkey cross the ocean ? Will a 
woman tie the Lord to a mortar? Will a defaulter like Tyftga* 
raja get increasing bliss ? 



& wig imfifo gsrftar P ml (?) 

$% 3% 31% ; $3 WPtt 3?- 

%Rr 5tg*TT$r *** sftsr ! 

15JWW #| f^pirft (ft) 


w«S*3 wiTogft (ft) 

11 IDE BHAGYAMU " (Kannada) 

This alone is the real blessedness to be coveted — to 
worship incessantly your lotus feet with the whole heart ; 

to cast aside the bonds of desire, keeping the mind 
free from everything, giving up (fruits of) Karma and to 
worship you as the ocean of mercy ; 

to be firmly and lovingly devoted to you f as one adored 
even by Lord Siva, without impairing health by associating 
with wicked people ; 

to install you in the lotus of the heart, fix the entire 
mind on you to the exclusion of other gods of earth and 
Heaven and to enjoy the supreme bliss (Brahmanandam) ! 

to take you as the sole refuge, pray to you as the 
Vedas and Agamas do and thereby cross the ocean of 
Sams&ra which is beset with passions and desires. 



N&ma M&h&tmya 127 

Nama Mahatmya 

"Tift *tf s^ 35rg*rra ^n^ra 

■nil *rf s* fligim 5crsra («rr) 

i- frit *w*?gi ^g «r§ >ftftft& 

Tit xm iw ^Msy $$f?r (q ? ) 

Tift *W93i ift <*| *%% (qr) 

*. Tift ^RW31 sftf 75J3 *ifwrf<r 

<rrft ^i^ragi *rfg srrg*T ;rfw[t% (qr) 

Tift *FR33 <TTT7?f ^%rt (qr) 

V Tift WRm ^^ "T^" ^* 

qifl ?qi»nj5r%3 wftM (if) 

" PAHI MAM HARE " (Sowrashtra) 

Oh Raghava ! Oh Mahanubhava I I have worshipped 
you day and night, loved you as my wealth, and incessantly 


sought you. I have secured the precious pearl of Rama 
Nftma. I was born uttering Bama Nama and have stead- 
fastly kept on to it. I have reposed my faith in your holy 
feet with a devout mind and sung their glory; desiring 
Paramapada, I have meditated on you and have become 
your devotee. 

|5fg ifeft^55 tftaRm«*rair TOH$g (f ) 

<ronR«itoTfa fog %*rft (|) 


1. faKg**ta*pftft <rc- 
ffe*5 f%?ngj 

wq$f*i gs*rr 

^T^rg Iftre 3sft$rr sr 

Nama Mahatmya 129 

v afro* %5[g^f <?ra^f nfcrV 

wrorcraga ! arcs ?ni? » sjft 

W* gf|g «ng $<f *t&^ ? (§) 


Having taken this human body, which is prone to a life 
of indiscipline and rank material outlook, through the 
operation of lust greed and other evil propensities, one 
should make proper use of it by taking to the chanting of 
the holy name of Sri Rama (to save himself). When the 
hunter Valmlki, who had been tormenting cruelly people 
on the way, prayed to the enlightened for being shown the 
right path, was he not initiated with Rama Nama and did 
he not become blessed ? 

Was not the Apsaras who as the result of the curse of 
the Rishi had the form of a crocodile and was undergoing 
unbearable suffering, saved by Anjaneya through the chan- 
ting of Rama Nama ? 

When Gajendra was caught by the crocodile and cried 
to the Lord for help, addressing him as Adi Mulam (the 
Prime Source of all), did He not come to his succour at once 


and protect him ? When the Rakshasa carried away the 
Vedas and when Brahma appealed to the Lord for help, by 
praising the Tarakanama, was not his fear dispelled ? 




11 RAMINCHUVAREVARU " (Suposhini) 

Oh Raghuttama ! Who is there among the beings in the 
whole Universe who can transport one to transcendental joy 
but you? Even the shining Devas could not know the 
secret significance of your holy name, nor secure the wealth 
of bliss which it brings. 

^ - c ^$pwft' - 3||ft 

Nam® Mahatmya 131 


fee f*f?*g %i% gf^tt qf- 


It is not possible for me to describe the Anandam on§ 
derives from the chanting of the Rama Namam. Who knows 
its measure and quality ? Only great and true devotees 
know it. Lord Sankara, who delights in drinking the nectar 
of music with the sugar-candy of Rama Namam mixed, 
knows it well. 


«ft - 'waifs' - mm 

ctot *ajfefe l^f -ift ?r1|^s «(f§Ej *®m ? (?i) 



v isifocra^ ! iflf tors if srra^ 
ftfiw %r *Mk #fa% 

^C5§ *iw atftoift-sftfc $«r «ftftfw (*r) 

355^% %5 A39 3^3 w§®& (kt) 


Is it possible for Brahma even to know your greatness 
and glory ? 

When Vibhlshana sought your refuge, you, without 
minding that he was the brother of the enemy of Gods, 
sages and men, accepted him, proclaiming at the same time 
your general resolve to protect all who seek refuge (what- 
ever maybe other considerations), and made him Lanka- 
pati. You blessed Sankara, Slta, Lakshmana, Anjaneya, 
ParvatI, Sugrlva, Bharata, Satrughna, and Vibhlshana 
with Divyachakshus (divine insight) to enable them to see 
your divine Rupam. You also arranged that Sankara 
should utter in the ears of the men of this world your 
Taraka Mantra. 

Nama Mah&tmya 



AfcKfl«n% *?Sf 


See above pages 107-108 


See above page 108 

H-3=Kife - '?n$Jiri%> 


wtft lift qwwtf fa* %fe% ? $ i&m 



topi? ftgsft aft 


ftw gsg %fa ift ffic 

<rtH^*teroft*r? m? (at) 

sn^i^r c^n^!^ %g§% 

Sfcrc^g Stftr *m *w 

state ^ftfo *Wlftft 
sir ^<s hf ?:i^s^ *fo 

"SARAMEGANI" (Pantuvarali) 

Oh Mind ! Rama Namam alone is the precious thing 
worthy to be coveted. Why bother with the thought of 
other paths, listening to the words of all and sundry ? Did 
not sage Narada, who constantly drinks the nectar of Rama 
Nama and traverses the whole Universe with the name of 
N&rayanaon his lips, lovingly initiate Valmiki with this 
xaantram ? 

Mama Mahatmya 135 

Did not Suka Brahma, who had drunk deep the nectar 
of Rama Nama, uttering the holy name of Hari, earning un- 
equalled glory and losing himself (in transcendental bliss), 
give the mantra to Parlkshit ? 

Did not Lord Siva, delighting in Samagana, the Lord of 
Kailas, with all earnestness, drink the nectar of Rama Nama, 
besides unceasingly uttering the holy name, initiate his 
beautiful consort, ParvatI with the mantram, explaining its 
great efficacy and significance ? 



fcr$ - %^*R' - soft 

\. arcs tftwft srgs ^3 

^ w*5 few 

f % *l*3 8Wf© (%) 


V 8fl$fe §55$ TOW Vt- 

ftfeftl 8*1© (%) 

?rcg ^fog 393© (%) 

^ag %fef§5? gwj© 

$. %RRJ ^FcT tifcRTT 

«PB *reg g3f© 

■ w MELU MELU " (Sowr&shtra) 

Oh Mind ! the happiness that Rama Nama gives to one is 
positively higher than 

Nama MahStmya 13^ 

the pleasure which a man of intense thirst derives on drink- 
ing water, 

the pleasure which a man of dire poverty derives on coming 
by a treasure-chest, 

the pleasure which people suffering from unbearable 
drought derive when they get nectar-like water in 
the well, 

the pleasure which a helpless man in fright derives when 
he acquires courage, 

the pleasure which a hungry man derives when he gets a 
sumptuous feast, 

the pleasure which one derives in meditating upon Sri 
Rama, the bestower of prosperity, 

the pleasure which a man in an undesirable angry mood 
derives when he calms down; 

the pleasure which an utterly ignorant man derives when 
he suddenly acquires proficiency in all branches 
of knowledge, 

the pleasure which a true devotee of Rama with proficiency 
in mtisic derives, 

the pleasure which peple, without associating with ignorant 
secular *minded people, derive from spiritual experience, 

the pleasure which one derives after a successful Ved&ntic 

the bliss whifch one derives from realization of Nirguna Para* 



the happiness which one derives from worship, free from 
taint of Rajasic and Tamasic gunas, and 

the happiness which was vouchsafed to Lord Siva. This 
fact is testified to by Lord Siva himself and sages like 
Valmiki, Parvati and Hanuman. 



fogt^ ms&jt ? «ns«ip^ ? <nm3t ? ft (|) 

"EVARANI NIRNAYIMCHIRIRA" (Devamritavarshinl) 

What do people determine you to be and how do they 
worship you? As Siva, as Madhava, as Brahma, or Para- 
brahma? I prostrate before those wise ones, who found the 
solution by picking out and combining the soul of each of 
the two mantras-Ma from Siva Mantra (Panchakshara) and 
Ra from Narayana Mantra (Ashtakshara). 



Nama Mahatmya 13& 

%fem TmftFcR^ qTTrg %«r% ait sresr ! (§) 

arc$ «5&r ftsr asgsg (%) 

wn$ 3 ^ to %s 



Mind ! chant the Lord's name with understanding and 
thought of Rama, stopping the wanderings of the mind (clos- 
ing the gates of the mind) at least for a minute and realising 
the true significance of the form of the great Redeemer. 



'B&ma' is the name for woman also. If when uttering 
that word, your mind dwells on that object, you will have 
only to wrestle with lust and other passions. But x BOnut is 
the name for Parabrahmam also, and if your mind dwells on 
it, while utteing the word, your life's ills will come to an 

x Arka' is the name for the poisonous tree. By thinking 
of that object while uttering the word, how can your restless 
(monkey) mind get controlled ? Urte' is the name for the 
sun also. If you visualise him when uttering the word, your 
tendency to disputation and ignorance will vanish. 

'4/*' is the name for a goat. If you think of it only 
when uttering the word, how can your true desires be ful- 
filled ? % Aja' i S the name for Brahma also. If you think of 
him when uttering the word, you will be blessed with 

^fo i^g^rr ? sit #n 





N&ma M&h&tmya 141 

*FR3 Sfe qhpriN 

"RAMA NIYEDA PREMA" (Kharaharapriya) 

Will the man that is devoid of devotion to you know the 
sweetness of your holy name ? Will a man in the garb of a 
woman realize the character of a chaste woman ? Will milk 
come forth for the child from a tiger which has put on the 
mask of a cow ? Could people, who have no self-realization 
try to preach to others ? 

ari^ss 3TW3 3nc$ *rr*r ! ^ 

swg ^to %%%s ^5*$f> 
ftw&T g^g *Trag# 

142 TYAGABAJA kirtanas 

" SUKHI YEVARO " (Kanada) 

Who is the blessed and happy one that enjoys the bliss 
of Rama Namam which is the best of all mantras calculated 
to save men from bondage ? 

Who is that blessed one, who unflinching from truth f 
serves all humanity and who, without disregard or hatred 
towards other Gods, sings always Rama N&ma, with music 
associated with fixed and pure swara ? 

See above page 105 


O Mind ! Human life itself becomes blessed if one wor- 
ships the feet of Rama with the flowers of His Name- 
See above pages 105-106 

*mmft - 'jPFrtqsft* - soft 


TPfrrt *?5$; mm (^j) 

Nama Mahatmya 143 

^*rcragrft qtffe ^erag ( W ) 

3. tppfa *r%?§ gift cr- 

^ft *nwmr %H ^%ft (*t) 

H. sis ss^ *«r % *rc- 

3Tsr hr# qprotgar fa) 

w RAMA NAMAM BHAJARE " (Madhyamavati) 

Oh Mind! Take the holy name of Sri Rama and 
chant it. 

Why roam about like a thief ? 

Embrace the blessed feet of Lord "Ranganafha and chant 

his name- 
Wherever you may be, seek Sri Hari as the only God, 

get lost in his marvellous beauty and chant his name- 


Stop wandering, see in you the Lord, with charming 
face like the moon, ask of him what you want and chant His 

Having secured the rare human body, dispel all doubts, 
pray that you may be blessed with mukti and chant His 
name, addressing him as Vaidehi's fortune. 

Following the teachings of the stainless Great Ones, do 
your S&dhana and get rid of the disease of Sams&ra, chant* 
ing the name of the Lord, 

Be you helpless or wise, offer your body to the Lord 
with love and devotion. 

Besides Sri Rama, the ideal and the fortune (Bh&gyam) 
of the good and the wise, who have conquered greed, 
anger # lust, etc., there is no refuge for onet 

weft fag mm 



xttpm wig m 

Nama MaMtmyn 145 

"SMARANE SUKHAMU" (Janaranjani) 

For one born as man, the chanting of the holy Rama 
Nama, in the way the desireless Tyagaraja does, is itself 
happiness ; and for Raja Yogis it is bliss (anandam). Does 
not the constant hearing of Rama Nama transform the Nama 
itself into a glorious form, filling the heart with love divine ? 



3T5T ^^F|55f S3RT *TTc*T mfa m (*f) 

ftw ^ is jjhigs t%fti% ftftrfr (^) 


Oh ! Mind ! Why can you not make Rama Bhajana 
which is the great mantra constantly meditated upon by 


Brahma, Rudra and other Gods ? Thinking always in the 
mind the smiling face of Sri Rama adorned with golden 
cloth, shining with ruby-hued lips, beautiful white teeth and 
glossy cheeks; why can you not listen to the appeal of 
Ty&garaja to make Rama Bhajana with the redeeming 
Rama Nama, which will enable you to cross the ocean 
of Samsara. 

*• «cra *** Tiftfir ift 

Bhakta Mahatmya 147 


Who is equal to one who chants the name of Hari, 
driving out of the mind various thoughts that arise, main- 
taining steady devotion, casting away discordant religious 
differences, earnestly longing and pining, installing the 
holy feet of Lord Hari in the heart, regarding them as 
coveted wealth as sage Suka and other great saints did, 
treating as the snaked poison the company of those who do 
not appreciate the happiness above mentioned, and treating 
as real wealth conversation with genuine devotees and 
getting transported to ecstacy on meditating on the names 
of one adored by Tyagaraja. 






You are matchless. You have qualified yourself perfectly 
in associating with Paramatma Sri Rama to serve him by 
constantly keeping him in prosperity. You have chosen to 
follow him to the dreadful forest and provide him in every 
place with royal comforts and pleasures. 

#>ftf% -- 'fff«IFT%' 





imfc ift q&» m% 



"MA JANAKI" (Kambhoji) 

takinnl^r^ J° U haVe beC ° me great and fa ^s by 
tafang the hand of our Sita (in marriage), and have acquired! 

Skakta Mdhatmya—Blta 149 

thereby, the glory of being Ravana's vanquisher. She 
accompanied you to the forests, as ordained by you, she 
left her real form beside Agni (the fire) and took a Maya 
form to follow the Rakshasa R&vana; stayed under the 
Asokh tree ; though offended at his words, desisted from 
killing him (by her indignant look) and wanted to leave 
the credit of killing the enemy only to you. 

2ft WRR* ! firaWBISft ! (aft) 



(3KPK«t wrosnf^ (sty 

"SRT JANAKATANAYE" (Kalakanthi) 

Oh Daughter of Janaka, the blessed abode of refugees ! 
Oh Consort of Sri Raghu Rama, bedecked with shining 
gem-ornaments 1 Pray, protect me always ! You are the 



wind that destroys the clouds of demons like the hundred- 
headed Ravana; you are the indweller of the hearts of 
devotees ; your feet shine with the lustre of gems set in the 
crown of Indra. 



sin - '^ftawBc* - 3^ 


1. 33*ISfPC#3rft% ! ^T^^oigfe% ! 


Oh ! Videhl, Redeemer of the fallen ! Pray, vouchsafe 

to me constant devotion to your blessed feet. Oh! the 

giver of temporal and spiritual benefits and the mother of 

Brahma and Manmatha! Oh! Devi born of the ocean- 

Bhakta Mdhatmyd — Lakshmana 151 

adorned with golden jewels, delighted by the musical 
chanting of Agastya ; Oh ! the consort of Sri Rama ! The 
whole Universe is your form. Your hair is beautifully black 
as the bee- You are the queen of the protector of (Viswa- 
mitra's) y&ga; you are the cause of my fortune; you 
protect those that take refuge in you. You are the destro- 
yer of the arrogance of the hundred -headed R&vana. You 
have beautiful, red lotus eyes and dwell in the heart of 


ft% *nwft wrg st 

ftflr *mit *?F3g (ft) 

for ^fr Stowr^ 

*swfeft 5RR1 33 #- (ft) 


aw&gg; qtnftr *jg ^r- (fir) 

11 MITRI BHAGYAME " (Kharaharapriya) 

Lakshmana's fortune is unigue* He had the rare 
privilege of rodking Sri Rama in gem-bedecked seshatalpa 


and of getting thrilled when rare r&gas were being sung to 
the delectation of Sri Rama, praising the Tattvartha (of 
the Lord's) incarnation. 




1, ff$TrW4<W tfffiftf&tarcr ! 




"PAHIRAMADOTA" (Vasanta Varali) 

Oh Rftma's Messenger! Bless me. You have crossed 
the ocean and killed Ravana's son, (Akshayakumara). Your 

Bhakta Mdhhtmya l&J 

lotusJike face shines like the fully risen sun. You are as 
brilliant as myriad suns. You hold the blessed feet of Sri 
Rama in your hands. You are the wind to disperse the 
cloud of the sins of the iron age. You are like Agastya to 
the ocean of dreaded Rakshasas. You always carry out 
(successfully) whatever task is assigned to you. Oh ! Dweller 
under the Parijata tree ! You move as fast as the wind. 
You conquer evil spirits by the strength of your feet. You 
are the redeemer of sinners. You are well-versed in 
the Vedas and Sastras. You are the best of beings ; you 
are the pure-minded- You are full of compassion. You 
have a body which resembles in hue Mount Meru, You 
are the foremost among the Lord's devotees. You are a 
giver of boons. 



W& *reft^RC l <R$ fa) 



Oh Vayutanaya ! Shall I ever be privileged to witness 
your service to the Lord? You are foremost among devotees* 
who shines with Supreme Bliss as the result of the frequent 
Darsana of the Lord ! 

Can I also have the fortune to see directly the Lord of 
the Universe, Sri Rama, passing through his daily routine of 
getting up early morning, having his Amruta Sn&na, holding 
your hand, offering Rhoga to Sri Rangesa, partaking of the 
pras&da through Slt&'s blessed hands and commanding you 
to read the holy Purana? 

SpfHft - '<a?clft*t' - 




#13 mx*z§ wmtfn ftfe §03T 


Wc feftfe $wrft sags 3i& 

JBhakta Mahatmya—Sabari and Oaruda 15J> 

"ENTANI NE" (Mukhari) 

How can I adequately describe the rare fortune and 
merit that Sabarl had, while scores of the great wives of the 
sages in the world had them not. She was privileged to see 
the Lord directly to her heart's content offer Him delicious 
fruits, prostrate before His holy feet with body in thrill and 
attain freedom from rebirth in the presence of the Lord 




v #% wp$t spot fa to *- 

flfaft «jft jter OT#ft ^RT (ft) 

Jiprrerc ffa ft*r ^i^farctf (ft) 


"VINATASUTA" (Huseni) 

Come, O Vinatasuta (Garuda) and accept my praise. 
Come to cut asunder the heayy serpent fetters (with 
which I, Prahlada, am bound), 

O Hero who shines with spotless glory, having con- 
quered the lord of the angels and brought nectar ! 

Come quickly, O my Lord who is the vehicle of Vishnu. 
This is the time (for you) to protect one who is your equal in 

O brave one who feeds on serpents, the servant of the 
Lord adored by Tyagaraja, who else but you is my refuge ? 



5$ ^rcn* «wro nfir (g) 

Shakta Mahatmya—Sita, Bhdrata & others 157 


Oh Bewitcher of people ! Son of Dasaratha ! I pros- 
trate immediately bofore you. I see before me Sita Devi 
shining in your lap, Bharata holding an umbrella in his 
hand for you, virtuous Anjaneya standing by your side, 
Vanaras serving you, Agastya, Vasishtha, Markandeya, Gau- 
tama and other sages praising you. Oh Ocean of mercy 
that protects Tyagaraja ! 

<T13 ft^fe ??tfe% gaqs gw ^cr k^j ? (?) 



*rcsp ^^r q*rcf% gwc ? 

fo* ft wroiafi^ , jfc %R i $ftl (g) 

"PAKKALA NILABADI" (Kharaharapriya) 

Pray ! can you not enable me to visualise well the 
beautiful way in which you constantly stand by the Lord on 
either side and serve him ? Oh charming Sltft and dutiful 
Lakshmana ! Do you prostrate before him with your bodies ? 
Do you sing his holy name with love ? Do you meditate on 
him forgetting yourselves ? 




(an) sfe^ <rr *ite3 sfa- 

Bhakta Lakshana 359 

^. *ra Srag ftsraft ^*rt§ , aif^ro *rft 
fire *n*w ihtg ^*m§ ; 

^f ft; qts spot nf 5 

*w sift srs ?j^f 1$ (*r) 


Oh Mind ! Listen to the good conduct of a devotee of 
Sltarftma, who without attachment to sense-pleasures, seeks 
him, becomes a jivanmukta and enjoys supreme bliss. 

He (the Bhakta) should not boast of having done japa 
and tapas; he should not behave and speak with a 
hypocrite's mentality ; he should not wander about with the 


ambition that there should be no equal to him ; he should 
not be fickle-minded and be deluded by his attachment 
to wife and children; he should not regard worldly 
prosperity as real ; he should not entertain any differential 
attitude between Siva and Vishnu ; he should not earn a 
living by posing that he is the only honest and qualified 
man in the world; he should not allow himself to be 
unmindful of the blessed feet of Sri Rama, the prop of 
Anjaneya; he should not allow himself to be swayed by 
Rajasicand Tamasic qualities; he should not expect His 
grace without earning and deserving it; he should not 
give up his attempts to prepare his mind for the path of 
Raja Yoga; he should never forget Sri Rama -the Raja 
i Sikhamani. 

flft - 'TO «£§§$> - ^g 


Bhakta Lakshana 161 

V %w§ g 5 *^ *prb crcg g 

<Mg*g site ?i% <reg (*) 

20^ wrr% %fo%?r (q) 

*85 ^ftftfir #sg %*?f% (q) 

gsr ^g^^i#5r wiwt (a?) 

vfag sft 3rm*Fsrg$fir 3*g (sr) 



He alone is blessed who constantly meditates on the 
lotus feet of Sri Rama, the refuge of Anjaneya, who 
unflaggingly engages himself in Namasanklrtana to his 
heart's delight , who dances in the presence of the Lord, 
singing like Tumburu with Tambura in hand, who spends 
his time cheerfully, always keeping the company of the 
good i who shakes off all worries from his mind and keeps 
himself hilarious, realising that all else is unreal , who wards 
off the six inward enemies, greed, lust etc. which hide the 
real truth of the Lord from his vision, who reposes his entire 
faith in Sri Rama who has the glorious reputation of being 
the dispeller of men's distress and worldliness, who having 
had' the advantage of the Brahman birth has secured the 
ever-lasting fruit of salvation # who has known the real 
significance of the holy name of blessed Sri Rama, the strict 
observer of Sastraic injunctions and upholder of Dharma , 
who does not put on false garbs out of greed for money and 
who does not deceive himself , who fixes his mind on the 
beautiful form of Sri Rama during congregational worship, 
(bhajana) , who attains supreme bliss early as a result of all 
the strenuous efforts above-mentioned and who, without 
associating with Rajasic people, reposes his faith in Rama. 


Bhokta Lakshann 163 

1. 3!?cf to$ ^W^f 3 

§35*5 qfcjf ^jj& TO? («&) 

ftTO %qf %n^ TOf («) 

V q^tonjps wry ; afa- 

5g^gt fcisa g^gg ^jif ($) 


The grace of the Lord who- is at the service of that 
devotee of His who realises the oneness of the Param&tma 
and the jivatma manifests itself in the following manner:— 

The recipient will not utter a lie, will not approach low 
people with requests, will not serve even kings, will not 
forget (to worship) the sun, will not eat meat, will not drink, 
will not injure others, will not give up learning, will not 
have the three desires (for wife, wealth and progeny), 


will not exhibit any exultation even should he become a 
jlvanmukta, will not prove deceitful or treacherous, will not 
be fickle-minded and make himself unhappy, will not 
swerve from his aim, believing full well that the Lord is 
eternal witness. 



See above pages 140-141 

" RAMA NlYEDA PRISMA " (Kharaharapriya) 
See above page 141 



Asad-bhakti*garhana 16l> 

frig tw q»^rg ^5|5 *r- 

ftfe^ *ri^*r ^^3 qr$i% nra ( 3£ ) 

*i(§w wipgr ^T^sg g- 

"fjRAKE GALGUNA" (Sahftna) 

Can Rama Bhakti be had easily by those who always 
cherish in their minds that worldly life is the ideal to be 
coveted? It must be difficult of attainment except for 
those blessed souls who regard family, relations and 
material wealth as evanescent, those who have the darsana 
of pious men, serve them constantly, listening to their 
instructions, meditate in their mind on Hari, realizing 
that He is in everything and thus attain salvation and 
those fortunate people, who discarding worship charac* 


terised by Rajasa Guna always chant the holy jewel of the 
mantras, which sanctifies the tongue of Ty&gar&ja. 



vmm - 'qgFRsfcpp - Tug 

*rf&3*5N3 fog *\]% q?g«RlWT- 

#fic$ ntonspnr ? 

«ff W1T% *lfe*ifc *ff«$ 3?1% 

#^#§3r ? 

H5f pita^g Sri*! ? (j?i) 

A$ad»bhakU-garhana l6t 

^rrc igg^rr ? 

^ *N ^5?it ? 

wpr atoftfaft sfa *Hrar ? (*) 

grotfsg %j?rr P 
wo$ TS fcTWW f3*?gg 
Tf^RfS VgQ P 

^T% 1g*T ^T ? 

'fNALINA LOCHANA" (Madhyamavati) 

O Lotus-eyed Lord! Will any human being attain 
salvation by reposing faith in others except you ? 

If one does spurious contemplation like a crane; will his 
object (of attaining salvation) be fulfilled ? 

If a woman places implicit faith in a lewd paramour, 
will he be able to show her the right path ? 

Can one cross the ocean of Samsara with a small river- 
oraf t ? 


If a man becomes a slave to wily wicked women, will 
Manmatha (at whose prompting he has become a victim) 
initiate him in Jn^na Yoga ? 

If a sterile woman is fed with milk and other nutritious 
food, will she secrete milk ? 

However generously you may give wealth to D&yadis, 
will they show affection to you ? 

However much you may manure and sow a barren land; 
will it yield anything ? 

However much you may prostrate befere a Gangaravi 
tree, will it be able to save you (like the holy peepul tree) ? 

If you grow nice-looking silk-cotton trees, will they 
yield sweet fruits ? 

Can attendants and servants have the glory of the 
grand abhishekam (intended for Gods) ? 

If one does Tapas with attachment and avarice, will he 
attain salvation ? O you embodiment of truth, the pure 
and supreme Being ! 

hp# - '953%teg' 


^Itg Iters WRssjif *T5jpr ? 




Asad-bhakti-garhana 169 



Is the blessedness of having direct darsanam of Sri 
Rama, which Tyagar&ja had, possible even for Brahma? 
It can be had by one, only if he has the Lord's grace. 

With body in one place and mind elsewhere, putting 
on the appropriate garb—those who cheat the public, — 
will success be theirs ? 

aianJfcfit -- ' q^f§r ^ s^g 


< T^f% 5ft $|[fq>3 1*3^ 


sfftft %wrotaft«R3« 

sm £j^fr% T^wr 


^r^r m mwm%® 

vvft&> 3fef?r qta qtffar ? 


aPKFIlf* arf&MTft fe|3% 

smgs 33s ^ q^fan ? 







^ *j^«jpPW53% 

tffag && ifir qffim ? 


v. c^TOrsrgf rff $t *Tgfo 

5TWS ^Wft" ?te «Rtffaf ? 


w PADAVI NI SADBHAKTIYU " (S&laga Bhairavi) 

One attains real status, only when he has true devotion 
to you. 

Is it a status to be learned in Vedas, Sastras and 
Upanishads without knowing and realising their essence ? 

Is it a status to be possessed of wealth, wife, progeny 
and house and be associated with kings as friends ? 

Is it a status to impose on the world by display of Japa, 
Tapas and Siddhis ? 

Is it a status to secure enjoyments through yagas 
conducted with desire and avarice ? 

Is it a status to be ignorant of the divine character of 
Sri Rama ? 



A$ad-bkakti-garhand 171 

f fwcr t^j frqrre 

w ADI KADU BHAJANA " (Yadukulakambhoji) 

Oh Mind ! That is not Bhajana. It is one thing to do 
contemplation with the mind and quite a different thing to 
fix it on external sense objects. It is not Bhajana to hanker 
after greatness, to thirst for low sensual enjoyments, to put 
on false garbs for the approbation of people and go on 



SSPRia; ^S3g *rg*ft%w lift (§) 

1?2 T^AGARAJA kIr^anas 

" TELIYALERU " (Dhenuka) 

They can never know the path of devotion, they can 
only roam about and dream about it, those who with the 
sole purpose of earning money, put on the guise of worthy 
men, wake up and bathe early in the morning, smear their 
bodies with ashes and count with their fingers. 





? *?cT #T*Jt 

tpift w 

srf8pT cfg^ ? 

See above pages 




"ENTA MUDDO" (BindumalinI) 
See above page 9 

«dH5«5§ Ufa® \$ifo §fo t BWTT %*T ? 3) 

Asad- bhakti-garhana 173 


Sift J *TO ^g ^3^t^ 

ancwnr ! sft 3n*ncFsnRRr ($) 

" KALINARULAKU " (Kuntalavarali) 

Have not the wise said that there is no purpose gained 
by speaking to the worldly-minded of the Kali-age the 
glories of the Lord ? It is like expecting bulls to appreciate 
the taste of aval ( parched and flattened rice ). Such 
people put on the garb of a devotee only for the sake of 
their family, wealth, property and for name and fame and 
for earning status. 

cross ^ craigprcsa 


" YEM ANDUNE " (Srlmani) 

What shall I say to you of the wonderful ways of men in 
this world ? Without knowing the glory of your Mantra, 
they speak of it as if it is an ordinary thing. Fuji of Tamas, 
slaves to lust, with a mind devoid of compassion, they go 
about, thinking themselves great, and dabble in spiritual 
lore, with a desire only to fill the stomach. 

Formal Worship, Rituals etc, Condemned. 
*rcs ftCT 51% fa sfr% 



If one is unable to control and concentrate his mind# 
will any amount of worship with sweet bell and flower 

Formal worship, Rituals etc. condemned. 175 

conducted by him be of any avail ? How can a bath in the 
Kaverl or the Gang& save one, if he is eaten up with 
arrant haughtiness ? • 

If a Somayaji's wife runs .after beautiful paramours, will 
he become fit for the heaven (through the Soma yaga 
conducted by him with her) ? 

If a man who is a slave to lust and anger does tapas, 
will such tapas save him ? 



qfiroq q$qi<K3? qftTOPsr *l*?rar (<?) 


vs. <ftfo 5«5cT qfcsife S- 

frrita *i*pj (t) 

wsr sag *g*w (*) 


Oh Raghun&tha ! Protect me. 

My body is your favourite abode, my steadfast mind is 
the golden throne, (asana), my meditation of your blessed 
feet is the holy Gang& water (for abhishekam), my loving 
devotion is the garment (vastram) for you, my praise of your 
great glory is sweet-smelling sandal paste (gandha) for 
you, my chanting of your sacred nar^e is the full-blown 

Formal worship, RUuah etc. condemned. 177 

lotus flower (pushpa\ the effect of the past misdeeds is the 
burning of the incense before you (dhupa), my devotion to 
your holy feet is the all-day light burning before you (dlpa), 
the fruit of my devout worship is the offering (naivedya) for 
you, the permanent happiness that I derive is the t&mbula 
for you, your darsana (seeing you) is itself dlp&r&dhana 
(waving of light). This is the true worship done by 



^firftfe Sit sfScJ* 5 c^FRIS (*T) 

"MANAVI NALAGINCHA'* (Nalinakanti) 

Oh Mind ! Why can't you listen to the request of one 
like myself who has known the noble R&machandra's com- 
passionate heart $ I shall tell you the whole secret. Seeing 
the suffering of those who have been drawn in by the 
rituals prescribed by the Karmakanda of the Vedas and of 


those who have been wandering in the forest of Samsftra, 
he has shown himself in a human incarnation to show the 


WOT ^3^55 P 

cfPTcf fire3$ ? 

"MANASU SVADHINAMAINA" (Sankarabharanam) 

To the great one who has control over his mind, where 
is the need for other mantras and tantras ? For one who 
realises that he is not the body, where is the need for mak» 
ing penance (iapas) ? For one who has realized that every- 
thing is only yourself, where is the need for differentiation 

Formal worship % Rituals etc. condemned. 179 

in ftsramas (status in life) ? Will one, who considers the 
whole universe as M&yS,, be deluded by the charm of 
women ? To one who has been throughout life free from 
vicious sense-enjoyments, what need is there to be worried 
with the cycle of birth and death ? 

^5 mft wg& *ftft* (*) 


"NIBHAKTI BHAGYA" (Jayamanoharl) 

Oh ! Embodiment of N&da, Oh Incomprehensible one ! 
That life alone is life which is privileged to swim constantly 
in the blessed ocean of devotion to you. Be he born as Sura 
(god) or a Bhfisura (Brahman), (without such devotion), he is 
only a burden to the earth. Mere observance of Vedic 
rituals will only increase distress, entailing the cycle of 
birth and death. 


1^3*113 5RFT wftfr-3%^>gftft*3 (f) 

*. w^ft ^igpd" qjS^ft afeftSr **r- 


Lord Hari himself will come down to see you. Seeing 
you* He will feel elated. 

Realising how indulgence in sensual enjoyments brings 
in only death and the like, lovingly sing the praise, in ever 
increasing measure, of my Lord, the heroic Sri Rama, the 
prop of the Universe, the fulfiller of devotees' desires, the 
blessed one, the Supreme among Devas, of incomparable 
beauty, the All-merciful one, 

Formal worship, HUuah etc. condemned 181 

Lord Hari does not so easily respond to Japa, Tapas and 
Yagna as He does to fervent prayers and to praises of 

His Glory. 



qpfito crfe^fef q^%f%r ; 

& « a 



If, with a due sense of the appropriate, one does not 
acquire Puny a, what does it matter, if that thoughtless fool 
lives or is dead ? 

Listen properly, O Mind ! Dharma done with quietude 
will surely be successful. 

It is quite immaterial whether a madman is or is not 
pleased at hearing good poetry; 

It is of no consequence whether blind eyes, however 
large, remain open or closed. 

It is of no value if a P&naka Pftja for Brahmans is done 
in Muhammadan quarters; 

It is immaterial whether on earth a millionaire, who 
does not give, lives or is dead. 

It is immaterial if a song which does not relate to Sri 
Rama is cr is not sung. 

It is immaterial whether one takes a human body or 
not, if in his heart there is no devotion to Sri Rama. 


Formal worship^ Rituals etc. condemned 183 


The Rama Dhyftna (meditation of Sri Rama) is itself the 
most efficacious Ganga-Snanam, (bath in the holy Ganges). 

Any number of plunges in the waters will not remove 
the stain of deceit and treachery. 

The Dhyanam should be made with a mind that loathes 
the coveting of others' wealth and women, and is not prone 
to injure others by word or deed and whole-heartedly longs 
for Sri Rama* 

$l$k - 4 ^tf2^|!> - '%\& 



%\fk <Hifi& ^% *rsrcigs5$ ($t) 



Oh Mind ! Listen to the counsel of Tyagar&ja, the great 
devotee of Sri Raghun&tha. For those fortunate souls who 
constantly and directly see the beautiful form of Rama, crores 
of holy rivers are present at Dhanushkoti (the tip of Rama's 
bow) itself, rivers like Ganga with its source at the Lord's feet 
and the K&verl deriving its glory from Sri Ranganatha; why 
should one wander from place to place (on Tlrtha y&tra) ? 


spw%$ - 'm$& 


^igS S^rag grf^s sg- 
<ssig« ^r ? aft *Frar i 

15 3F ? T*I«5 WOT 5# 
3rf| f%q SR ft*Rl$«5& 

*ri%rf3i*j sftogfsr ^fsfcra 




Formal worship^ Rituals etc. condemned 185 

"YAGNADULU" (Jayamanoharl) 

Oh Mind ! Are there people who can match in respect 
of ignorance those thai declare that sacrifices conduce to 
happiness ? 

Those who are given to the performance of sacrifices 
are devoid of wisdom, are demonical in their mentality and 
are inclined to be cruel to animals. 

Carrying with them the tendencies of innumerable past 
births, attracted by sense enjoyments which are highly 
poisonous and always attached to external objects, they 
do not realize (the nature of) Sri Rama worshipped by 


wmm - 'j^h^^N' 



lift 3?r?PTOg§? »jfe sire 


si Ifefe gw5§ ; 

35 =51151% sig %&%% 

' =4fa§^ csi^reErgfiiif 



"NADACHI NADACHI" (Kharaharapriya) 

To be happy in the company of Sri Rama, the Perfect 
and Selt-exultant Lord, who shines with Slta, people walk 
and walk to distant Ayodhya, but do not see the Lord there 
(due to lack of real devotion). Similarly, people praise the 
Lord without knowing the path which secures redemption 
from birth and death, putting on the false cloak, opening 
and closing the eyes alternately and rolling rosary in hand. 

^53 *ra3feg3w-fe tfsg*nfr % (*r) 


Formal worship^ BiiuaU etc. condemned* l8t 

* BALAMU KULAMU " (S&verl) 

What is the use of mere bodily strength and high birth ? 

As the inevitable result of Rama Bhakti, a man natuarlly 
acquires all siddhis. 

Crows and fish always dive into water; Can it be taken 
as sacred morning ablution? 

Cranes keep their eyes shut. Is it divine meditation ? 

Goats feed on patra (sacred leaves, Tulasi etc.)- Is it 
indicative of devout fast ? 

Birds soar highs Can they compare with the Sun and 
the Moon? 

If ordinary people in Sadhus' garb happen to be in a 
cave, can they be taken to bs really great sages ? 

Can monkeys in the forest be taken as leading merito- 
rious Vanavasam (hermit's life) ? 

If beggars in the garb of Saivite devotees (Jangams) are 
silent, can they be taken as genuine Mounis ? 

If children go about uncovered, could they be taken as 
Digambaras, Sadhus who have aoandoned even clothing ? 

The devotion of the real Bhaktas of Sri Rama, the 
saviour of Tyagaraja, is acceptable to all people as a current 

irciWiN* - *^Ns%2? ! 



See above page 51 

"DARSANAMUSEYA" (N&r&yana Gowla) 
See above page 52 


Bare Learning, Arts, Sicidhis and Astrology Condemned; 


U MAMAVA SATATAM" (Jaganmohini) 

Oh Lord, who is away from people who have mere 
scriptural lore to their credit divorced of devotion ! Be my 
constant protector. 

Bare Leaming $ Arts, Siddhis and Astrology Condemned, 189 



Oh Mind ! Give up the sidcihls (yogic achievements) 
which are perishable and bring you rebirth. Perishable are 
the fruits of the study of Sanscrit, drama, poetics, vedas* 
puranas, and of the performance of sacrifices, Japa and 

The (real) road is the worship ofRa?ra; (then) all that 
one (the devotee, does, the Lord will accept with approba- 
tion and vouchsafe to him the highest state that is everlast- 


5WIFPT $fa«fa[ , m ! (ft) 



f*3 <sft5 V& *3*a ? 

»ra ^r|s «5f3 3^n ? 
fffiit g?aw% «hni ; w- 

Sri Rama! I prostrate before you who have Garuda as 
your vehicle, to my heart's content. What is the use of 
living without having your constant darsana? Of what 
avail is life which is spent in cheating people? Does it 
conduce to happiness or bring in any benefit to indulge in 
disputations about different religious faiths? Real happi- 
ness in this world comes only through the company of the 
holy and the pious; 

grot - 'qaas^r* - ^snfe 

wr ^F% ; 'E55 €fti (*>) 

Bare Learning, Arts, Siddhis and Astrology Condemned, 19] 


$f* %&* ** €f% t%t fc gft 

aw c^pfRrsr %3 l *W ($) 


Though one may learn well all the sixtyfour arts, the 
tide of past Karma cannot be stemmed, if they (the arts) are 
cultivated for the sake of one's livelihood. You are the 
cause of both prosperity and adversity. Cast your compas- 
sionate eye (on me}. 

Was Simgari Muni able to eat with avidity the mound 
of gingelly that he desired and got ? 

Was Vibhlshana able to take to his Lanka, Lord Ranga- 

tpflfrft ; *mt ! «K*Wi%^ ; (*r) 


^ swn ^h ^r ^f rt snw g^cr- 

°TT% 13**ffe 3353 5^g ij%ijr • 


"BHAJANA SEYAVE" (Kalyftnl) 

Oh Miad ! Do with due devotion Rama Bhajana which 
Is highly prized by Brahma, Rudra and all holy men. Having 
acquired knowledge of Nada, Pranava, the seven Svaras, 
Veda, Grammar, Pur&nas and the sixtyfour arts, and having 
taken the human body which enables you to realize happi- 
ness, why should you, without knowing the way to salva- 
tion, indulge in vain disputes and discussions ? 




ROPJ - ^t^ffi^W' - 


¥ffe fllW 1W3 *fl3$fl3 Sltffa 


g% 3jfe$ qtfeM f^i5^ $% $%ncra 


grog %ft enftft-sirrc qm gft 

snffir vsr y$*n $pf$ % #% ; 

w&g 5?t>ipw *n«^ srcr srair 

5fTor *Tf^n ^ ? ^ro-^iFncrajp xw * 


"BHAKTI BICCHA MIYYAVE" (Sankarabharanam) 

Pray, give me the alms of the highest type of Bhakti 
(S&tvika) towards Rama who is beyond even salvation, 
Universal Sakti and the Trinity ! Deceitful persons, accom- 
plished in Pur&nas, Agamas, S&stras, Vedas, practising Japa 
and preaching, are like corpses dressed in lace turban and 
adorned with precious jewels. 

Bare Learning », Arts, Siddhis and Astrology t Condemned, 193 


faTOWss^^nswsraif ! (?) 

§TTr«53> ! eajPTO^l^ ! (?) 

" NRUP ALAVAL A " (Nadavar&nginl) 
Oh ! Lord of Kings ! Dispeller of the sins of refugees ! 
ph I The moon of the Solar Race ! 

People desiring salvation adopt the siddhis as the 
means to secure that end, but they find that they prove 
obstructive to their real purpose and finally realize that 
they are deluded; Pray, have mercy and save ma 



3T?S5 «nft*5 mf^fe 5Rh (5?) 

" GRAHABALAMEMI " (Revagupti) 

Of what avail is the strength of the planets ? The real 
strength is that of Rama's blessing. What can the strength 
of planets do to one who meditates upon the effulgent form 
of the Lord, and to the men of discernment like Tyagaraja 
who are steeped in devotion to Hari whose power destroys 
the virulent inner enemies like Kama, the five great sins 
and the evil effects of the nine planets ? 


Asad-Bhakta-Garhan a 
<?*l§ ^j m$ m§ 31$ $1% /^ 

A$ad~ Bhakta - Garha na 195 

srjps# ^it^ *ft 3#^ 

" SAR ASIRUHANANA " (Mukhari) 

Oh Rama ! This is just the time for your grace. I can- 
not countenance those who, day in and day out, jndulge in 
coveting others' women, feeding them and sporting with 
them. In the present Kali age, ideal Br&hmanhood is 
extinct and low life has set in ; people indulge in high tclk 
of Brahman and live thereby. 

Q?%$ Wl \®W$ ? (it) 




^Tft V3$$ 3^$ 

$i|qn$5§ $8 srn; srg- 

^ ?J ^ % 3K gfc 

TTS55 3| wife ng^ft ^) 

3?3 ^ 3% qsferf $rq*r 


Why is it that people of this kali age do not realise well 
that this body is perishable ? They build big houses with 

Asad-Bhakta* &arhatia 19^ 

stones* gather a number of attendants around themselves, 
fill their stomachs and grow their own bodies, neglecting 
their obligations to their relatives, guests and others and 
gazing idly at hoarded wealth in bags and boxes. 

Employing ineguitcus ways, they deprive other people 
of their money for their own sustenance, run after women 
like dogs, become a prey to several diseases and waste 
their patrimony to the effect that people deride them, salva- 
tion is lost and successive rebirths are certain .- 

Why is it that people, who are unable to tear the 
trouble which they themselves have brought upon them by 
associating with cheats, do not take it to be the result of 
their past karma as wise men do ? Why do they not learn 
to worship the Lord of the Universe! whom Ty&garaja 
adores, discarding desires for material possessions, taking 
them to be impermanent like dew. 

*HS5>r 3t ft^r§S3, $^<foT£3> {fcr?T§$3 (s) 



m ^ *r% srm %s 


" SARIJESI VEDUKA " (Tlvravahinl) 

Oh Rftma ! Is it fair for you to treat alike your real 
devotees and the votaries of Manmatha and enjoy the fun ? 
In this world » those who are well- versed in sexual science 
and indulge in flattery get appreciated and amply rewar- 
ded, while those, who have mastered Bhakti Sastra, are 
sneered at and ridiculed. 


*w fi*g§ fife ^sjss ^ 

$. WSJ %^5 5TT%^ str; 

Asad-Bhakta GwrhasfaA 199 

$r§ TftipmSf $fea m$ 

3% moss $»flfa 

3B*raif firi^pn ^?g% (tj) 

"EVARU TELIYANU" (Punn&gavar&li) 

Who understands ? People do puja without understan- 
ding* Can they understand, those who wander from place to 
place, coveting and enjoying others' money and women and 
earning livelihood ? Under the baneful influence of hired 
mistresses, they make it their only business to find fault with 
their parents and brothers and forget your holy feet. They 
believe that wife and children are permanent; and for their 


sake, ruin others 1 families and undergo untold suffering at 
the hands of Yama, making themselves liable for the travail 
of rebirth. Indulging in falsehood even with worthy men, 
they spend their time in flattering ignorant rich folk, and 
when discouraged by them, they quarrel with them and 
spend their time uselessly in the company of depraved 
people; out of envy ihey do not behave respectfully and 
honour is shown where money is plenty; Such people can 
never have any longing for you, nor know who your true 
devotees are; They pretend to possess real capacity to know 
the truth and declare that the Universe is unreal. Such is 
their false devotion. Oh my Father ! What sort of renuncia- 
tion is this ? Is this their great adeptness ? Let those (false) 
Yogis who, without knowing the real nature of their material 
body and what their fate will be engage themselves in 
meditation, do so. 

Sri Rama! Why should you still neglect me without 
protecting me? 

TO SflTTft (tfir *fr *l#f 

Asad-Bhakta-Garh&na 201 

%$ cf35 WB& lift 

V *fen&*r v$$® 11325 

Treft, steisrofr sots (^) 

" MOSABOKU VINAVE " (Gowlipantu) 

Listen ! don't deceive yourself and do not give up the 
company of the good. Don't deceive yourself without know- 
ing Sri Rama who removes the distress of his servants. The 
miseries caused to one by association with low people persist 
almost eternally. If you have firm and full faith in the Lord, 
all your desires will be fulfilled. Running after money and 
women will only bring you trouble and restlessness in this 
life and hereafter. Meditation on the Adorable One will lift 
your mind to the divine. Hanging upon uncultured 
moneyed men will lead you only to faults; 






Ishta daiva and Ananya bhakti 

Wf s>if^ gs^tesg *£- 

«wra g^gs sififag #- 

^wift §qgs> tsflre («) 

% ^55^ ^tjpt si* 

I$hta"daiva~™Amny&bhakti Wo 

* VADER A D AIVAMU " (Pantuvarali) 

He alone is God 

who has earned the undying fame for all time for his 
never-failing word ; 

who has incarnated on the earth with bow in hand to 
destroy the mighty R&kshasas and protect Indra and other 
Devas and all the good people of the earth ; 

who shines in the world with the great redeeming 
name with which Lord Siva initiates people ignorant of the 
right path, so that they may cross the ocean of SamsSra and 
attain salvation ; 

who was born in the Solar race and, adored by Brahma, 
earned the appellation of Slt&pati to receive the worship 
from Ty&garaja's hands. 



sfteWifr - '3^fe*i§f> imm 

£tf^T5 sfaf ~*J^ ^%qtf srasr ! (s) 

fend* rnms*3 Ugj (£ ) 


"UNDlDI RAMUDU OKADU" (Harikambhoji) 

There is Rama, the one Lord ; Oh mind! do not get 
needlessly ruined. He shines with brilliance in the heart 
of the blazing Sun; He is free from Tamasa Guna. He is 
the soul of all Dharmas. He looks evenly upon all. He 
bestows welfare. He is the beloved of Tyagaraja. 


1%* % ^# sfc*nr ^fe%?r wpnngftft (*ft) 

u N1VANTI DAIVAMU " (Bhairavi) 

Oh Rama ! Afier deep mental reflection, I see it is 
impossible for me to find another God like you. If one 
wants to speak, one should speak about you; if one wants to 
sing one must sing of you alone; if one wants to associate 
with anybody, one must associate with you alone. I now 
know your heart; 


I$hta»daiva — AnanyfrBhakti 205 


"SYAMA SUNDARA" (Dhanyasi) 

O Lord of beautiful swarthy limbs ! You are the 
embodiment of all power, you Rama who shine in the world 
as the Lord full of all excellences and devoid of the Tamo- 
guna! who destroys the pride of the wicked demons, and 
also sports in the hearts of the virtuous ! You alone are my 
iavourite deity. Is Tyagaraja different from you ? 




1*33 i mra spgatar ? (*) 

37I30#€fit%, B^qiJOTR ; {X) 

" RAGHUVAR A NANNU " (Pantuvar&li) 

Oh Raghuvara I Is it proper for you to forget me ? Can 
the parents, brothers and other relations of a woman stand 
to her on the same footing as her husband ? Can all the 
ornaments which she wears stand on the same footing as 
her Mangala S&tra? As the result of my meritorious deeds 
in my previous birth, you have roused a desire in me and I 
have cherished deep love for you alone in my mind; 



; *Rt£?%RPV ~ W&i 

v fiw ^cw i*r mft to f^ tfawt (xj) 

\ 9 *«? £ra wr id tn^c ^r ^ ^r) 

hh ta- daiva~~A mnya~bhak ti 2 07 

» RAMA EVA DAIVATAM " (Balahamsa) 

Rama alone is my God. He is the destroyer of the 
mental distress of devotees* 


qgf ias^v ?ft-daj *ns$Tf ^N;~ 

H RAMA NI S AMANA » (Kharaharapriya). 

Rama! Who is there equal to you ? You are the beloved 
parrot in the cage of Sit&*s Bhakti. You are yourself gentle 
in speech arid have brothers whose words drip with honey. 
You are Tyftgaraja's family deity. 




- '^Kift' 



%\®ft 1% ? tTiWf , #n<i% .' 



t^f st^gss ^rai^j ftsj fe*n 


^3£, 9TPI?33fift % ft*IT P (if) 

"VEREWARE" (Surati) 

Who else but you, Oh Sltftpati, the prop of the 
fourteen worlds, can ever be the refuge for all Devas, 
Munis, Suka, Sanaka, N&rada etc. and to Gods like Brahma, 
Siva, Indra etc. and TyagarSja ? 



W "ww ®$m iraj «ft-*fi»iB ft^pwr ; *rfe ! (cf) 

^ Stpg 3I«?$% #§J$ 

gfit ^W 5 WPHraga ! (ft) 

Ish ta~daiva — Ananya-hhakti 209 

"TALLIDANDRULU" (Balahamsa) 

Is there any God equal to you in the world ? You had 
parents only in name. Your abode is the milk ocean ; your 
consort is Slta ; Siva, Brahma, Indra, Sun, Moon and other 
Devas serve you as Vanaras ; Chakra and Adisesha have 
become your brothers and are serving you- 



g«I{|g sfa^ qfatfe-g^ $33^ (3) 

gwrfN m$tw wit few 

&rag %V* dtosft (S) 

flag* ss*f# s^s* 5 
^r <& 3°^ ^1 *fa 

^mi^gs %sst 3333 (a) 

w MUMMURTULU " (Atftna) 

Listen to the beautiful and concerted praise of the 
Trimurtis of Sri Rama's gunas, which they found to 
outweigh their own gunas in worth, on weighing them both 
in the balance in a spirit of rivalry. Having heard that he 



was only a king's son, they were at a loss to know how he 
could possess these gunas; and their doubts were not 

Wtifit - 



3>T5 |?3f «ftf 



%m @w*c ^Tr-^Pcirc SNi mft 

"Sftfeft ^B3® ^ lift ($r) 

wrfrcfftfo ^i^ct ^ flfr Jirfsr (^r) 

wrctfsrf^r ! ^[# % git (^f) 


No God of this Universe can be equal to you. To 
compare any one of them to you will be like comparing 
the fine quality of table rice to worthless chaff, the small 
light to the torch, the channel to the river Kaverl, the stars 
to the moon, the man to Manmatha, the lake to the sea; 



Ishta-daiva— Ana nya •bhahti 21 1 

fcnc |gg^ to tog $o&m ? xpr i (? ) 

"ITARA DAIVAMULA" (ChayataranginI) 

Is happiness possible of attainment through other gods, 
Oh Rama I to me, whose mind, without harbouring any 
prejudice against other faiths, is constantly and passiona- 
tely in love with you ? 

I stand resigned in you, whether you, who know my 
mind, protect me or neglect me. 1 have only to say that 
this is just the time for you to treat me as yours; 



?f| §o5 sftg ?7| vtgvfa 


I have always regarded your R&ma Avatara as the 
best of your ten Avatars. 

(See below) 




His Rupa-~Paratva and Avatara 

mftfc *wift ftfo^rc *r?*T- 

<iftsrt snfofe sftf? 5 iw ! (t{) 

Pamtva ank Avat&ra 213 

"EVARIKAI AVATARAM" (Devamanohari) 

For whom did you take this incarnation ? Tell me now 
at least, Oh Rama ! I prostrate before the blessed one at 
whose instance you incarnated, exhibiting both the aspects 
of King and Rishi, with a name adored by the Vedas, with a 
transcendantal form more glorious than those of Brahma 
and Rudra and with heroic deeds full of bliss ? 



'^Fn®ltf£ ? - srrf§t 

%SJ§ 5H^g $TOT 
spgar ?m qr^si^ few** 


^3 w$ ^teg «tf$ni 
wj qjrogs Star ; 

V aura g*r ifa 53*5f sfarcr 

Pafatva and Avathra &15 

*ngf%, ^5R *rf^r 353<ito Oft) 

"DQRAKUNA'' (Bilahari) 

Will it ever be possible for even Brahmans and gods 
who have only a little Tapas to their credit, to have the 
blessed privilege of such a Darsana as that of Hari being 
rocked on Adisesha as his bed with Tumburu and N&rada 
singing the glory of his gunas, with Ambarlsha and others 
chanting his holy name and strewing jasmine flowers, with 
beautiful celestial damsels dancing, with Brahma and Indra 
standing on either side and proclaiming the divine glory 
and with celestial women fanning with the jingling of their 
ornaments, a darsana as that of the repository of all beauty 
with his emarald-like body clad in shining golden garments, 
with the colour of his foot-nails outshining the rays of the 
moon; with brilliant anklets, with dazzling diamond rings 
on his fingers, with pearl-garlands on his chest, with face 
radiant with glowing ear-ornaments and charming smile, 
curly forelocks, glossy cheeks, and with lovely tilaka on the 
forehead, a darsana as that of Sri R&ma seated on the golden 
swing with Sita, the fulfiller of devotees' desires, trans* 
ported to ecstacy at the sight of the Lord, with great Rishis 
standing bewildered unable even to praise his glories and 


with Tyagaraja; son of Rama Brahmam, singing before Him, 
while the swing is moving. 



SSI* %gq^r W 

^sfsr^nft, *OT! (4) 

ftg*£ too* siqgs sfftftp! %^$g*ng 5 

fifisg *$3 sras sjwb 'OS 


I am at a loss to guess even your nativity and whence 
you have come. Pray, let me know it now at least; Your 
beauty and qualites are a class by themselves and your 
ways transcend the three Gunas. It is not likely that you 
are from Sivaloka where even those who err slightly are 

R&pa Mahim& 217 

It may not be even Vaikuntham of V&mana, who decei- 
ved Bali; 

It cannot be the heaven of Brahma who spoke amo- 
rously to his own daughter Sarasvati and had his head 
chopped off by Rudra. 

You are of the divine form, possessed of immeasurable 
prowess, following Dharma, devoted to unfailing truth, 
clothed with gentle words. 




B&pa Makimd, 
Personal Charms of the Rama Borm 

vgfcm *iN«fi wro *t*rfs ! * <atag (W) 

<j. ^$ft ^3^5 $§& *rf^rr- 

% s^soN *ftg*r ( fir* ) 


wpncroga ! *$ «6pr ( fc - ) 


Is it possible even for Brahma, Indra and others to 
describe your beauty, you, the father of the god of love? 
Is it possible to describe the beauty of your benign look, 
your charming face that surpasses the moon in splendour, 
your sweet and soft words, your hand that blesseth and 
your natural gunas? Even the Gods and the Vedas 
and S&stras cannot have any conception of the glory of 
your prowess, which easily subdues the haughty kings, 
grown arrogant by securing boons from other gods as a 
result of their terrible penances. 


<kBt nft fa?i 3rf*%§3 *?gft ( S ) 

fiilpa Mahima 219 

«pw& §*#* sroRRiftaft (g) 

u MUDDU MOMU " (Sur yakantam) 

How did Sri Rama's face of captivating beauty shine 
when he blessed with His Darsan the devotees who had 
been for long looking forward eagerly with panting hearts 
for His advent, and how did even the sages get enchanted 
with it ? Was it the effect of ardent worship of pure minded 
Brahmans, or of penance done in previous births or the 
Lord's own divine nature ? 


safcfe - '^^N^gG' L sift 

*ft$ sg% awcr 5 SrtSfa wwcwger ft (I) 


w ENDU KOUGALINTURA " ( Suddhadesi ) 

Which portion of your body am I to embrace and how 
am I to describe, O beautiful Rama whom Lakshmi has 
treasured in Her heart ? Your speech alone is speech ; your 
smile alone is smile ; your brilliance alone is brilliance. 


*foOT<rc?*rM *«qwij8i; firerftfk^ (tf) 

5T$fa ($3^ cffag cfB^ 

W SRI RAMA PADAMA " (Amritavahinf) 

Oh Rama's blessed feet ! It is enough if I secure your 
grace. Come and make my mind your abode. All the 
great ones, Brahma, Sanaka, Sanandana, Indra and others 
worship you. Taking compassion on the long repenting 
Ahalya who had been cursed into a stone, lying on your 
way, you, as a hero, redeemed her. Bless me also similarly. 

RUpa Mahima 221 


Sd6r ft^fait WRTST WWF fa) 

n SANDEHAMUNU " (Ramapriya) 

Oh Rama ! Pray, clear my doubt. Are your holy feet 
worshipped by Nanda, great, or are your elegant sandals 
great ? The great sages that worshipped your feet secured 
Vaikuntham— your abode; but Bharata, who worshipped 
your sandals, got you yourself. 



"ALAKALALLA LADA" (Madhyamavatl) 

What rapturous enjoyment did Visvamitra have, gazing 
on the waving of the curly forelocks playing on Rama's 
face when he subjugated Marlcha and when he broke 
Siva's bow understanding the direction of the gesture of 
Visvamitra's eye! 



^m - { sr^?r; 

«nw*ro! ^src<^; 3# 



mm m f^fts rnmnspx ft«r /^ 

"LAVANYARAMA" (Rudrapriya) 
Oh charming Rama I Bless me with your benign looks. 
Your mental disposition, your charms and your methods 
are umgue: Why should one seek protection from Tftmasic 
(lower) gods? 

B&pa MahimS 


33S?3%5 - 'flfal^' 





WW 3TC #3* ! JR^W J *tffa (#) 

V fas wgg 3353 *rft ^ate 

*R! ^flSflRpfa ! fts^ft (#) 

" SOGASU JUDA TAR AMA " (Kannadagowla) 

Is it possible to see such beauty as that of your face 
shining with glossy cheeks, your feet worshipped by Devas, 
your hands that offer protection, your lip (nether) which 
resembles a ripe Bimba fruit, your chest adorned with 
garlands of Vakula flowers, your smiles, your forelocks 
and the brilliance of your eyes ? 


$%*m g« firar <sita ! gyr qejur (#) 


§* ftarc flfeaw tamrc 

st^ Wit ft ww *fbjs Ji*gg frrat 

W! fttroj aft ^ Itaift Sflffiift j 

"MOHAN A RAMA" (Mohana) 

Oh ! R&ma of universally captivating beauty ! Speak to 
me sweetly ; you are the foremost Lord- Your form has an 
inexplicable attraction for me. Hearing the glory of your 
human form all the Gods from Brahma downwards came 
down to the earth and took in love the forms of birds, beasts 
and monkeys and long enjoyed your Darsan with rivetted 
eyes and ecstacy. 

^WWlft ™ 'TOWR' 

■ ■■nf\. 


%it vfc sr^rd ww 


B&pa MahimS 225 

v fg# tt^ Ptg# $s?:g 

<T§^ %f3 ct§# *R8T (*0 

ft* 3*3 ^> *FWT (1) 

w MARAVAKARA ° (Devagandhari) 

Oh Mind ! Don't forget Rama of bewitching beauty, 
his dignified bearing, his soft words, the brilliance of his 
eyes, the disposition of the cloth across his body — 

his graceful jerks, the jingling noise of his foot orna- 
ments/ the gloss of his cheeks, his bow, its ringing bells, 
his floral abode, unimpeded Darsan, his hand, the rings on 
the fingers, his golden swing, the consort by his side— 

his arrows, golden garments, his chest adorned by 
Lakshmi, his alertness in protecting devotees. 

I shall worship him with the lotus of my heart all my 





itamwfa i ^5 ! crtk ! TO TOT *T5r- (if) 

mm «Nrs iw^-«Rvr slftft sftftftfr, *sr- (*t) 

Tag*? #ftr| ^^5 ^ig^, 

" MERU SAMANA DHIRA" (Mayamalvagowla) 

Oh Rama; firm like the Meru mountain ! Pray, come 
to me so that I may feast my eyes with the captivating 
beauty of your form - your graceful gait - your shining blue 
body - the lovely curls on your forehead - the attractive 
shape of your tilaka - your blooming cheeks - the brilliance 
of your face - the golden jewels that adorn your neck. 

Bilpa Mahima 227 

ss^^r *fs3 5^5 *cprfir *ftg (^) 

w NT MUDDU MOMU " (Kamala, Monohari) 

Oh Lotus-eyed R^ma! Have compassion on me and 
show me your beautiful face, shining like the Moon, to 
cheer my heart; I shall instal you there. It is only to wor- 
ship you with ecstatic ardour; I shall never forget you 
even in my dream; I am deeply drawn to you. 


f§R$f% wrPt swift *8$ (<?) 


11 PALUKU KANDA CHAKKER ANU " (Navarasakannada) 

The sweetness of his speech is sweeter than sugar 



*0t *rcnl%ft*t P TW ! 

fNl§. flffasi, Stripy f^r- 
l^g S^^fe Sffejg cqpi^Fsr 

%r ! to ^wgjr S |ir ; ^ 


Oh Rama ! How wonderful was your power of winning 
people by sweet words, suited exactly to the mental dispo- 
sition of each, softly, sternly, sweetly-parents, women, 
servants, kings, munis, the famous Ashta Dikpalakas, Suras, 
Asuras, Moon, Sun.-so much so they felt bound to follow 
the words ! 



R&pa Aiahimd* 229 

*wft %ft «nf*firfi* P *iw! ^ (%) 

i^sgft ^rfefe ate ft^ife §3$ $i%?s ; . 

3MB3*lfilr Tf**H ?&^Wlft ! sftWPRiWiqgP *ft 1%) 

"EVARICHCHIRIRA" (Madhyamavati) 

Oh glorious Kodandapani ! Who gave you your bow 
and arrows ? Were they with you when you were born ? 
Or, did you acquire them after coming down to the Earth ? 

Your arrow had the wonderful merit of getting multi- 
plied into tens, hundreds and thousands, rushing in all 
directions and destroying the enemies; When they were 
aimed at the wicked Kakasura, even the Trimurtis drew 
back from protecting him. When they were used on the 
Samudra Raja, they killed all the Rakshasas of Drumakulya. 

tor; wfa m wfa *nfim 





^%g Wlftr faftw *faf- 

*wc ; ^tg5 wro*3*r ! (v) 

M SARASARA SAMARAIKA u (Kuntalavarali) 

You improvised a blade of grass as an unfailing deadly 
weapon ; you have fought against a host, single handed ; 
You have destroyed the arrogance of the Sea Lord ; You 
have proved a fire to the cotton-heap of R&vana's reserve 
forces ; You are the axe for the destruction of the forests 
of sins committed by people in previous births ; You have 
broken the colossal Siva's bow which nobody could even 
dream of doing. Bless and project me. 





srafsmta*** ; 

mm i 

*fifar crc^ ? 

w *ri|*F 


\*\k srtifir 

3^*r *ft§ 

%»$ mfa %f% $w$ 



ir site ^Frcrsrgg *ri|*? (m) 


O Mind ! Rama's glory is beyond description; Rama 
struck down the Rakshasa Maricha and consigned to fire 
his compeer Subahu; Understanding the desire in Sita's 
mind, he sent an arrow at the tail of the chamari-deer ; to 
save her honour and pride, (which consisted of the fine tail) 
she covered (her tail) with her head (intending to offer her 
life, rather than lose the tail); seeing this and flowing with 
compassion* and to afford security of life (to the meek), did 
not Rama, the remover of the distress of the meek, quickly 
cancel the arrow aimed already ? 

1. ftgfwr (*tt) 




aft \m ^re*r 



%%& ste wf& 



to* ! 3toir 



sprat V? qNrfs' s?r 



g# qts #^i% tfl 

^ngfir *i$*t *nfifcr ^ 



aft wig qjff sfe *rft 319 

wfNjs f3*f#ftr 



^gifsnr cftojtcrrcg ^ft 

cWTOlft sstffcift * 


w BROCHUVAREVARE " (SriranjanI) 

Who is there that will protect people with love like you? 
Oh Raghupati ! Lord of the whole Universe, the best among 
men ! 

Who would have, out of campassion, made a gift of 
Lanka to Vibhishana and blessed him to the delight of 
Devas as you did ? 

Who would have killed V&li with one arrow and made 
Sugrlva the king ? 

Who would have accompanied Viswamitra to see his 
Yagaand killed there the cruel Rakshasas, like M&rlcha ? 

JS&pa Mahima 233 

Who would have taken by the hand and protected 
Tyagaraja who had been struggling, not knowing the 
means by which to cross the ocean of Samsara ? 


( #sw 53 crcirft ^tft 3few) (sft) 

( Wigf OT^ft 3t&?t %foq ) (ifr) 

( dftfir 33 ^H» 3tM afeq ) (^) 
v. gsife ^q^Rr gcqfar 4MSr$f S3 


( $OT 93 aq%ftr §&tT ^r ) 
OT^ft S^Nfr 3f&? 

( %* ^WW| cfq^fa St&ft ^feq ) (sft) 

( aPRgrof OT*ti*r %*Nt ^fee? ) (s#) 

*• TO1 WT ^35 WE 5TR& 

( BIT *TRfe cT^ft %&ft §f%3J ) (aft) 

<>• ^ft^^fh srft qtai" *r? ^fo 

( 3TT^f% gtfft Sftft a%v ) (>4t) 

"SRTrAmA RAGHURAMA" (Yadukulakambhoji) 

Oh Mind! can you not meditate upon Sri Rama, the 
beautiful ? I do not know what meritorious work in the past 

Kausalya should have done to kiss the shining cheeks; 
(of Rama), 

Dasaratha to call endearingly *Rama', 
Lakshmana to serve Rama unceasingly* 

JRiXpa Mahima S&35 

Visvamitra to feel elated on seeing Rama led by him, 

Ahalya to get her sins dissolved and recover her origi- 
nal charming form, 

Siva's bow to come into contact with the feet of the one, 
who is the embodiment of Dharma, 

Janaka to give his daughter in marriage to Rama and 
feast his eyes with the sight of the couple, 

lanakl to hold Rama by the hand, her body pining with 

and Narada to praise Rama as the adored of Lord Siva; 



sft irc 5T€^i#^; $m- 

«t. smrft *m m $fi 

wr ?ft %fir **s ^ («fr) 




flr^Rc^gssg *i%*£8$ # 

q? «ra3t$ sr ^ *spag 



Sftsfflpsg qf cTigc55 

* ^a%cf wla g^rg 



8T5?rg srs'c wri% afa 

gpnrt * ^f& *rcgg §w 



§5^5553 ^Nf&ra$ta 

fts$?*ra WW5 srpr 



wr wro«j §%ft ftw 

toN sffaw Tr?^i% 



snflw&w ffcircs sftict 

% ^is^feft srnrencs 



*m m *ricNHg km 

ft§ $?rr?ar t^g^s #*s 



Oh Lotus-eyed Sri Rama ! I am a servant of your 
servants. Why do you doubt ? 

Your Name, they say, is the craft for Grossing the 
boundless sheet of water of sams&ra. 

R&pa Makima 237 

To end the troubles caused by the crocodiles of Kama 
and the other five inward enemies, have you not the Chakra 
in your hand (to use as in the case of Gajendra) ? To quell 
and calm the waves of the unsteady mind, you have your 
conquering left hand (to be used as you did against the 
waves of the sea on the eve of the Setu Bandha); 

To subdue the elephants of haughtiness and hatred, the 
crease lines in the sole of your feet (called Ankusa Rekha) 
will serve as the hook-spear. 

To break the mountain of grief and other troubles, the 
crease lines in your palm (called Vajra Rekha) will serve as 
the thunderbolt (Vajra). 

To put down the stubbornness of egoism and protect 
me, have you not arrows in your hand ? 

To hurl away the mountains of sins, there is the pure- 
hearted Hanum&n by you. 

To stop the whirlpool of birth and death, will not your 
mighty commands serve as rushing flood ? 

We of all communities have joined together and with 
love have learnt the glory of your holy name. 

Very terrible indeed is Samsara. 

We will not seek other Gods but you. 



*rl|*r 5*5 % ( 9 ) 

&3nSJ ! W5qt<& I §#R faffed r 

gUrrr ^r ? 35 ^ 

^trr 3$?fe raft #i^?r ? *n#ft Erg ($) 

*v ^faftr 3*tfft 'Rgs flf 

«J Sift, WTCPT *%f 

B&pa Mahimd. 239 

§^sr ^Tf^cr fife finfr- 
^ ! wispm srawar i 

%m\m wmm i «ft *s<r<t ; ($) 

3a ! gafta 93^r to ! % ($) 


Sweeter will be the devotee's pleasure, the more he, 
with a loving mind, daily sees you and your charming face 
radiating beauty and unbounded glory. 

Did not such a Darsana redeem and render happy 
Dhruva when he felt mortified at the sharp and cruel words 
of his step-mother, Suruchi ? 

Did not the description of the glory of your benign 
form given by Hanuman transport Sri Slta into a blissful 
trance ? 


This, my statement, will be amply testified to by 
Anjaneya, who longingly and lovingly holds your blessed 
lotus-feet in his hands, by Lord Siva, the enjoyer of the 
superb sweetness of R&manamam, also by N&rada, Par&sara, 
Suka, Sounaka, Indra, P&rvatl and Sita. 

Equally sweet is the pleasure of the Darsan of 
sprightly Sita devouring the exquisite beauty of Sri Rama's 
face with her yearning and modest looks. 

The Lord's Greatness and Mystic Power 

ssnfa w *c mtf& t^?t ? (ft) 


*CT3 T*l?5 tg K® ^13 1EBT 

^ft Slgrtfcr *fr.^ #^f ? 

srrft hrot %ff-*ft*n^*rs % ; 5 (ft) 


Oh Eternal Being ! Whose capacity can be of any avail ? 
Has anybody the power to transgress your authority which 

The Lord's Greatness and Mystic Power 241 

has truth for its basis ? Is not the Sun revolving regularly 
round Mount Meru day and night ? Is not Adisesha unf lin • 
chingly carryying the immeasurable load of the Earth? Is 
not Lord Siva initiating all people with your Taraka mantra ? 
You are the sourse of all greatness. 



*fwt ! W3T*r*4 Jrtir aft (*r) 

qswj srT*$3 wvft* tf^ft to 


Oh mind ! Of what avail is our ability ? Note, the Lord 
has mounted the ohariot of the Universe and is himself 
driving it with his own prowess. He has spread the net of 
Maya throughout, making victims of people like even 
Kaikeyi, who in the first instance very jubilantly received 
the news of Rama's coronation fixed by Vasishta and others, 



and Sugrlva, who, more than once, lived a false life in 
this world. 

^^sqtfJT - 'SOTPHOT' _ 3^ 


wifwzi .ft m% %s^ . 

S^rf ^§55 ^DRJR 
'R'ft «&WI3 ^fHf%, TTT 

^ % ^¥ %$fa ^*r 
^raqg^^r? wirier P 




1 BAGAYANAYYA » (Chandrajyoti) 

Oh, this is wonderful I How great is your magic ? Is it 
possfcle even for Brahma to praise it? This magic, yourself 
doing and at the same time proclaiming that you are not 
doing it, is wonderful. In the past when Ar juna trembled to 
carry out your command to destroy the Kauravas, charact- 
ensmgitas a sin> did you not similarly teach him that the 
effect of sin could not touch you or him and did you not 
thus protect him ? 

The Lord's Greatness and Mystic Power 243 

prrft - 'ware sips* - ^ 

swf 333 *ros^ ($r) 

^f| *ri&f5t 3IN%il Tfef5r 


Sri Rama ! Has there been anybody who has reigned 
over Ayodhya like you, protecting the subjects, exercising 
supreme authority and securing the happiness and pros* 
perity of townsmen, countrymen and rishis alike ? During 
your reign did not your subjects have the benefit of the 
three monthly rains, training and education in all arts and 
crafts, longevity and freedom from intrigue and haughti- 
ness ? 

*ra sfcfl Tf 5fT«r fltat far) 


3 . 3*33 g|fe 33^3 cfteft fa 

Wtfg ftSTWiTOBg ^ *§ fa) 

*^S ^^3 ^§ ^3 *I fa) 

H. wcgft etfJr ti% $*33 enfir- 

^3*^^53^3*5 fa) 

%• 3w5 5F.OT3 3^ ^55 ^ SW- 

^3 ww cR gaw§s qg *f (sir) 

v». fi^TO 1%30T 3^3 sft^ffi 

*wro wptost q^r sft *f fa) 

"NATHA BROVAVE" (Bhairavi) 

Oh Ragunatha ! Protect me; Have the words of Valmiki 
who has described you as one of sweet disposition, proved 
false ? You were moved with compassion at the sight of the 
fear-stricken sages and vouchsafed to them protection, and 
you have evinced affectionate solicitude for true devotees; 

I pray for your showing me the beautiful sight of your 
triumphant re-entry into Ayodhya/ after conquering count- 
less enemies. 

The Lord's Greatness and Mystic Power 245 

I pray for your showing me your endearing arm which 
clasped Bharata to your bosom with a melting heart. 

When the women of the place (Ayodhya) charmed with 
your radiant face approached you, you treated them as your 
own daughters, Oh matchless one ! Don't forget me. 




't£3 ^r &ft #s3~^ts* %ftd ? imw i (<s) 

t. sn«5 cregsj %$ w$$i ft-*ro ^rggg sjWh *£- 

q^f § to %$ f|tf% f -^rigm «ft 3fs* ft- (%) 

^w *te *§ls3Jft-$F3 q^af^ng %f*R ft- (%) 

^355 Twoaw i^ot ! wm^wgcT ! ft- (St) 


Why do people not realise your greatness ? What 
Karma have they done in their previous births to be so ? 
You are adored by Lord Siva and you are the repository of 


all good qualities; In your tender age you broke sportingly 
without effort the colossal bow of Siva in the presence of all 
kings and jubiliantly won the hand of Lakshmi. You dest- 
royed with but one arrow the fourteen thousand bell-metal 
chariots and Ravana's reserve-forces as if in a play and 
sent them all to Yamapuri. You are the lion to the elephants 
of kings who, through Rajasa puja, got boons from Siva. 

^lftr%fe 5^5 ^TS"$5 §?sFg 

*. SF*rc s^S^ §^S *rca3&, 


3- *V* $H*H SOTfefljftft, 

"LEKANA NINNU" (Asaveri) 
Otherwise, will they always be hovering along you, with 
ons heart and deriving everlasting bliss ? Oh bestower of 

The Lord's Greatness and Mystic Power £4? 

prosperity/ ocean of mercy, incomparable embodiment of 
knowledge, the wish-yielding gem to the devotees ! 

In your beautiful form, Sit& derived happiness; In your 
commands, through the movements of your eyes/ Lakshmana 
derived pleasure. In your charming face, Bharata found joy; 
In your personality beaming with knowledge, Satrughna 
derived bliss. In your holy feet, Anjaneya found happiness. 

mm mi v&m ! (**t) 

See above page No. (88, 

w MAMAVA SAT ATAM " (Jaganmohini) 

Oh Raghun&tha ! The giver of prosperity to those 
who seek you, who are full of excellences/ unattainable 
through mere scriptural lore without devotion, of lotus eyes, 
the peaceful, the changeless, of appropriate words; firm like 
Mount Meru, devoid of (evils like) passion, delusion and 
elation, the Deep, the Wind that blows away the clouds of 
the enemies of Tyagaraja ! Pray, protect me always. 


wmffi - ^VCT' - ^Blft 

Q&k P W ! ;?ft g$ (<£) 



"EWARE RAMAYYA" (Gangeyabhushani) 

Who is there equal to you, Oh Rama I in protecting 
good people quietly and without fuss ? Without minding 
that he is the brother of your inveterate enemy, you made 
Vibhishana, the king of Lanka, in appreciation of his 

ift#ftf§r - '^taiKsta* - ww 


eita 112: $t* ^i^s-eft^B qaftsg* ; ssrai 



^ firag TO«n*-8itwiig m^ 


f he Lord's Greatness and Mystic Power 24$ 

*OKAMATA YOKABANAMU" (Harikambhoji) 

Oh mind ! Never forget Sri R&ma; He is a man of one 
word, of one arrow (unfailing in its effect), of one wife alone 
and of one mind. He will vouchsafe to you deathlessness in 
this world and the supreme ageless state of salvation. 
Verily, he is God on Earth; 

towhrer *te 5°* *rg* ! 



TOg*rr stffa fSfcgpifeft 5 

11 SARASA SAMA DANA" (Kapinarftyani) 

Oh Rama ! You are an adept in statesmanship and in 
wielding the four expedients, conciliation (Sama), winning 



over with gifts (Dana), separating the enemies (Bheda) and 
punishing by war (Danda) and there is none equal to you in 
this even among Gods; This, Ravana, who claimed to be 
the great devotee of Siva, could not know. You tendered 
any amount of good and beneficient advice to Ravana 
(thereby exhibiting Sama). 

You sincerely offered Ayodhya to him (in the event of 
his also taking refuge in you), Lanka having already been 
promised to Vibhlshana and thus demonstrated Dana. 

You made the brother of Ravana (Vibhlshana) king of 
Lanka (even while Ravana was reigning, exhibiting thus 
Bheda) s You destroyed Ravana and exhibited Danda; 



®<8$ffl - ' *ffa *or*fft t - g^q 

mfa Vn$* l UK!, *13Tf m -» { X ) 

13^3 T5[%rc ! fSTCOTi* ! 



Come Oh I Hero of the Raghus; valorous in battle ! the 
destroyer of Parasurama's pride, the prop of (all) gods I 

*The Lord's Greatness and Mystic Power £51 

an Indra who destroys the mountains of Ravana, Kumbha- 
karna and Indrajit ! you who are of the form of the static 
and the moving, you who abide in the heart of Tyagaraja ! 




SOT - '35|%$rci5[' _ sflfl 

*ra3^ ^ft *f5RRr (85) 


You have cast the prohibitory spell of " Rama Bandu" 
over me, preventing me from straying into numerous 
other faiths claiming allegiance to other Gods. Though 
I know that the faith to be followed by me is not predeter- 
mined by Brahma, it appears to me, desireless Tyagaraja, 
that other 'faiths conduce more and more to desire and 

2)52 TYAGAR4JA kirtanas 




im $$Km m-iVR sfarcw xw- 

im &awm xw-m <Hmm *m- (jj) 

%s • fir?«[^ siig -<ttenfter suras (*j) 

<v ca^g *rc§9ff %erg% %feq?T| 

ifog ganfefts 3g ®fa ^ftft N*j (v) 

Bhagavad Guna-Daya^ Kshama* Grace 253 

*r *i5r 3^ ! ?qw-TW ^sr 5*nw (u) 

"RAMA SITARAMA" (Sankarabharanam) 

If you care to reckon my sins, I can never hope to be 
saved. So, my father, protect me with your eyes closed. 
In a helpless condition, I have sought your support. Pray, 
do not put me off, but come at once gracefully to save me. 
I have become a regular abode of sins. Come to my 
succour and remove my distress, cheering me up by saying 
" why should you be afraid (when I am with you)? " This is 
the time for taking me by the hand. My mind does not go 
after others to seek help and you do not seem to know my 
troubles. Positively I am forlorn- Whom shall I seek in this 
world? Come into my mind. Do not play an illusory game 
with me. I do not know why people cling to this body and 
run after sense-pleasures, without discarding them. 

gHI - 'fawfim* 



%zm scrogsfa 

^fcprgf nftSs, 13$ 



mm i mm mmws 

m^m %m®$ ! /^v 




Oh Rama ! Your Grace must come of its own accord, 
What am I, after all ? 

The Vedas, Sastras and Puranas declare loudly that you 
are the only refuge. 




Bhagavad Guna-Daya, Kshama-Grace 255 

*$>$ ftircr Jfcro fisn? «|fr 

s rog ^ps ^ra^a srf ft to (*) 

saw «ro*rc tfwss 


Oh ! Fulfiller of desires ! Your grace will come only 
if I had earned it by past merit; in this Kali age, without 
knowing your mind, I reproached you. 

Do not tarry ; if you had ordained a fair fate for me, 
your grace will come ; if I had practiced devotion to Rama's 
feet as devoutly as the foremost devotees, N&rada, Prahlada* 
Par&sara and R&madasa, I would have earned it (your 

«iwfi> - ' ^&ft sig^ft ' 







Oh Rama! Without your grace, of what use is life, 
whether it be for one hundred years or whether it is spent 
in ruling a kingdom ? If I have it, I will be blessed with 
your loving presence at the time of my puja and japam, 
enlightening on the real secret of life and vouchsafing 
mental peace to me. 



Bkagavad Guna~Day8, KshamfrQ-race $57 

" TANAYUNI BROVA " (Bhairavi) 

Does the mother go to the child to protect it, or does 
the child go to the mother ? Please reveal this secret and 
show me your face. Does the cow go after the calf ? Do 
the paddy fields go up to the clouds for water ? Does the 
paramour go after his beloved ? Come and reveal this 



*n^$ *7fara~*r$ ^fe^ fa) 

$*g f555g§^-^%ft^ fa) 

qOm *ftwrowifc Slgpr fa) 




Oh Lotus*eyed one ! Oh the life of the virtuous ! 

Your grace is enough. It will give the recipient the 
happiness and satisfaction which the fish derive from 
prolific progeny ; which a man, never accustomed to make 
gifts, feels on suddenly becoming generous; which I feel in 
the company of the Holy; which one derives from a delicious 
meal, from gold and wealth, which one experiences when 
freed from greed and unworthy desires, from securing 
a throne, from acquiring and enjoying the status of Brahma 
and Indra, from exercising sovereignty over the fourteen 
worlds and from his entire race being saved 


Bhagavad Guna»Day& % Ksham&^Grace 259 


Pray forgive me for this serious sin of not knowing your 
ind and show mercy to me, who am fickle-minded. When 
du are there to protect (unsolicitedly) all the beings of the 
niverse, knowing fully their worth and deserts, I have 
ade a special approach to you with an offering of hundred 
>ngs in order that you may particularly bless me: 


#fa *k% tej^ sny #5te ? (^ 

v. iii^s tnStor «wot %fira 

fifing sft c^FRrep ^ f$) 



Merits and blemishes are not yours but are my own 
making, Oh Rama ! 

If the gold is not of the required standard of purity, 
why wail and blame the goldsmith ? 

If one's daughter is not able to stand the labour-pains, 
why wrongly blame the son-in-law for it ? 

If one failed to do charity to deserving persons and 
worship God in previous births, why should one blame the 
gods for his lot ? My trouble is due to my own mind and 
to my own inclinations; 



ftsrFs $® sftew ! (ft) 

***» lfr% t«5 ittm (ft) 

(tap* ^fifci §p> ?ii55 (ft) 

Bhagavad Guna^Daya t Kshamfa&race 261 

V SSW fog" Sffft % 

"NINNADA NELA" (Kannada) 

Why should TY&gar&ja, who knows the right method of 
adoring you, blame you and be angry with everybody ? 

Events happen according to one's own Karma* The 
Lord dispenses his Grace to people as suited to Dharma* 
One's spiritual attainment will be in proportion to his mental 
developments* The success of entertainments will be com- 
mensurate with the money spent. 

ifWj 'flftftflS' *tifc 





" RANIDI RADU " (Manirangu) 

What will not come will not come, be one a Sura or an 
Asura; what will not go will not go, be one even a Brahman ; 
(otherwise), Devendra would not have had the body he 
had ; the Rakshasas would not have been deprived of Amrita; 
the holy sages of Dandaka would not have been subjected 
to the cruelties of Rakshasas. 



Bhagavat Svar&pa — Devotional 

*W JFW1JS #^g qqp ; <& ran ($) 

Bhagavat Svwrhpa — Devotional 263 


Sita is my mother and Rama is my father ; Hanuman, 
Lakshmana, Garuda and Satrughna, Brahma, Bharata and 
others are my brothers; Paramesa, Vasishta, Parasara, 
Marada, Sounaka, Suka, Indra, Goutama, Ganesa, Guha # 
Sanaka and all true Bhagavatas are all my close relations. 



i« 53 *n*og«i *rgg ^s <rag- 
v siwro *r iff s^jrgg 


w NIVEGANI NANNU " (Bilahari) 

Who is there but you to protect me ? You are my father 
and mother, giving me all that I desire and protecting me 
with utmost kindness; You are the precious treasure earned 
by my forefathers by virtue of their austerities. You are the 
fruit of my worship, in countless past births, with quantities 
of flowers. 

You are the water-bearing cloud to quench the fire of 
the sins of your devotees ; You are the cloud of Satchida- 
nanda which graces the hearts of angels, yogis and sages. 

You are the merit which one derives from a bath in the 
celestial river (Ganga) which is the holiest of rivers. 

You are the saving mantra (taraka) that has been 
solemnly proclaimed to Brahma and others by Tyagar&ja 
as the highest. 

*3% *ranft sir iwtefir 

Bhagamt Svar&pa— Devotional 265 


siirrc 3*153 Bros qranft (*r) 

*wf$ ifoFS ^3 *3& (*) 

V. ^TOt qg*rre <#fir % *T- 

"NAGUMOMU GALAVANI" (Madhyamavatl) 

You, the -ever smiling captivator of my mind, the Hero 
of the Universe, the Lord of Slta, the God of Gods, the ex- 
quisitely beautiful one, the repository of wisdom, the one 
who has the sun and the moon as his eyes, the sun that 
dispels the darkness of ignorance, the one with stainless 
form, the destroyer of all *sins, the great one that blesses 
one with the Purusharthas from Dharma to Moksha J 

Fully enlightened by Jnana, I shall time and again 
worship you according to to the prescribed methods. 



^gST^e, $Sfr 35^ 3 3^ (55) 


"LAKSHANAMULU GALA" (Suddhasaveri) 

Why don't you come and make a Pradakshinam of Sri 
Rama/ who has all the thirty-two Lakshanas (auspicious 
signs). He has in his stomach the whole universe ; he is 
the discriminating Lord ; he is the initiating Guru of all ; 
he reveals himself to those who are thoroughly well-versed 
in the Vedas ; he protects devotees/ who have received 
proper training and can earn the approbation of congrega* 
tions of the wise ; he becomes the intimate friend of the 
cultured who worship him through Bhajana; he is the 
universal witness and the prop of Tyagaraja. 

Shagavat Svarhpa— Devotional 26? 

"KADALU VADU GADE" (Narayanagoula) 

Sri Rama is immutable but His stories are numerous. 
He is the primal cause and yet he is without beginning and 
end/ He never indulges in false fabrications (Kalpanas), but 
everything that he wills gets accomplished; He rests quiet 
on the bed of Adisesha and yet He has become the object 
of Tyagar&ja's adoration. 




hi 3m$ §q*?? ! 

^5 qpngjOTT . f grw^rag^r (w) 


11 NAJIVADH ARA " (Bilahari) 

Oh, the prop of my life, the fruit of my penance, the bril- 
liance of my eyes, the fragrance of my nose, the embodi- 
ment of the letters of the Name that I chant, You are the 
flower of my worship. 



SOT - '^JTFR5t55> - WW 

fa$ mfat i ft?m g*wfte ! (bit) 

tfg 4* 3 <rgg§ fosspn H133 ? 

% $$ * cregs ft* gin 37IS13 ? 

% %$ $ wig feflg»TT 3^13 ? 

*5 %v wnras * S*igs ^5 ^3 ? (m) 

" NARADA G ANALOLA " (Atftna) 

Oh, Protector of Devotees ! Oh, one of incomparable 
virtues ! Without you, which embodied being can ever get 
on ? Without you, what vegetation can sprout ? Without 
you can there be any rain ? Without you how can Ty&ga- 
raja sing the song of your (Sunas ? 



Bhagavat Svar&pa — Devotional 269 

*ft*5 ^^ ^^| srf&fe 

"MKE TELIYAKAPOTE" (Anandabhairavi) 

If you yourself do not know it, what could I do ? You, 
as the prop of the Universe, do not know the burning state 
of my mind; what can I do? I have been meditating on your 
blessed feet solely to be able to see you wherever my eyes 
fall, to feel like speaking to you whomsoever I speak to, to 
visualise you wherever my vision goes, to worship you 
wherever I may worship; 


!§ft - 'aSsta^ 8 ^' - 5*ra*5g 

*#ata ^nft$ wWta *%m$ ($} 


*. wm*g f ^^-n^ctf^if tftg (s) 

% qq*rre gwif -&r wy iftg ($) 

%. vftffiyg S^mto stow ^ (s) 

*. SMtfcrnr *rf%-^r* stags^ $3 ($r) 

*. «fw ftrowita mtxm %5 ^%r (s) 


Oh, Rama, the Supreme Being who is merciful towards 
the whole universe ! I have realised that you are the Lord 
of the five elements, the One that came down on the earth 
and wedded Slt& and are no other than the One who is 
absorbed in mystic slumber on the ocean; You have blessed 
the solar race by being born in it; Oh ! You who are lauded 
by Siva ! You are the One who hadHanuman for his service. 
You are infinite, beyond name and form; You are the giver 
of Jn&na, Vairftgya and Bhakti. You are beyond the Vedas; 


sanfarft ~ l $$<gnfe' ~ ^ 

#st 3w% €r^^rrf8r ^ 

Bhagavat Svar&pa— Devotional 271 


wfar *?§i aftf sfei 

*ro wigprt afrftfa irfas* 4Wrftr («&) 

*. wig ^ra^s q%ri^r $%fsr^ %3l 

TOW itwss** 3^** ^^ *w* 

"KOLUVAIYUNNADE" (Devagandhftri) 

Kodandap&ni is in court. Let all pure-minded souls with 
excellent conduct and with loving desire come and have 
the darsanam. Having partaken of the good offerings placed 
before him, along with Slta, Bharata and others, dressed in 
golden garments and feeling delighted at the Vedic chant- 
ings by Sanaka, blessing the devotees, with sweet scents 
pervading the whole atmosphere, celestial dancing girls 


dancing before him, Par&sara, Narada and other devotees 
singing his praises, Indra, Brahma and others worshipping 
him lovingly with bodies thrilled, the beautiful Lord is 
resting on Adisesha. Slta smearing the body with sandal 
paste, Kodandapftni is sitting in court/ granting solely to 
the faithful, with his side-glances/ the boons that they seek 
and with Ty&garaja handing pan to the Lord every now 
and then. 



mil wprjrt tor g<ro*r (qrr) 

i . sir ^fomrcs-sn spmRs (qr) 

\* *n *ftg q5^5-5f[ $g sresg (qr) 

V *t ?ftr wg-sntStoig (qr) 
*. «n farfT^-srr %m*m (<n) 
*v «nj *FBtog-siT g|%srg (qr) 
*• w *mte*g-*ns >mm (qr) 
*♦ *rr qrfe wqg-sng ftrofg (qr) 
*. «nj <#rcg-3T§; $Nrag (qr) 

V arnwi wjj^gt ^5 (qr) 

Bhagavat Svarilpa— 'Devotional 273 

<u gifar swsj-gpiR* fiw (<tf) 

<n. ^ift%w-^wirag (<*f) 

<r« <7^ *mg-qitafe«g (**F) 

n. tft ftffawg-t , swig fn) 

I s *. $$ ^gfsrag-^ wtttifag far) 

ih« wnc sng-^T^nHg On) 


Protect me, Oh auspicious Rama, of sanctifying excel- 
lences ! You are the prop of my life ; you are the fruit of 
my penance, the strength of my body, the wealth of my 
family, the source of my auspiciousness, the bliss of my 
mind, the source of my happiness, my joy, the charming 
dress that I put on ; the captivator of my heart ; my beauty ; 
my blessedness ; my dispassion ; my life ; my youth ; the 
essence of the Vedas and the Agamas ; beyond the reach of 
the Rakshasas; the prop of the three worlds; my pearl 
necklace ; the God of Gods ; the negation of the wicked ; 
the supreme Brahman ; the destroyer of sins ; beyond con- 
ception ; divine incarnation ; the highest ; beyond Maya ; 
hidden in the ocean ; the friend of Ty&garaja; 




35fn73 ftg ?? fargsr $ 
W^S i^ <[$ sjqr §fe ? 


Oh Rama ! Show your mercy in full measure to me. 
Am I not your servant ? You are the protector of the 
devotees: When I, who have reposed my full faith in you 
as my mother, father, guru, God, am in great distress, why 
do you not show me the way out ? You are the repository 
of all virtues; 


m^i$t - 'mm 9 - sirfe 

tot tot ^ftaR&mnf xm tot #rr- 

1 . %^g ^sg Ǥe % tot ui 

^W wre ^5Pgf ^5 to? w) 

Bhagavat Svar&pa — Devotional 275 

\. SR^rfl iratfte ms TOT 

*5L ^S*3 ^ *\& tot (*i) 

V ^l?f 3fc[0??BTf?cT %W TOT 3^- 

H. Wrf ****** TOT % 

ep^ %^ *Ttf^" TOT («) 

%. BiRRRfer %^sr tot *W- 

%v % iflr w It 1*1 tot (*t) 

*. gsrcrer asrw §5^ tot tot 

Bfsftq cqj^r^ Jfe ^T (*T) 

w RAMA RAMA NIVARAMUGAMA " {Anandabhairavi) 

Oh Sltft Rama ! lover of the devout ! Are we not your 
own ? Come softly with your golden clothes and ornaments 
dangling; Oh fulfiller of the cherished desires of great 
devotees ! Oh repository of mysterious divine Glory, come ! 
Come with your Kodanda; Comei you great Hero whose 
sight is a feast to the eyes; Come to show me your smiling 
face; Let your loving blessing be with me always to pro- 
tect me; Come Oh One of Cupid's beauty, the root of 
bliss ! Come, I desire to prostrate before you. Oh 


Govinda, One who has neither beginning nor end* one who 
is known through the Vedas and to Siva ! I have become 
yours. Quickly come; Oh gracious one ! Oh embodiment 
of Truth, endowed with all good qualities ! Oh Infinite, 
come to bless Ty&garaja. 




^s to vsfa wnrai 3g tf*r (*) 


Oh Mind ! Where is the need for fear of Yama for 
real devotees of Rama who apportions their respective 
positions to Brahma, Siva and Indra, of Rama worship- 
ped by Tyagaraja, the servant of the Lord who protected 
the elephant! and for tho§e desirelesg souls who are able 

Bhagavat Svar&pa— Philosophical 2?7 

to visualise in the lotus of their hearts the Lord who fills 
the numberless worlds and pine in worshipping him with 
unbounded love ? 




f^rgi % *#rs *w ^ (ft) 

dj 3taffir fag «tflft 

^ «ft WPKWffef ! (fir) 


O Rama ! There is none who would speak out in truth 
your glory. 

They simply ask one to do Bhajana (not knowing that 
the difference between what they say and real devotion is 
like the difference between an elephant and a goat, a lion 
and a jackal) ; they, the (supposed) great ones who always 

278 tyagabaJa kietanas 

give the mother of their mind to the libertines called Senses, 
are adepts in earning money and do not frequent the 
company of the good souls. 



3c3 $"W <w?r ? <?* (a) 

otw ^isrs 301555 ssr #sg qt^an 

H TATVA MERUGA" (Garudadhwani) 

Is it possible to realise the truth? Is it possible to 
realise the great truth ? Is it possible to realise the great 
truth that you Rama are the meaning of the great affirmation 
*' That thou Art " ? Is it possible for one so long as one is 
caught up in struggle with Tamasic and Rajasic gunas to 
realise the truth of the Vedas and Sastras ? 


^PIRft - '?R^«flf5|f%' - q|$ 

waft «nftfir-awn% nnfaj ^ 


Bhagavat Svar&pa— Philosophical 27$ 

i. 5ft *$ s?^- ftsrc* §g§g*a fa) 

^ s$$g 3hi *f^-^Fcrcg«5i*T (a) 

V firftr* wssj 53*5 ^g «fttftre (») 

*• *i?S%3 ^-^s §13*rr3 fa) 

<*• fiRflftKPart 5ftg-{Jt5qT*f*c[5 g^TFg fa) 


Oh R^ma ! One must meditate within his own self and 
become one with you; He must realize the seat of his self 
in the cave of his body; That very moment* he will know 
your truth and grasp it firmly; 

As long as Man is under the sway of the M&y& of I, he 
will not know in which direction he is dragged. His past 
karma will operate strongly and not even Brahma can undo 


it. The worldly tendencies will dominate ; and for ages such 
people will not be inclined to place right value on intros- 
pection ; nor will they be in a position to realize that there 
are higher stages of happiness than what can be derived 
through senses; 

Oh Lord ! You are sporting with the five elements and 
you are enjoying bliss eternally, stretching yourself on 
your bed of Adisesha. 

You will assuredly hold Ty&garftja by the hand and 
protect him. 


fft^ I5S3 §5352 5R55S 
^Pl Wt TO ^ $&& 

Bhagavat SvariXpa — Philosophical 281 

w PARAM ATMUDU M (Vagadhiswarl) 

Know all well how Param&tma, the Lord/ shines in glory 
in everything, in Hari, Hara, Devas# human beings and in the 
innumerable worlds ; He shines in all the species of crea- 
tion, made of the five elements, fire, air, earth, water and 
ether, like animals, birds, mountains, trees and even in the 
good and the bad and always in holy devotees like 

*3te #5^1 ? 

«Nwa wmtw wffig 

fin *roi wips q-^ ? (q) 

11 E TAVUNARA" (Kalyani) 

Which is your place of abode? You are not easily 
to be found, however closely you are searched for. Is 


it in the feminine forms of the deity like Sita, Gourl and 

Sarasvati or is it among the five elements of earth, water, 

fire, air and ether or in the innumerable worlds or among 
the Trinity? 

^fe far *ffat *iii$t§ (y) 

See above page 192 

"BHAKTI BICHCHAMIYAVE" (Sankarabharanam) 
Rama is above salvation, Universal Sakti and Trimurtis; 

See above page 192 

<#RRR - '^^Tfga J 





sm gvr srrfe ht m i ft- 



%Hftfo sure goifilft, ^ro- 

**#rf% flTO 30? fl>9fo «*ft- 

Shagavad Svar&pa — Philosophical 28$ 

"EMANI POGADUDURA" (Vlravasantam) 

How can I praise you ? Oh Rama the indweller of the 
Universe ! You have assigned T&masa Guna to Siva, Rajasa 
Guna to Brahma and made Indra haughty; 



*rcsn ! sfawssjIMrcrtf, §*rc% ; eft (n) 

aft 3ft ift % trgs ft- 
$8 *I333 f^gg «&^ 


Oh Mind ! Do not forget Sri Ramachandra ! Don't be 
careless. Refer to the third and sixth chapters of Valmlki 
R&mayana (to know that he is the supreme). He has 


assigned the duties of Creation, Preservation and Destruc- 
tion to the Trinity as being of a lower order and contents 
himself with the work of fulfilling the desires of the good 


sitowW^ ^Tifft ^ } 'raw PO 

^ jjcrpw wmg$-m*ni& CO 


^ ^r *nrcrg*j 


The Nectar of N&da, which is the basis of all Vedas, 
Pur&nas, Agamas and Sastras, has taken human form (in 

Bhagavad Svcu&p a— Musical 285 

Rama); the seven swaras have become the seven bells of 
the bow ; the Ragas have become the bow itself ; the styles 
Dura, Naya, Desya, have become the three strings of the 
bow ; the steady pace has become the arrow, the melodious 
apt variations of phrase have become his speech ; singing 
in devotion has become his very fortune. 


$31?% 5HC&TT35BJ {%<#$• 

«sg *reig^ *i%35 3ft&fr 


Oh Mind ! Behold ! Here in Rama you have both the 
full significance of the Gita (Vedanta) and the bliss of Music. 

This is well known to Hanuman; who constantly wor- 
ships the blessed feet of Sitapati ; he has a thorough mas- 
tery of the secret of the various creeds centering round 
Hari, Hara, Bhlskara (Sun), Time, Karma, etc.; he has taken 


the form of the foremost among monkeys ; he is adored by 
Indra ; he is the protector of Ty&garaja and is ever happy 
in being all these; 



«r wnrcpsr w^rpr ! (sty 

" Nf DAYACHE RAMA " (Yadukulakambhoji) 

By your grace, I have attained the everlasting bliss; 
Your physical constitution is of the Essence of Nada Brahma ; 
you are one of soft words ; your ornament is pure musical 
sound ; the words of Tyagaraja are your excelent garment; 



Bhagavad SvarUpa — Musical 287 

" SAM AJA VARAGAMANA " (Hindolam) 

Oh bewitching Lord, shininq like a beacon light on the 
mountain of Nada of the seven swaras born of the Pranava 
which is the source of all Vedanta ! Oh adept in the Nectar- 
like music born of the Sama Veda ! Oh you who resorted to 
the Yadava Race, who delighted in the playing of the flute, 
protect me, Oh Lord of magnificent gait, the Sun who 
makes the lotus of goodmen's heart blossom ! Oh celebrated 
Lord who transcends time ! 


WTfa; *t TOSff^T « /-^ 

*ft^B* fanRhnraw- 


#m* w mm- 

" NADATANUMANISAM " (ChittaranjanS) 

I bow to Sankara, the embodiment of Nftda, with my 
mind and body. To Him, the essence of blissful Samaveda, 
the best of Vedas, > I bow every time. To Him, who is de- 
lighting in the art of seven Svaras, Sa-Ri-Ga-Ma-Pa-Dha-Ni, 
born of His five faces, Sadyojata etc., I bow; to Him, the 
destroyer of K&la, the protector of pure-hearted Tyagaraja, 
I bow. 


g*f? 'swr-^ftf^r *nft (*) 

Sthayi-Bhftva—Sthira-Bhakti 289 

v* f^*g ^^os-^^fera^fe 

" NANU BROVAKANU " (SankarSbharanam) 

Oh Rama ! I will not leave hold of you, unless and 
until you protect me. I have secured you to rid myself of 
my impurity, just as a man searching for a lost trifling coin 
comes by a precious jem, just as one expecting ragi- gruel 
comes by nectar, just as an exhausted swimmer finds a float 
for his hold and rest, just as a pilgrim starting for Tlrtha 
finds it in front of him, just as a woman, about to lose her 
modesty, comes by a cloth; Oh you incomparable friend ! 
I have conceived you as the spirit of the scriptures. 





Oh Lotus-eyed one easily accessible to TyagarSja ! To 
be with you is best, Oh incomparable Lord of mirrorlike 
face and enchanting limbs ! I shall worship you with flowers 
of gold, shall do devout service to you, decorate you and 
embrace you. I shall dance before you, entertain you with 
charming talk and music and feel happy. You are the 
embodiment of Satvaguna; My mind is firmly fixed in you 
and does not go out anywhere. I shall thus have my 
heart's desire gratified; 

Irof* - ' 



^^FfS' - Tflg 


Sthayi-Bkiiva—Sthira-Bhakti 291 


i. €tf^r €tf^ $ti§ 5jgg ftsr 

S3 >«3 

3fRr sracrg fq^f%f^" gRi^fa 

*rfft %gsf OTtfei ^T5RRn?g 


If, knowing my mind, you yourself abandon me, to 
whom shall I complain ? 

I have worshipped you thinking that my desires will be 
fulfilled, and you harass me; it is not proper ; what is my 
crime ? you protect me f now and here. 

I have been attracted to you, knowing that the Lord 
Siva btaiself has been constantly praising that devotion to 


Bamaisthe best type of devotion and seeing that true 
devotees are all in rapture over your Sakti. I have taken a 
resolve always to keep the company of the good and the 
pious and chant Thy holy Name. 

gfirfa spg^ $cra% 

%«5lfe£ftF? i^rVt! (g) 


«r^3% *rfo ; wwcragp (S) 

"BHUVINI DASUDANE" (Srlranjanl) 

Have I uttered anything false in the great desire of 
being your servant? 

Have I taken to the bypaths, seeking men devoid of 
knowledge ? Protect me, 

8th&yi-BhQ,va—Sthvra-Bhakti 29$ 

Great weal or woe, I have not given way to grief; Well 
treated or ill-treated by my compeers, I have held fast to 
your blessed feet as my sole refuge; 



" VIDAJ ALADUR A " (Janaranjanl) 

listen, Oh Rama ! It is not possible for my mind to let 
go its hold on your holy feet, though it may be tossed about 
in a state of distress caused by entertaining unrealizable 
desires. Whatever tasks I might undertake, whatever 
unseeable sights I might see, I have regarded them all as 
yourself and felt delighted that I did so. 


■Rife - '«K35ft*ftt33 

*m * *ftt<»5 tnu *p* (*) 


srrcgef qfa* srons* («r) 

<v qisrcffcg'ww sag 


I have not found in this Universe a God like you; Oh 
Raghuvara! Do you hesitate still to be my prop? Pray, 
protect me and show me your grace; Your blessed feet are 
the sole object of my meditation and your mercy is my 
wealth and eternal bliss. 


8th&yi-M&va~-8thira~Bhakti $95 


I have fixed my mind on you, on your holy feet, as you 
are the sole upholder of everything in the Universe, Oh you 
wind that sweeps away the cloud of heinous sins ! For 
the sake of maintaining my family and children, I cannot 
bring myself to be so hard-hearted as to learn and adopt 
the deceitful modes and talks of this wicked age; 



*rgT ^l" g$f *ft xr 1 


ft$W SBC ! ftftRTOT* ! 

w CHALLAGA NATO " (VegavahinI) 

Pray, deign to bless me by lisping a few gentle words 
to me. Oh Lord ! The Protector of the good ! I am irresis- 
tably attached to you in my heart. Do not take note of my 
faults: You have found use even for the serpent as your 



wfiMH to spina i ftftfilffr! («fr) 

8lh&yi-Bhava~-SthPra-Bhakti 29^ 

H« S^ra fir^f ^n? f^Ff ^^ *$ ! 

^Rjfirtwnt ^^ • srRffer ! (#) 


You alone are my family wealth. You alone are ever my 
life. It is my fault that I have not known this till now; Pray, 
forgive and bless me; Oh Lord Rama ! Oh repository of 
Supreme Bliss ! Oh the highest ! Oh self-shining One ! 

$1$ fkgs i ^&-§^# *ri 




\. % 3^555% frv tinm&$ (*) 

*• ^ifsrcrsr wronger ^ («$) 



Oh Kodandapani ! King of kings! I have come to you 
with intense longing in order that my eyes may feast on your 
superbly beautiful form and that my mind may have the 
rare treasure of your Grace to meditate upon # and also on 
account of the fact that you are replete with countless good 


Autsukya - Longing 

for Constant Compa?iy — Sannidhi 


%mtfs *r?jcg35 %mf% 3Fg«s$ (?f ) 

Autmkya — Bannidhi 299 

M SAMUKHANA NILVA " (Kokilavarali) 

Is it given to anybody but Mahatmas, like Sit&, the 
daughter of ever-forgiving Mother Earth/ and Lakshmana to 
have the rare privilege of being in the blessed presence of 
* the Lord ? / Even Brahma and other Devas and Dik-p&lakas, 
who could not have the fortune to see Him in the Milk 
Ocean had to join together and pray hard to achieve it; 



ft G 3¥ to i*^ ? (t?) 

V tor: #l-swrg§ ^ 

ottos *&R ^J ? (4) 


"ENTARANI TANAKENTA" (Harikambhoji) 

Whatever may come to me, whatever may go away 
from me, I will never allow myself to be separated from you. 
Did not Siva stay always by you in the form of Hanuman and 
serve you? Did not Adisesha, Paramasiva's ornament serve 
you in the form of Lakshmana ? Did not the great and 
austere Vasishtha, the chief among the munis, serve you as 
friend and counsellor ? Did not the host of Devas come 
down to earth for your sake to serve as V&naras ? Has not 
TySgar&ja sung your virtues praised by the Vedas? 



Autsukya - Darsana 

weft - 'TO^aft' - ^ 

q$! ^gft 5*f*5 &$$ ft- (^) 

Autsukya - Dcmana 301 


Oh Protector of Devotees ! When shall I have the 
privelege of seeing your face, like the fullmoon/ as you 
summon for affectionate treatment, one by one, Sita, Laksh- 
mana, Bharata, Satrughna# Sugrlva and Anjaneya, who sing 
your glory ? 


wc g;f far ; fUm <«$ %- (i) 



Pray, cast your benevolent look, your sidelong glance, 
at least once on me, your faithful servant who is ever free 
from all evil and mischievous tendencies; It should be just 
like the one which once transported Lakshmana to ecstacy 


as soon as it was administered with the loving concurrence 
of Slta, while Lakhmana was passionately serving at your 




1 . #f^ €NlMN S1T3& 

siftfa *nft gig stcur 

jyw #-#53 TO 

3fftfof%-9Rg <jj5nfa Oct) 

V fi^ sfagg 3?feg sg site 

Autsukya - Darsand 303 

11 RARA MAYINTIDAK A " (Asaveri) 

Oh Raghuvira! Tyaqaraja's Blessedness! Pray, come 
to my house ; I bow to you. Bless me; I cannot bear the 
separation any longer. Till now, with unfulfilled desire, I 
have been in long and vexatious search for you; Pray, do 
come today at least, in all your glory. My purpose in seek- 
ing you is to implore you every morning to teach me, to 
have the privilege of the Darsan of your enchanting face, 
to stand by your side and worship you every day, and thus 
be blessed; Believing that you alone are my refuge, I have 
allowed myself to be in your grip; Why do you forget this 
and why do you not come to me promptly ? 




Oh, the ever pure-hearted, adored in the hearts of the 
great poets ! Can you not once at least cast your look on 
me ? The Sun, the Moon, the Dikpalakas and great seers 
flourish only through your grace and mercy; 

1, «R^T %§% 3TT3 2[f*R qi?- 

gg ^3T ^»rfe# 8iT- 

^. 13P #93 #| i%i **> 

53 ^P ^5rfe# •Eta- 
V spg* *tftftwfft srfpR §3- 

«3 ^P ^ifcflMB 

Autsukya - Darsana 


3ft srgsq qfo nm ftferc |^. 

S3 ^P ^&# 



g 5 * ^«rg^ ql"% tfito ^r^r- 

33 ^1^ ^rfe# (fe) 

<v *ra srgf * sifoft srfcra 3FT- 
33 ^3* ^rfo& bit- 

33 *CP ^wfi^ ($) 

^3 ijl 5 * ^feS' OT- 

feft 13* %afe& (fg) 

33 srppf ^§ffe^ 8ft- 

33 «*f *R*3 13 «*hra- 

35 srf* ^flfoft (ft) 

3ft n& % % £ft gferc %f- 

*3 1^ ^*rfe# (H) 


S3S USB #" ^3 ifrc- 

gy*r |rg*r iftpft iw- 

^fejsp %5nft (&) 

1 1. arc* srcgft wrrro ftfaft 

w VINAYAMUN ANU " (Sowrashtram) 

When can I have the Darsan of the blessed feet that 
followed the lead of Visw&mitra in all humility ? Of those* 
when can I see particularly the foot that turned the stone 
into a woman ? When am I to see the feet that caused the 
great bow of Siva to break ? When can I see the feet that 
Janaka washed with milk ? When am I to see the hand that 
lovingly tied mangalya round Slt&'s neck ? When am I to 
see the hand that angrily absorbed back the power of the 
bow of Parasw&ma? When am I to see the hands that 
destroyed Vir&dha in the forest ? When am I to see the 
hands that vouchsafed protection to the sages ? When am 
I to see the arrow that itself saved Kak&sura ? When am I 

Autsukya - Klrtana 307 

to see the arrow that pulvarised several chariots in a 
moment ? When am I to see the arrow that killed the 
mighty Vali ? When am I to see the arrow that destroyed 
the haughtiness of the Ocean ? When am I to see the eyes 
that benignly looked at Vibhlshana ? When am I to see 
the sight of monkeys jumping high in exultation over the 
fall of Ravana ? When am I to see the eyes that compas- 
sionately looked at Sugriva ? When am I to see the eyes 
that showered progressive prosperity on Lanka ? When am 
I to see the beauty that imparted splendour to the glorious 
Pushpaka Vimana ? When am I to see the wonderful sight 
of your meeting Bharata and holding him in your arms ? 
When am I to see the grandeur of your graceful occupation 
of the golden throne ? When am I to see the decoration 
made by sages and kings together ? When am I to see 
well the one f adored by the Vedas, who is the repository 
of bliss? When am I to see Lord* who is dear to the 
devotees and is devoid of all change, coming towards me ? 
When am I to see promptly the Lord reclining on the sea, 
the ocean of mercy? When am I to see the way in which 
Siva and other Gods praised Him ? 

Autsukyft — Klrtana 



sifters 5ii»ii% «ift csnisog^d (^r) 

" RAMABHI RAMA " (Dhanyftsi) 
Oh beautiful Rama ! Can you not speak to me why 
you have come on this earth in words that cheer up my 
heart ? Can you not ask Tyftgaraja to sing before you 
when Slta, shining, well-adorned, worships you with flowers, 
yourself sitting on the golden bed ? 

m¥\ - 'q^sftftfifcft' - 

alfaft ! «ftiww J *ftf%^gr$ Sftro P 

^*ft$?% §gg Jf^s fe*r 

#rt%ft ; w iw^taw ? 

Aut$ukya-~&ravana 30& 


Oh ! Sri Rama ! Do not think that I have been born 
for any undefined puropse. Are you not aware of it in your 
heart ? True, Valmiki and other sages have sung your 
praise# and the songs may also be good and worthy of the 
appreciation of pious devotees* but how can my yearning 
(to sing of you) be satisfied ? 

Autsukya— Sravana 

WVn ! gWECFff ! (g) 


^531» £-W*TC ! 'ft 

TOia^ ^ftfa *mto, «m- 

iragp 1 aft towc I I5*r (§) 



11 SUDHA MADHURYA " (Sindhurama Kriy&) 

Oh Supreme One, of speech delicious like nectar ! 
I have been for a long time having my hunger appeased by 
the nectar of your divine story; Pray, Protect me; For that 
purposei I have discarded the company of wicked men 
and sought the friendship of your Bhaktas* 



Autsukya— Sambh&shana 

m * ww m *mmm fa) 

W sfe sftff icKI« fl Wife ocr) 

Autsukya — Sambhashana 3ll 

xm ^rfhg-OT mw&% (*r) 

w RAMA KODANDA RAMA w (Bhairavi) 

Rftma ! You are my only refuge; I worshipped you* 
I am in your hands. Who is there equal to you ? Cast a 
side-glance at me; I am yours; Pray talk to me; Your 
holy name alone is great; Your contemplation is enough 
for me; Bless me, you are enough for me. A word from 
you is a treasure to me. Songs about you are the only 
songs. The path that leads to you only is the right path; 
Whatever may happen, I will not leave you. Under no 
circumstances can I think of anything else but you; 


^g f* #*r ? csriKFsrgcf i (m) 

11 SARVABHAUMA " (Ragapanjaram) 

Oh King of kings ! Can you not heartily talk to me a 
few words- The charming words that you spoke before had 
not reached my ears and as a result I have been uneasy 
with an unfulfilled desire; Am I only to be living in the 
hope that on some future occasion I will have the privilege P 



m\m vim *fa3« w«nw«jct (&) 

AuUuhja—Sambhhshana %X% 

%x VINANASAKONI " (PratSpavarali) 

I am desirous of heartily feasting my ears with the 
sweet and loving conversation that passed between you and 
Sita, with mutual understanding of each other's minds while 
playing at the indoor games. Anjaneya and Bharata were 
privileged to hear it. 

faraft - 'TOP^fo^' - folft 



niwriffir m& ? m% ^forc ! (w) 

«Qp ^go¥«r *TO* %$$& ift- 

wrt f ifr wwwnSw ! 5gr (w) 

* MATADAVEMI " (Nllambarl) 

Oh Sweet-lipped one ! Oh Peerless one ! Why don't 
you speak to me to cheer up my heart ? Not having found 
you, in spite of longing and eager waiting, my mind was ill 


at ease ; just then you appeared near me ; still you won't 

Autsuky a— Sevan a 


u SRI MANINI MANOHARA " (Pflmashadjam) 

The only one long-cherished desire of mine, which 
needs no reiteration on my part is your Padaseva, in the 
manner done by your blessed brothers. All the Purushar- 
thas like Dharma and the secret ofSarupya are entirely 
different. Pray, forgive me- (Ty&garaja says that he does 
not want either the Purusharthas or even Sarupya qf the 
Lord and that his ambition is comparatively humble, viz. 
the constant service at the Lord's feet). 





Aulsukya — Sevana 




$m\ srratf% §rsr 


«nrf^ 5ftTRr-^n:^s «wf §<?- 

wfls^;! %§ ^ <hs 


a wrcfoig srft-ST ftsar ftw^ (ft) 

$SP*ra: %Sjfe 35i«*g«$ q^rq^g (ft) 

Tiftj ?ft «ft sifoT ftwreg (ft) 



Will my passionate desire be gratified/ until and unless 
I instal and hold your blessed feet in the lotus of my heart 
unless and until I offer you thrice good milk and rice, fine 
betel leaves and stand by your side, holding the gem- 
bedecked spitoon, until and unless I stroke everyday your 
lotus feet, fan you with golden-handled fan, put you on 
the big Serpent-couch, spending time seeing you to my 
eyes' content, singing pleasingly your glories ? 

Nirveda— Dejection# Despondency 



A utsukya — Nirveda 317 

3Tc5 5TR*c ; ^FRrsrs^r ! fa) 

11 CHALAMELARA " (MargahindSlam) 

Why are you cross with me who have loved you and 
have been singing your praises with intense devotion ? 
Where could I go ? What could I do ? To whom could I 
complain ? Is my time to be wasted in all this trickery P 
I cannot stand it. 

<Jjfctf^ ^WiW W* 



^RftWI%Pim ! (#) 

" SRI RAMA RAMA " (Pumachandrika) 

Oh Rama ! Soul of the Universe, save me ; I know 
nothing beyond You ; without You what refuge is there 
for me P 

sft **3TC ilR *%$<f5 %-3jf5 *IFRJ ; OT (*) 

Autsukya—Nirveda 33 9 

<sracrg«5 *tf m faga 

WW? ! WTO* ftgcT ! (#) 

w NIBHAIANA GANA ' (Nayakl) 

Oh Blessed one, worshipped by the Trinity and Indra ! 
I have not found here anywhere those that delight in 
singing of you. 

I have (in vain) explored fully the Saguna Marga and 
the Nirguna Marga, truth and falsehood, the six schools 
and the eight siddhis. 

^FRcfr - '^ftat^sgs- 

*r«rcTg sfa 'iter 



Oh Embodiment of all good qualities ! Oh Dispeller 
of Maya ! To whom shall I unburden my agony ? My 
constant Bhajana has not produced the desired result— the 
reverse has been the end— an attempt to make an idol of 
Ganesa has resulted in my making a monkey; 




^§g$ ^rqiUs t^w (eft) 

sft qpr fro, WKMiFfa (#) 

A u tsukya — Nirvqda 32* I 


It must be the effect of my (defective) worship in 
previous births that, though I have been thinking and 
pining in several ways, you are irresponsive, myself remain* 
ing here and yourself there. You have left me to the 
ridicule of my compeers, in a place bereft of devotees and 
full of people whose only concern is to live somehow, and 
you have not shown me a way out. 



mtf% — < SIRS* ftz^5*T > — m 
afc«r ffegoCT sites w srftr %j 3t*p&i (sir) 

TO5 - f WSRJta I ^^%5cT ! m (SH) 

5?3jR|& fogs ^«7g§J5%^53J' 

«33 ,Bd hW ! «ft8Twnna ,5 n (sn) 


When my own past karma is like this, and you too 
are there, Oh all-merciful one, the giver of boons, ther$ 


is no purpose in blaming others: Those whom I help do me 
harm. When I show mercy to others, they level unfounded 
charges against me. Fickle-minded people who put on the 
garb of Bhaktas become my enemies; 



qwiw ! 5ft tots w 

"TOLI NENU JESINA" (Kokila Dhwani) 

This after all is the fruit of the worship I did in my 
previous births with all my heart ! Can I purchase with 
money what I seek ? Will my distress end ? You need 
not worry yourself, Oh Abode of mercy ! Probably, I 
began my role of Bhakta at an inauspicious time: 


Autsukya — Nirveda 323 

<^# 9*%^ gfe «q # ^r (<ft) 

^rm^R ! struct wg^g 

"TOLIJANMAMU'' (Bilahari) 

I have now known the sins I had committed in my 
previous births. I have known also their results; They are 
clear as a fruit in the palm of the handi which does not 
need a mirror to show it; Jij^t as a fine paddy sprout will 
be in an incompatible company amidst ragi crop, the merit 
of your holy name will also be so in the midst of my sins; 




sir *re3$# ? *m ! ira*wfc*t ? ft) 


What have you ordained for me and what have you 
thought of me, Oh Rama ! You are not likely to listen to my 
words; I don't know what my fate is. You are the giver 
of fame, longevity, devotion, single-mindedness and a 
healthy bodyi 

(Self-depreciation and recounting his short comings) 



im 3* sift *m *&* (*) 


1. Tfereifc s^rag mRr 

#%3 «H5« *Kf gft %Rr 

Atmagarhana & Naichyanusandhdna 325 

3f^*T $!% ^ft TF% 3~ 

^isrfsrc ? % g?g *\$ 

*% ^8ff&* to (sit) 

" ORULANADUKO " (Suddha Saveri) 

Oh Rama ! What is the use of blaming others when 
you yourself treat me without mercy when I appeal to you 
unable to bear my troubles, when I have given up the com* 
pany of the good and have taken to flattering small men, 
when the luck of my name is such that I have to suffer 
without any of my desired objects being achieved, when 
luck will come to man accordingly as fate takes him by 
hand, when I should attribute (my present position) to my 
past karma, when you yourself must know why my body 
should undergo such suffering all this while ? 


326 TYAGARAJA kIrtanas 

«Hftft - ^*IRIf#' - ftp 


sggs setoff anfsrfo* <hgs sjjfr 

art sfcgl* - ^§35% 

nng»nft; $fa*to i Gfcg %fi*ftSr *r- (%) 

V SfcRft si«igB «rag 3fw? qfitft 
ffeig^B ait qferron ! *■ 

fcra ! fair *r*s #f%%iif% ; Km I *- (%) 


How are you going to protect me, who had got entang- 
led in the meshes of m&y& of Samsara, who have been 
proudly going about considering none as my equal, as a 

~Atmagarhana, & Nakhyanusandhana 32? 

result of the wealth earned by flattering rich men for 
maintaining wife and family, me whose lot had been per- 
petual physical suffering at the hands of wily agnates and 
who got incapacitated thereby to know you ; me who all 
his life believed in the permanence of the company of 
relations (discarding you), but realizing late in life its 
profitlessness, (shamelessly) sought refuge in you in the 

jfe - 'OTIS' 3nft 


51 $ m sfe 5ft 'tots atfcr ? tt 



$1 s$N*w? ft 1 - *ri%3? nferf tfr^rre 


ifr #citf?£ g^iwir wwnwftn 



3*555 TO5 *J5f «fr I fST *tf^> qtftsf 



fo^r aragfit sismrect ?:sfl$sr f(i$t* 



tWfgsssiNcf 3to$ T^fir ^pr- 

wfet% $f3 f3rw f^Rffat 



cuwi^ft gift #5*3 sffaft aiSf 

^f^rgs ifir^ 



%. dfalft raft? g$B tffc!9 

awnfte §?- 

Wrft *rerfeft «wrff fcar*3 

%3i# gq$ 3$ OTPW3 (j) 

wiq wcfin (5 ) 

§*!OTgs3 gift*? srcrrc (|) 

" DUDUKUGALA " (Gowla) 

Oh Lord who transcends speech and mind ! Which 
prince but you will protect one like me who is so 

Atmagarhaha & Nakhyhnuscm&hhna 329 

evil-minded that he is drawn every moment by powerful 
evils; that he has lost the realisation that You are imme- 
nent in every being; who, from his early days, has been 
indulging in vain disputation without enjoying the ambrosia 
of your divine Bhajana; coveting others 1 wealth, has 
gathered money for sustenance by moving the hearts of 
people by flattery ; has spent all the days believing that a 
comfortable living is the only aim of life (taking living itself 
is happiness); has posed as a good Bhakta, though stone - 
hearted and ignorant of the elements of music, and has 
pleased oneself by delivering sermons to women and 
ignorant and low folk ; taking good-looking women, houses, 
children and wealth as permanent assets to bs coveted, has 
wilfully ignored the worship of your holy feet ? 

I have remained ever a criminal with an unsteady mind 
without the constant thought in mind of your beautiful lotus- 
face* have sought the company of men of evil infatuation, 
have been caught up in difficulties, and am unable to repel 
sense-pleasures and low desires% and have become a sinner 
and one of unsteady mind. 

Without realising that a human birth is hard to get and 
without attaining supreme bliss with its aid, I have become a 
slave to haughtiness, jealousy, lust, avarice and delusion 
and have got deceived; baing one of foremost birth in this 
world, have resorted to the service of the low born and 


seeking inferior people have perversely tried to establish 
worthless faiths; have wandered in this world for women and 
wealth for some time* and for the children at other times. 

Which Prince but you will protect such a sinner ? 

See above pages 89 

"TERA TIYAGA RADA" (Gowlipantu) 

Oh Supreme Being ! Tirupati Venkataramana ! Could 
you not remove the screen of pride and envy, which, 
taking a firm stand within me, keeps me out of the reach 
of Dharma and the like and Moksha ? 

See above pages 89-90 

W* Ag$ ifesr ? tpmr wwr ! (t?) 


^^2 ! m ^ftag *& vstoro ift) 

Atmagarhana & Naiohyhnusandhana 3§i 

tftnti m «* mm -, 

" ETULA BR5TUVO " (Chakravftkam) 

Oh Rama, my sole, intimate Lord ! I do not really know 
how you are going to save me: Alas ! Mine is a despicable 
record of sins; detestable for the ear; Like an astray bull; 
I have been roaming about caring only for my feed. I have 
flattered born misers to earn my sustenance, doing wicked 
deeds in association with wicked people. I have thus 
suffered a lot. 

t^nag %f^ qsnag ? (^ 




^. s c s $%g was -g^#f% iiftftr 

w ftjw *f i3*ra ! wrotrafilaa 1 (^) 

11 ENNALLU TIRIGETI " (Malavasri) 

How long am I to wander like this - taking countless 
births, harassing others in this forest of Sams&ra, like a 
thief P Day and night I feel distressed, always thinking of 
food for the morrow, forgetting your worship, all the same 
pretending that I am doing it; I have to procure every 
little thing that is needed by begging, but pose myself as a 
great man and live to get flatterd; I delude my neighbours 
so as to merit their invitation for dinners and make them 
believe that I can help them by puja and japam. 

You have long ago known fully my defects. Oh glorious 
lord ! Pray, do not give me up* 

w swsp&swnft 4t-*roftft vfa fog (%) 

Atmagarhana & Naichydnusandhana 333 

witch* «jJ%ct ! (^) 

"NENENDU VETUKUDURA" (Harikambhoji) 

Sri Hari ! Where could I search for you ? Even Brahma 
could not have a response from you to his prayers for a 
similar purpose; I have been a sinner, have done wicked 
deeds, have indulged often in vulgar talks and have 
imposed on the world as a great Bhakta; 




%3R%55 - fag *# - sflf^r 

f%*g *n% *rr # wt-^re f^*r srra^ 

i. gpf *prat iftw fit* 3 ? f *iwft 
aWt 3ag tws$ few - ft** ***** ; 


: stows 3rc5§ tiwflR vtft ^fe% (1%) 


Oh Rama, the best among the Trinity ! 

Nobody can roam about in the world as shamelessly 
as myself, having reposed faith in youl What you said 
before so lovingly has not yet come to pass. I have only 
known the way to waste my time in frivolities; My life has 
become an object of ridicule among people. My soul 
regretfully realises that it is my lot to lead this sort of life; 

Really, my heart is not after leadinq a worldly life like 
other people; I have not realised in my heart that thou art 
myself; I cannot bear the misery which the doing of 
unworthy acts brings me. My mind is being tossed about; 
Knowing that the mind can wait no more, none can roam 
about shamelessly like myself; 

Nevertheless, it is true that I cannot bring myself ever 
to accuse you, Evidently, my difficulties h$v$ not made 

Atmagarhana & Naiehyanusandhana 335 

any impression upon your mind, soft like butter or, Oh dear 
father# I have not yet become deserving of your grace; 
Knowing that you have not yet bestowed your grace, none 
can roam about shamelessly like myself. 


jvrrju ? mwm 1 3 (ft) 

v Riwar *rc$ft j wafiifaga ! % 
^fgg *ftft?r srreg suMta 
%to$ *ra<B3 sFrcgsi «ift%- 

fasdg §&**$ g^^% Tift 5 
ssR&g iftfrr sggss s# 3fir 


v, ^^rerf SERfctesE ! $3$ #5- 

gtft ^sgs ijpMt ifoft ? 3foar (ft) 

% www* i $$tm<m i <#$# ! 
Tfjr I ftwg m wpnow- 


While I am blameworthy, why should I blame you, Oh 
Father 1 To protect the afflicted, what other God is 
there but you, Oh dear father, the protector of thosefin 
distress ! 

Without indulging in gossip with detestable wicked 
people, had I ever panted to have your loving vision in my 
heart? Have I done humble and sincere service to the good 
and the holy every day to deserve your darsan ? Instead 
of becoming fondly attached to the woman that wedded me 
with a dowry, have I worshipped your blessed feet in the 
lotus of my heart passionately ? Without getting enamoured 
of the flippant activities of worldly men, did I regard the 
riches as transient as apparitions in a dream and take to 
tapas ? I have not listened to and profited by your stories 
which have the effect of dispelling all sins, nor have I been 
able to propitiate the deities presiding over riqhes and 

Atmagarhana & Naichyanusandhana 337 

learning; I do not know what the effect of my previous 
Karma is- 

As for you, you have the reputation of unfailingly 
protecting Devas and holy men of the earth* 

Wf55 - 3ftfr * m I s# 


qrg^sT §5 33*p ires 


How can one like me who am a constant sinner, have 
the cheek to blame you ? 

Myself being unable to control the six inward enemies, 
and grinning at women and consequently being devoid of 
true devotion, how can I blame others at all ? 



jftw g<n^ta*lft - *iw (*ft) 

See above page 259 


Merits and blemishes are of my own making and not of 
yours, Oh Rama ! 

See above page 260 

See above page SI 

"DARSANAMU SEYA" (Narayana Gowla) 

Oh Siva ! Is it possible for me to have your Darsan ? 
You must take all things into account and forgive me. 

See above page 52 


Atmagarhma & Naichya.misandhana 339 

iH'ng ^3 %fa ^1 SsrfeS" ? (*t) 

^ ftflm 5|^re ifcss 3sr%i *n 

^qfr sregs w^-ftop: ^*t 3)313 (*t) 

^ *teTfa ^f^f55 3?3^or %«5tf 2T513 CO 

gig cit sft%%fe 3rr-% ^313 ?fi 


When will that day come, when you will hold me by 
the hand firmly and tell me why I have been behaving like 
this, since my birth; why I have been gloating with pride 


that greatness is my monopoly, with my head reeling with 
haughtiness and tongue indulging in indecent talk; why I 
have been hanging upon worthless aristocrats who are 
devoid of understanding and only desire flattery; why I 
have been running after rich men who, without any discri- 
mination; treat great and good men and low servants alike 
and give their gifts, who bestow no thought on the higher 
world, but worship people who have only wealth and 
haughtiness to their credit; and advise me not to approach 
and beg of the ignorant and the wealth-infatuated persons, 
who, while worshipping Siva and M&dhava, pride them- 
selves that they have no equals in the world; 

Wife - 5ftj^3ft«83 - rjig 

See above pages 31-32 

See above page 32 

Atmagarhana & Naichyhnusandhana 341 


qrft tffiwi &%* nm w 

<?Tf| TOW* %7^x ^ m^ 

^ftfifa wg?H3 iw 

?% ifipigs ^Rhi% 


^%ftl3^ 3H$$ <*W 

SfcTCTfe fe^Prfe f^qB 


% ^ g^g^hci *m 

srftf 55 uTftfirfSr #r? 


stfg ggsf ft ^ ^ q* - 

^155 g^ft *r 


ssrc: §*srg sotSt 3i*r- 

m im ^i%m^ 


fiw gupj d#3> 

ft$ *ft tfwft 


s^ «wpr ^ ^r^% 

*ft$ qift ^vJis^r 


sfara?^ qtfK i % 

MfeR qiis <hcr . 




q^ifecr wfrj^ (qn) 

11 PAHI KALYANA SUNDARA " (Punnagavarali) 

Oh auspicious and beautiful Rama ! Pray, protect me; 
I am not learned and have not the capacity to know what 
is wise. Not having had the mind to do Bhajana, I have 
hitherto wandered vainly. I have till now waited at the 
doors of the rich, day after day, to earn my sustenance. I 
have failed to devote to your blessed feet the love and 
affection which I had bestowed on my wife and children; 
Regarding the trivial pleasure of Sams&ra as permanent, I 
have neglected to realise the worth of your holy name. 
Unable to discard sense-enjoyments, I have run mad after 
them and got deceived. Oh my beloved father ! I have 
already said that I have taken refuge in you; Oh 
Raghuvira ! Do bless me. I have reposed my entire faith in 
you* Though I am fully cognisant of having committed 

Atmagarhana, & Naichyanusandhd>na 343 

incalculable wrongs, I still have the temerity to ask you 
what fault I have committed that you should hesitate to 
come to me. Prosperity is only his who has faith in yous 
The worship of your holy feet is invaluable; Is it fair for 
you to deny me your mercy ? Oh the refuge of the 
Universe ! 


(Plaintive pleading) 

( including Ksham&pana, praying for forgiveness ) 

m *TI$ «5 STft^t TOfi^W ^ «n*WT ? 

* SARIVARILONA " (Bhinna Shadja) 

Have I not been sufficiently ridiculed among my 
compeers ? Does the worship offered to you in other 
houses (without genuine faith) satisfy you (as against my 





devout worship) ? Is it fair on your part passively to be 
seeing me agonised in the midst of wild prattlers ? Have 
you not relieved really pious souls of their miseries ? 


3T # 


<**$g ^3^^ ? <t*rto ! («r) 

11 PARAKU JESINA " (Jujahuli) 

Oh ! the Highest ! What did you gain by being indiffe- 
rent to me ? Have I not cheerfully stuck to your blessed 
feet as my only refuge ? I am helpless without any prop 
Oh merciful lord ! 



hainya, Dainyokti 345 

crfi 9% %l% 3R5 cPI 3l§ *lte <&% 

ig*ire %*&<& trifle ^r ? 

11 CHERA RAVADEMIRA " (Rltigowla) 

How is it that you do not come to me ? This is not 
proper. When, as an orphaned girl clings to her husband 
as her sole refuge, I entirely rely on you and implore you 
several times ; should you not deign to protect me P Should 
you be looking indifferently at my meditating on your, 
benign face and pining ? 

tfl* TO$ ! *wWlir l IT ft) 




^?<§5F£r *ft% lift % - 

^W %5 5 8?T5FSTI^F 


53S ^T Tcs^ftf , e^r 

^3f $f§ffifc *fc<FTF3pn i 

iSfrE&gftt ^SS *IF 

35*5 % OT^I^rftjcT ! 




Get to know the desire in my heart. I have no other 
refuge except you; It is not much to your credit that you, 
as the Loving Lord, blessed many devotees in the past ; 
now, take me in your hand with compassion. 




1 ^555Tl|cR^! TO^llfeW ! 

Dainya, Dainyokti $4? 

%T%§foi%^, c3HKrsr#crI (aft) 

u SRI RAGHUVARA lr (Bhairavl) 

Why this indifference which is quite foreign to your 
race ? Why should you not bless me soon ? Why this 
disputation ? 

Why should you not understand my heart's desire and 
forgive me ? Why should you not take me by the hand for 
protection and speak to me lovingly ? Know this quickly. 

aft VtfS&f ft5^i% (aft) 

See above pages 74-75 

"OH RANGASAYI" (Kambhoji) 

Oh Rangasayi! When I implore, why should you not 

come ? 

See above page 75 




mfare fan*. *nft - ft*5 W ! *lfe ! qfo ! ft) 

*tf^ ^Nr %w %*w (^) 

" EVARIMATA " (Kambhoji) 

To whose words have you listened ? Won't you come ? 
Or, is it that you are not here ? Well ! 

Though I have been brought up in the Vedio and 
Sastraic traditions, I have not been able to unravel this 

I have been relying on the significant declaration, that 
you are ever in the service of devotees, made by great 
Bhaktas, who have had direct vision of you* I have been 
feeling happy that you are the all-powerful supreme Lord; 
I have been regarding you as one of Satvic mind and 


Dainya, Dainyokti 349 

q*aiteir ? $t jm ! (it) 

ENTA VEDUKONTU (Saraswati Manoharl) 

Oh! Raghava! How long shall I have to pray to you 
to come to me ? Why this obstinacy and delay in relieving 
me of my mental trouble and coming to me ? You are the 
inner soul. 

Believing with joy that the greatest happiness consists 
in seeing you in one's heart* I have reposed my faith 
entirely in you; 


feTf*5%5$gi! «ft WPRJSTSRT (g) 


Did it not strike you before ? Would you not show your 
grace ? Though you know me to be resourceless, you see 
me tossed about and enjoy the fun. Did you not once before 
.feel pleased with my good conduct and lavish your grace 
on me ? Dit it not strike you previously that my mind would 
now be in such a plight ? 


TOW! - ^§#3331 



Dainya, Damyokti 351 

\* TO*ft ^ ^^ - p 

ENDUKfCHALAMU (Sankarabharanam) 

Why are you cross ? To whom am I to appeal ? Which 
lady dissuaded you? Did Kaulsalya say anything? Or, are 
you yourself not willing? Did Ahalya, beautiful Sita, 
Sabarl or young Swayamprabha say anything against me ? 
Could you not patronise me ? Where has your forbearance 
gone ? It is not possible for me to bear this any longer. 


*hKHW*i - |«*t2>«jpHfe 




qrag ^ra^r ? *$&q$ i f 


1. MNr^IlSIRT'RRit ! 1 

*<r Jflq* ffcnn*i$ 


Ufaft TOTS ^Rg'TC $ 
«FTC ! ft &3T ^ ? m 

"IVARAKU RJCHINATI" (Sankarabharanam) 

Is not what you have so long witnessed enough? 
Should you continue to be so? Is there any sin which 
cannot be destroyed by your all purifying power ? Without 
worshipping your lotus feet, I have through greed become 
more and more entangled in the bondage of samsftra and 
have been unable to bear the consequent distress. 

Unable to stand the torments caused by envious people 
who have no fear of the other world, I have taken refuge in 
your holy feet; Who is there for me except yourself? 
Taking you to be my only saviour, I have been submitting 
my plaintive prayers to you; 

Dainya, Dainyokti 353 



## KARUNA SAMUDRA " (Devagandh&ri) 

Oh Ocean of Mercy I Oh Allayer of the troubles of 
devotees taking refuge in you ! Protect me- If my sins are 
to remain with me, what is the use of your title ? I do not 
know which sinner's curse is my lot to bear. Why all this 
hesitation ? 

aft Qsfrmgr wtoOP *i;%t-%T ? 5» ift* %w P (eft) 


IPCRtft Tgf qiQ§ft ?ra (aft) 


354 TYAGaRAJA kirtanas 

$SS s^ras qhfi *nsg lift 

^1 ft *ft iw sffefcr ^ ! (aft) 

srfcTSflfe 4ft t% «ift 3^ f - 

^rc I ^r%% sta*r *rt ? 

" OH RAJ1VAKSHA w (Arabhi) 

Oh lotus-eyed one! Why this indifference towards 
me? Am I separate from you ? An innocent one like my- 
self is subject to accusations, and there is nobody to plead 
on his behalf to you; Have I not surrendered myself to 
you, Sri Rftma, believing the words of good people that 
you are surely the refuge and prompt protector of those 
who pray to you with love ? I had plunged limitlessly into 
worldliness, losing my sense and have consequently 
become incapacitated to sing your praise ; I have implored 
you as my sole refuge and have placed my entire faith in 
you* Have I ever forgotten you ? Pray, won't you bless 
me with your grace ? 

Dainya, DainyokU 


itft - 'SffW 


gg iwt *rrsr 3&f> ft*ft - 

"?3f flta^IT! ^W^Sf! 




*rf*F5 333 $ ^55^3 <fN%3 

snas ircft&A ? sft *w^ ! (3) 

!• S3 *RRT^SJ *?l%i3$g 

grfSr *fNto ^Ppt mn*z 1 (g) 

^3# ^f ^RfW 

S3 #1 Shw 5Rtefit5T iwtoj ! (g) 

V Sf ^ *rftT ^ fifarl^nfif, s- 
? 3^ w^r ! sft w^s ! 

^Rlftrt; WW*! (g) 

^r gf^f <cpfw{ f (3) 


" MUNNU RAVANA " (Todi) 

When of yore Vibhishana, unable to bear the torments 
of his brother, R&vana, appealed to you, you overlooked the 
fact that he was the brother of your enemy and expatiated 
upon the noble traits of your family* Have you forgotten 
it now ? 

When of yore, Sugriva, unable to put up with the 
harassments of Vali, praised you, taking compassion on 
his pitiable condition you removed his despondency and 
cheered him up; 

Again, when of yore, Prahlada, unable to bear the 
tortures of Hiranyakasyapa cried 'Murahara ! ' you, with love, 
removed his distress and conferred bliss on him. 

I have heard of all such glories of yours in the past. 
Pray, now protect me and remove my troubles. 

srofiro - *m$wm^%> - ^ig 




m qfa^wr «nf|*w qpfircw (u) 

*wig eft* m &n (v) 


Dainya % Dainyokii 


*im ^fefr fts^re $ qr- 

*TCg*rftf%dP %* 


% tft *g sfasfa gcs 

«Nt TI3S3TR 


^r^rg 3t® ^g^ffe g- 

STOir^! wg^ffe 


*2gsfSrf%i% $tg tfr g€ ! 

^^T ! qTfecfsrrwsr I 


" RAMA KODANDA RAMA PAHI l% (Kharahara Priya) 

Oh Rama ! Bless me; While you enjoy the puppet- 
play of the world, can't you speak one sweet word ? Why 
this indifference to show me your young face ? I have 
longed for you and pined for you; 1 never knew that you, 
though seeing my condition, would not come to me 
promptly* Till now, I have been in profound love with you* 
I do not know by what ignorant folk I have been cursed ; 
or could it be that you consider me unworthy of being 
taken in hand and drawn to your bosom ? I have trained 
myself not to be enamoured by the world, and have fixed 
my faith in you. Pray, appear before me and bless me* 




anqspw! 5iw*ft#ro%sP (sr) 

* <£taSR5 ! WRNfa ! SI%cF W<fa ! TOrf? q<?- 

?r qns a*nsRste! *$?*& s^rag (*nr) 

" MAPALA VELASI u (Asaverl) 

Why don't you come and protect me now when you 
have in your hand the power to bless one with full devotion 
to your holy feet and save him ? 

It is no hard task for you to redeem me from my piteous 
condition. Oh ocean of mercy ! How could I do my work 
in the midst of the distress of the sinning people ? Why 
this indifference to come to* my succour in spite of the fact 
thai in joy as will as in an injured feeling, I have made 
myself an humble servant of your servants. My mind is 
restless. My way is not always visible to me; I know no 
other refuge than Thyself; 

bainya t Dainyokii 


^f - fi ^?n^p •F^f^ 1 * 




TOT 5?iqife ^TTTSfTTT ! Eprofo 



tl *j8sft dtf 3$ *nft 

wftoFq%i% 3?N§T?^ig *T (?) 

qt wig* ^H^sf^nft 

11 INNALLU NANNELI " (Ghanta) 

Oh my precious wealth! Why play the farce now, 
having protected me all this time ? Having seen the pitiable 
condition of a boy like me, having counselled to me 
patience with encouraging words, having sported with me 


to remove my depression and having cheered me all along 
with loving side-glances taking account of my (desponding) 
nature, where have you gone now, You who gave me the 
promise to be with me always ? 

If you are devoted to truth and keep to your word, you 
must take me under your protection along with others^ I 
have not made my prayers in a casual or superficial way; I 
have always regarded you as my peerless companion, Oh 
Friend in distress who fails not his word ! 

It is not fair that you should appear to me in different 
guises once as a protector, once as an annoyer and again 
as a passive on-looker; 

Oh the blemishless one ! Have you not even a 
particle of mercy on me ? 

f $ qte* sifta i* $ft 3g$* ? (£) 



^. stocfr ! ^ft^s %& ^nreragssrafirft *nft- 

bainya, Dainyokti 361 

5. wnfiTOFST ! ft% Tift qtawwrft 

wprogSrfa wiA; vftm 1 $ (ft) 


If you, Ocean of Grace, still hesitate what can I do ? It 
has become an endless struggle, and my body has given 
way and got reduced to half* What offence have I committed 
to deserve it ? I am not able to bear this torment and am 
tired of the countless effects of the three afflictions ; all my 
sins have taken a human form to harass me. 

If one, who has placed his entire trust in you, is left to 
suffer like this, it is well done indeed ! 




w0*ftw? swroira! (#) 

V <T*T *W *TO ! OT*I*W|SWFf ! 

«Ifflfi[ cHSfti W1WRI ? %<T*t ($) 


"NIDAYA RADA" (Vasanta Bhairavi) 

Won't you allow your grace to flow to me ? Who has 
the right to say that you should not ? Knowing, as you do, 
for a long time that there is nobody else to protect me, 
why do you tarry like this ? While I am praying to you as 
the Supreme Lord of the Universe and offering you worship, 
will it in any way detract from your glory, if you accept it 
and forgive me ? My mind has been upset; Is this proper ? 

Stop - 'M ^@$ft > - ^3 

nra i aipgor sroaspr (^ ) 

«Mlf *u*r*r snw *?fc (^i) 

5RrtN w%anjrc ! (tr) 
sn^ftfit, aft qrsrTgsTf sr ! ft- 

Dainyan Damyokti &6$ 

11 RARA NANNELUKORA " (Sowrashtram) 

Come freely and bless me. Why do you tarry ? Clasp 
me regardless of my faults. You are the fulfiller of desires. 
Is it fair on your part to subject me to troubles ? 

To one wandering like me in the wilderness of Sam- 
s&ra, your holy name is the sole means of redemption; 
Protect me; Oh you granter of desires ! 

Knowing my plight, why tarry ? 

1«W!# - c *R3l 8W> 



xm*> wras wHwt *rmfe |wr 



% mPS«5^lftcW3?[ ! 



STFcT qfa STOW ! 



?T3r«sra ! wptost qf^r ! 

" RAMA SAMAYAMU BROVARA " (Madhyamavati) 

Rama ! This is just the time to come and save me. You 
are my Godi You fulfil all the desires of Mahatmas who 
with due austerity sing your holy name without break or 
default; Why should you have doubt in respect of me ? I 
have been worshipping you in the belief that in this Universe 
you are the embodiment of spontaneous grace; Listen, this 
is the time to come and save me; 

Dainya t Dainyokti 


3?WCtf - '3333f|3N' 


«?t^% sji^-wi *rra% tt% ?rra& 



fast 3f T3S %fira 1- 

^*r %33i l*n^5f. 


%FC site q^fcsq 1 wf% ; fig 

?R(3d&VT c^RncrsrspT i ($) 

11 KANNATANDRI NAPAI " (Deva Manohari) 

Oh my father ! Do not withhold your compassion from 
me* I am unable to stand the misery. Deny me not for- 
ever your compassion on the grounds that I am only going 
through the daily routine life and that I have not the courage 
and faith to be uninterruptedly devoted to you, realising 
the mutual relationship between me (jlva) and you (the 
Lord), controlling the mind, and conquering the senses; 

?ft$Rtf£j - ' ^f f?l% > - ^1T^ 


vp$$ fot*r ipwFKr ? (t|) 


n, qwiiw qf^rcsre ! ft) 

V sot *rfo *ift 3^ few &?r ? ($) 

V, *TJ 3 ftsrS OTg*f q%ft (^) 

" ENDUKU NIRDAYA " (Harikambhoji) 

Why this absence of mercy on me ? Who else is there 
for me ? I am forlon* Pray, remove my distress; Were 
you not overjoyed at the devotion of the sguirrel P You 
look alike on friends and foes- You stand alone in the 
world (for refugees like me)* 

sn^F cfita *reg w ? Ot) 

wfpto 1 J %R7rr ^ftj ^ (%) 



Dainyas Dainyokti 367 

"EMTANUCHU" (Yadukulakambhoji) 

How long am I to bear this ? The grace of SrS Rama 
does not come* Won't you still have the mind to come to 
me ? I am really your servant Do you consider my 
appeals as mere pretensions ? Am I a stranger to you ? 
Has all my penance become ineffective ? Can't you bless 
me with divine knowledge ? 




TWTFW TITlfe *ft 55# 


1. sflj TOlftfff S- 


xm mz i <rcg ins W 

11 NARASIMHA NANNU " (Bilahari) 
Oh Narasimha ! Pray protect me- I am not prone to 
flatter the chaff of humanity. When the foremost of your 
devotees, Prahlada, being unable to bear the taunts of 
Hiranyakasipu, took refuge in you and prayed to you to come 
to his succour, you saved him. How long can I bear this ? 
Is there anything that you cannot know ? Driven by the 
contumely of worldly people, I have sought your protection; 
let me see how mercifully you are going to deal with me. 

I cannot bear this- Vouchsafe to me your grace in a 
liberal measure, so that I may always do your Japa, have 
your meditation, worship your holy feet, and always 
associate myself with those who are your own. 




Damya, DmnyokU 369 

^rasrT %s ? ggor grra ! wrrsfrs .» ^) 

3. f^^gg %f*f*t %$fn f^f^e srcgsfHIr 

" KALAHARANA MELA " (Suddha Saveri) 

Oh Sltarama ! Why this delay in blessing me ? Just as 
birds roaming round and round ultimately seek the tree for 
rest, I have sought you and held fast to your holy feet from 
my very birth; Of all that could be said of you, you are the 
shining personification of Tyaga (Sacrifice) on earth ; and 
who else is there to save me ? I have wandered day in and 
day out and finding refuge nowhere, I have sought your 
feet and surrendered myself—body and its possessions - as 
your own. 

w$$ fam? vpt%t ffir Mt ? as* (it) 

24 S 



s^f 55 ^5 ftfir sta ^m *- 
*R3 ^13 *nt& $rofr 

*T| §8% ^K - 

Dainya, Dainyokti 371 

" ENTUKO NlMANASU » (Kalyftnl) 

Why is not your mind moved by compassion towards 
me who have regarded whatever I have seen as Sri Rama 
himself 5 and I do not know what fault I have committed ! 

Even people whom I have regarded as friends treat me 
with jealousy and enemity, slight me and abuse me in a 
number of ways and regard me as an outcaste unfit for 
association; Fully realising that they are not the people to 
protect me, I have taken refuge in you alone; 

These people delude themselves by thinking that 
wealth, wife and children are their own; They rush thought- 
lessly after the rich; Pray, prevent me from becoming one 
such, forgive me for my faults and look after my .welfare 
with mercy. 

Do not treat me with so much indifference. I have 
entirely relied on you, prayed to you as the indweller of 
Ty&garaja's heart and, day and night sent appeals for 
saving me; 


vs. 3tic[f^3 TO^r *ft-#5g f^» ^ra (^ 

\. Wife %33! 5«wft%- tf&T ^WwH^ (*) 

IX. circs *rra «IK| *ro «ira^5 %j| (gr) 

He 8J#%Rlf% #$f|J ft"^ 5*Rlft (5T) 

vi« siFWRig ^tf q^Fiiwncq^R (sr) 

bamya, Dainyokti 373 


Oh Sri Raghurama! I have prayed to you earnestly, 
believing that my body is your property; In abject help- 
lessness and distress, I have come to you, seeking you 
alone; Did I desire others ? Or have I blamed you ? 
While my mind yearns for you alone, is it proper on your 
part to make me restless ? Don't forget me. Is it possible 
for me to follow you ? I have none here to look after me. It 
is not fair on your part. Should you be indifferent in the 
matter of protecting me ? How long am I to bear these 
worries ? Have I been perverse in my thoughts or have I 
offended you in any way ? Do you hesitate that I have not 
sufficient worth and reputation ? Or is this all the fruit of 
my worship in the past ? There are no gods equal to you 
and there is none more destitute than myself. Is there none 
to advocate my case to you? Should you not hear my 
troubles? I salute your feet. Why this trickery towards 
me ? I cannot put up with this turmoil. Why delay, take 
me by your hand; Should it be said by great men that 
you have not displayed your grace in this world ? 

Do not try to find faults; Do not allow my compeers 
to laugh at me. To save my honour is your concern; Treat 
me with affection. Unable to bear the troubles of this Kali 
age, I have sought your feet as my sole refuge. Seeing your 
charming face, I have been pining in my heart, for you. 
Alas ! Let your mind turn towards me, and let your grace 
flow swiftly towards me who have been panting for it; My 
fortune is yours. Enough of these trials. Protect me 




; - '■wi^tf* 



wag * *ta w *w tT«?^ % #|^t3 



^ft% tfffeft %g ?3*r- 

sft Staft 9£wi3 



3P?ft(S % sftgft^ #WT- 

$12 ^Tf JTlM ^^ 



«Rg $%3g ^ft^fe 

533 #?r^ ^ «prf^ 



WCT sQgf^Sft m $„ 

*!%§ ^FWSflT 



*Rr$ 5% sf^ftg ^H 




a)fs 333 wf ^g^ ^ 

133 ws^j ot^ 



*Fgf ^f^Tf tin 


i^^g a*g$s ^5 



tpofiRres 3$it5 snfe 

?tefeft *fefi% ^s 



^for 33% gre *m 

gws«T teros 



ct^?% gi* ft* sftg 


Damya, Damyokti 



3?I%feR% cFqT #- 

*BT i%^| *n aj°TJ 



*fe*I% %H5q%S^ «iT - 

WlS ^3 fl"5555f§ *J^3T 


<Tg»rre ftg spfrfe sn- 

■sssg Tgw^si^fe 



gti% ^5 ^cra^Nr *ri% 

^gg^ ^fcs sitar 



snf s$*r jftf iri *m 

<?I i% %w 



aft ^Fn^ter^Rit c^rpr- 




How long am I to be expecting your arrival in my 
mind ? How am I to spend my time ? I am maintaining my 
body, my mind having been given over to you. Like the 
common folk I am participating in the puppet show of the 
world. I had certain objectives in the world, but the 
path that my thoughts took became different 

Oh R^ma ! Should I divulge the secrets of my heart 
in public? 

I am not fit for the company of men of taste ; and for 
the light- veined people, I am only an object of ridicule* 

Are you still engaged in the services of your old 
Bhaktas or are you determined not to come ? Would your 
earning entail any expenditure of your wealth *? Wny this 


indifference ? Hereafter don 1 ! try to find fault with me; 
How much of tears should I shed ? By communicating with 
whom will my troubles come to an end ? 

The man that ekes out his livelihood by selling flowers 
will not care to sell firewood. 

In you I have my native abode ; make your grace 
available to me without fail. Is it a fault that I have been 
desiring you? Oh my beloved father, don't entertain 
such an attitude. Is there any destitute like me in the 
world, who is innocent of the wiles of this Kali age ? 

I have often abused you and am reaping the result of 
my folly; 

Can I escape the effect of my past Karma? Cannot the 
light of devotion dispel it ? If it does not will it not be a 
reproach to you ? Cannot you give up this disposition to 
deceive ? 

That I am yours is now only in word ! 

tit m tit im BftfR^rc 

tit m tit im stafag to (wit) 


toft m% ft* tow (tit) 

• ft% *ta *rfM?r ffi m$m (tit) 

bainya t Dainyokii 377 

irsfoi 5ter ^roft% *ter (sit) 

8<png3f^ S^5 ^^S (#) 

^icffsft $ft qn5^5 *reste *t§ (eft) 

<ftt*r ^$ft ^TOgsBfft (aft) 

^t siiKP&$«8; w (oft) 

lo. *ft $3; ?kf 3T ft$q?i Ti5r q- 

*i%*5 sft wronift fer (aft) 


Oh Rama! The abode of Pranava! Give me your 
love; I have become a laughing stock of one and all. How 
am I to bear this any longer ? Oh Lord of Gods ! What 
benefit do you derive by harassing me ? You are my only 
hope and I have reposed my entire faith in you. I have 
shaped myself to suit you alone. This is perfect truth. So, 
protect me immediately* Oh Lord ! I have no other saviour 
in the world. If you forget me or reject me> where is the 
place for me to go and what then is the use of this life ? 


What concern have I with others ? If you withhold your 
grace, is it good ? If your heart takes kindly to me, the joy 
that I derive is yours. If you are compassionate towards me# 
the happiness that I get thereby belongs again, to you; I 
have not desired anything for myself. When my thought 
and speech are always of you, why is your mind not 
moved ? Whatever I have, whether water or milk, I have 
reserved only for you; I have found in you my good 
and gracious God; I shall never cease to desire you even 
for a minute; I insistently implore you to bless me with 
realisation of identity with you. Can anybody have one 
greater than you ? Why this indifference ? 

if% « wnw & im (qr) 

*F?r TJ% ^ *W (qf ) 

*• ^Nf T°f %| *T?T 

tftl %q^ tf OT (qf) 

^ BfiR £ 

umgw sg* ^ ^w (qi) 



t>ainyd t Dainyokti 


%% 3% 3ft $ <& 

^1& **ta ^ iro 


^ %3 %*T $%- 

%** ^t| %** & um 


TP&n to ^t-" 

*R %<T ^ ?ft *W 


" PAHI RAMA RAMANA " (Varali) 

Protect me, Rama ! If one gives up meditating on you* 
even a grain of your grace will not be available to him* 
How long am I to suffer and how long to bear it ? A jasmine 
flower on the hand cannot withstand a stone ? A cucumber 
fruit cannot bear an iron belt; Could a poor parrot be 
assailed with a Brahm&stra ? If parents abandon a son, 
what other way is open to him ? Can butter stand a sword- 
blow ? Oh R^ma, my refuge ! 

*ft m W^w ftrasR $5*ftq 

sprrcspraw aft xm («ft) 


%3s te «ranT «fcw («ft) 

^sjg %^ft$ft aft IR (*ft) 


h 3*t$ ^ftsr ^rft $15 

mfct Tift sit to («ft) 

Sfeqfe? g*ffr art to 

OT5 115 §pfr eft to (sft) 

% *F$t %$W aft TO (^) 

**§* faWST 8Tf TO (3fr) 

^1 * ^ eft TO (sft) 

«5%rg*? ^%jt sft to (?ft) 

<U Tri^trcT n?g *r%flre sft5 
t|t %fa <r§s s?t to 

<n. 3T5F ScTffg ?ft girgg «TCf 

c^*TTO&33r $t to 

" SRI RAMA JAYA RAMA * (Varali) 

Oh Sri Rama, constantly praised by Tyagaraja for your 
virtues! Is it fair on your part to harass me still so that I 
may be slighted by every onlooker ? How can I, who have 
been caught among the wicked, become good and pious ? 

They cross my way whichever direction I go and enter 
into vain disputations with me; People of this Kali age can- 
not know the truth on account of their mad attachment to 

Dainya, Dainyokti 381 

things. The Universe is unsteady like the drop of water on 
a lotus leaf and is not the reality, I do not know what 
offence I have committed that when my mind goes one 
way, yours goes in another direction; Is it possible for one 
to take out, easily and at once; a cloth laid over thorny 
bushes ? Will the mind, that has firmly entangled itself in 
Sams&ra, easily break off and go towards you ? Have the 
services done by me for your sake been taken by you as 
unpleasant? If you forgive me, as Sita would, would it 
detract from your glory in any way ? 

^t srnrsrrar qft 3 fossil 3mft ww (aft) 

*ifag stor - wPr fKRpr (eft) 

% 1$k8 *TT§ - ffa 3T55 *j 

^ ^ft - flHfc 31195 (eft) 

shsnrarc <rr ~ f&i wnro^r (eft) 

" OH JAGANNATHA " (Kedaragowla) 

When I call for you, as the Lord of the Universe, can't 
you respond and come to me ? This is not the time (to test 
me); I cannot baar it any longer a My mind is filled with 


you, and I have no other refuge. Are you still hesitating 
to come to me gracefully, when I regard you as my supreme 
Lord ? Pray, treat me with affection. 



%3?S S^ftj^ aft *!*R ! (#) 

%3 stiff V$t 5RI3 srfefqft 

^ift ftmiR *rf^f% $?? aft 

WWtfBft $fit ; A *TO ! (eft) 

" NIKE DAYA RAKA « (Nllambarl) 

Oh! R&ghava! Will my actions ever meet with 
success, if you yourself do not bless them with yoqr grace ? 

Dainya, Dainyokti 383 

Will a Jn&ni who does not merge himself in the 
Lord, but retains the sense of ' P and ' Thou * attain 
happiness ? 

Will it be possible for those, who cannot control their 
mind, to attain salvation by mere trickery (Maya) ? 

Can one win a woman by force, who does not yield to 
the delicate and amorous indications of the eyes ? 

Can a man hold a disputation in an assembly on a sub- 
ject with which he has little acquaintance ? 

Will it be the way of a cultured person, not to retain in 
his own mind (without taking action thereon) things he had 
heard from tale-bearers ? 

Any number of charitable acts done by a person merely 
for the sake of advertisement will not serve to protect him. 

These are not incorrect statements, Oh Great 
Redeemer ! 

3T§ TOWg SfaTO ? W (iff) 


" SASIVADANA BHAKTA " (Chandra Jyoti) 

Can I bear this ? Do I not know that even at your 
tender age, you protected Viswamitra's Yaga with the 
prowess of your arms ? You counteracted the work of the 
Marlcha of exceeding vanity which showed itself in the 
mind every day at the time of the performance of the 
sacrifice called Aupasana, Japa, Tapas, and Dhyana. 

qfarron hk ? ^gfeft frifcift (q) 


wnn?raj« 5 % - &ragg WWW (g) 

Jtcfwt *W%ft>, rOT^Tlft mz ^\ 


Oh Protector of refugees I Oh Lord of the Universe ! 
Have you taken in fun all that TySgarftja had been saying in 
public in his constant appeals to you for refuge, made in 
true faith, out of fear, doubt and grief ? 

You had protected with love Draupadi when she had 
to stand a sage's test, Vibhishana when he could not bear 
the one word of his brother, Prahlada when he appealed 
fpr refuge. 

Dai?iya k Dainyokti 385 

See above page 258 

" APARADHAMULANU " (Vanavall) 
See above page 259 



?If#g«51I ? ?RMt 1 iftf 5*1 





<* . ffeftwg €RT$ ifofo $% ^6&' 


Why should you withhold your mercy from me, and 
treat me lightly in the presence of those around me 
even after Slta had spoken to you about me at the propitious 
time of your fondling her with kisses, even after Bharata had 
spoken to you highly of my devotion while he was lovingly 



laying his head at your feet and you were compassionately 
treating him, and even after Lakshmana mentioned about 
me while serving you with austerities and praising you 
sincerely ? 

cress ^rs ifrnj® gjj §55 ; 
^onpsg *Tft ^ c&qjtj %t%x:q 


" Why are you frequently worried about my forgiving 
you? All this prosperity (of mine) is yours." Have you for- 
gotten these words of assurance lovingly given to me, before 
in my young days ? When you were enjoying the exquisite 
dances of youthful women, you noticed me standing en- 
tranced at the darsanam of your blessed feet, stopped 
Bharata from waving the flywhisk, lest it should hide your 
view, and declared to Bharata that you contemplated grant- 
ing boons to Tyagaraja. Have you forgotten these words 

Dwni/a, Dainyokti 







fsfcfcKRjfsi^ ! *W TOFT 

^?2 tf^CTt? ftsrgr star 


5S«r 335 %% 3 5ft ^r^? (?) 

* IDI SAMAYAMURA * (Cha y & N&ta) 

This is just the time for you to carry out truly the 
promise you originally made to me. Kalipurusha has arran- 
ged for a drama in which human beings will be sacrificed 
at the altar of evil faiths, as goats in y&gas. It is now the 
time for you to manifest your grace. 

#P3fSr - '%W\&m> - Ufa 

See above pages 254—255 

See above page 255 




sft&rft<?sr^r? fc*nri tWKMqga (%t) 

" SRI JANAKi MANOHARA " (Isa Manoharl) 

Oh Raghava ! Knowing fully my troubles, why is it 
that you keep away your face from me ? Have all the 
misdeeds done by me taken the form of a Devata and stood 
before you (hiding you) ? Why should my service to you 
cease ? 

#$ - 'swwgB* 





ft?s«E$gs# fti^i *£te *it 





fiamya, Dainyokti 389 

" APARADHAMULA * (Darbar) 

Pray, forgive me for my offences and come to my 
rescue. It will add to your glory if you treat me with mercy 
and protect me. Infatuated with arrogance I have indulged 
in abusing good men, almost as a routine of lifet Without 
true devotion to your holy feet, I have made a show to on- 
lookers that I am a pious man doing japam. I have associa* 
ted myself with chaff of men and indulged in wild gossip 
with them and have consequently become incapacitated to 
speak about your exhilarating glory. 

I have taken refuge in thee# Have mercy on me» I can 
no longer bear this* 

sirs *Tg*l «frft ^toft <fft 

WIS ift *Ra ««Msf («) 

x. ^oiw ! sfhRjug Stag 

jfcffiPS iWtft atisf fa) 


*&fc alia %%$m wft fa) 

w BHAVASANNUTA " (Varali) 

How hard must have been my sin that you have not 
been moved at all to protect me, in spite of my pitiable 
condition caused by my failure to secure the long desired 
personal contact with you. You are the destroyer of all 
sins. You are the repository of mercy. Your foot has 
turned a stone into a living woman, your arrow has saved 
an Asura. But, for you not to drive away my sins, they 
must have been really hard, I wonder why you are not 
roused by indignation when you see me thus subjected to 
derison by men full of pride of youth. To whom 
am I to complain of your indifferent attitude ? I have not 
run my life to waste. I have carefully discarded all those 
factors of Sams&ra, which are detrimental to my practice 
of devotion to you. Still that your compassion is not made 
available to me must be due to my sins being hard; 


Dainya, DamyokU 39l 


% TO ^sft $ft % aft 
TO 3*g?r 3% *r- 

TO % ^TO?T ? 

4f *» fas *TC3*t (S) 

ftg tf«T ?$ jfewr ! g- 

Wg*r 5?ftf%f^ «fctt ? sft 

ipift&ife *333 %3S^T (%) 

fpr «is «ftt the j 

^ 1% *f33 ^w &$, «nj 

i»Nl 1Q ^C SVQ TO ($) 


*?*T 5W5 ! qjT^KraW (%) 

w E PAPAMU " (Atftna) 

What sin have I committed for not getting from you 
even a little of your grace ? On my part I am plaintively 
praying for darsan of your holy feet, but you on your part 
remain indifferent, as though you were hearing and not 
hearing my appeal- 

I have reposed my faith in you, Oh Lord of Lakshmi, 
hearing that you are none but the embodiment of Nada. 
What sin have I committed that you should not condescend 
to bless me, though living in Nadapura, the place of 
Panchanadapura ? 

Are you not moved by compassion to bless me ? Would 
you not show me your blooming and enchanting face ? 
Does it become you to remain indifferent ? Am I a 
condemned person ? Is there none to plead with you on 
my behalf ? 

How long am I to bear this ? I am at my wits' end, 
not able to discern the past or the future- Pray, appear 
before me and speak to met You have been so long 
forgetful of me. 

Have I been imploring all and sundry ? Have I ever 
abused you ? Am I not oae relying on you ? Are you to 
§how all your deoeitful ways towards me? 

bamya, Dainyokti 393 

Is one, who trusts in you, to suffer from sin still ? 
Does it redound to the credit of your race ? Pray let me 
know your mind. 

Should one who is all-merciful be so indifferent in my 
case ? Though being the sole indweller of my heart, you 
have not been showing me that this is the right course for 
me to take, but have been keeping quiet from the beginning* 

You are the honey-bee of the lotus heart of Ty&garSja. 
You are the destroyer of sins* 

M$m - 'ifr&CT' Sift 

f^rfcr Iwpto s swig (*0 

See above pages 88—89 

"TERATiYAGA RADA " (Gowlipantu) 
See above pages 89—90 

m$$i - 'vtfm* 



wterci ? wki^i i 



u^fte ? ^twpt ! to- 

mi J ^pnf^'R J 



11 MARUGELARA * (Jayantasrl) 

Oh, the Supreme ! Why hide thyself ? Oh R&ghava I 
I have learnt and realised that you are everything in this 
world; I do not think in my mind of any one but you. 
Pray protect me. 

SWOT - 'TO3$3$> - ^fff| 

%mw *$, mm %&% 1 ($) 



tt KAMALAPTA KULA M (Brindavanasaranga) 

Oh Ocean of Mercy I Save me ! I have heard much 
of your having protected your devotees in the past and 
have sought refuge in your holy feet. Pray, give m® 
endearingly your protection. 




jDainya, bainyokti 




3*f %*& ftwi s ^t 

g^* s* i wi 


qt&nn sft q^g^s, *f- 

i^i ! %»ft wi 


*Wn!IWC ffcrfssr SR[ » #- 

^ 1li5p| *RI; 

w^ tf §i Aftft «H# 

gfirer <^(5ct ?ro 


ait»I3R^; #T13if?H^! 

aft^a^r ! jm -, 

*niWcI f&T ! grirajfagssf 

canpncraspr •• m\ 


" MUNDU VENUKA " (Darbar) 

Come, protecting me in front, rear and the two sides, 
Oh Destroyer of Rakshasas like Mura and Khara! I 
cannot get the like of your beauty anywhere. Come quick ! 
Come with bow in hand* Come, you of immeasurable 
prowess, along with Laksmana, your close follower; Oh 
Saviour of Gajendra ! Oh the abode of Pranava, Oh 
beloved of devotees ! Come and protect me well. 


mfifa srrgr qf^fc ^gg 

q^Tcr ! c^Fnasr $t^ (%) 

" DINAMANI VAMSA u (Harikamboji) 

Oh refuge of the meek ! Pray, give your best conside- 
ration to my appeal and protect me with affection; That 
will do and will also be appropriate- Why this pride in the 
matter of protecting me ? Who else is there to do it ? You 
are everything to Ty&gar&ja. 


f <? oops l^cr vn • (v) 

srcsisrgs *ft$ tow ? 

«KWPRWfWpF ! (9) 

* KRIPA JUCHUTAKU * (Chay&tarangini) 

Rama ! This is just the time for you to show mercy; 
£Wt say amidst my equals :~"Is it possibl e to forgive you 

Dainya, Damyokti 397 

for your wrongs V There are in the world people who do 
not know the path of Truth and people who do mean service 
without the least fear oi the other worlds 

wi)' - 'w^WT' 



m t ^%»nft 1$ - ^flnsT *■& ? 



sfrrc$3hrc ! s*?^ ^t 



ciRrawns .' pfcrrer *R5-ft - 

sner .• sftftfsrat gtarcufirat ^sfor 



srcra^wfffa *n^ §f- 

m i «T%?r 3* %rc ; #i*Bft 



smRFW g% gpi qrasr ! «ra - 

vtpi^i ! <tfr csrwisresra ! 


"RAMA NfVEGANI" (NarayanI) 

Oh Rama ! Besides you, who is there to protect me ? 
Oh keeper cf the father's promise, bless me ! 

315* - '^11» - Sffft 



*ra arcs *rra> «r| 5#ii wfa$ ^tora^ $ {*{) 


WIS stf^ig ^cfaflrc wfe$ ^ ^^fts # , (*r) 

"BHAVANUTA" (Mohanam) 

Oh Sri Rama, adored by Siva ! Cheer up my heart to 
relieve me of my fatigue ! 

Oh Redeemer, adored by Brahma! Cheer me up by 
fulfilling your oft repeated assurance of protection ! 

Oh beloved of Anjaneya ! Cheer me up to remove the 
fatigue of my'having wandered in quest of you ! 

Oh Lord ! Cheer me up to remove the mental agony 
(caused by your sudden disapperance) after having come 
to my house ! 

Oh Sri Rama ! Cheer me up to remove the feeling of 
mortification at not having been able to make suitable 
offerings to you. 

Oh Lord I Cheer me up to give relief to my mind 
which had compromised itself much to suit the surrounding 
conditions without running away from them. 

Oh Lord ! Cheer me up by fulfilling my long -cherished 
hope that you would protect me as proclaimed to the * 

Dainya, Damyokti 399 

TO"r vig «tag §t% 

jfiwfcfangsij oti (#) 

% *.$% sfafa ?Tfe?i sfttiftft ftwju 

11 KSHIRASAGARA " (Devagandhari) 

Lord reposing on the milk-ocean ! 

Oh ! Should you subject me to worries ! I have heard 
of your having promptly and swiftly come to protect 
Gajendra; I have long ago heard of your having blessed 
Dr&upadi with sarees; I have also heard of your having 
released from bondage the firm Ramad&s; I have heard 
further of your fame in having crossed the ocean for the 
sake of Sita. Oh Lord of redeeming name ! Protect me 
with mercy; 

wr - '^te^ 5 anft 

<?« $t%yv% P to* %%*%» ? isms if 



31<3 ! 9TOOT ^fSi I glRlft- 

TRS ! «ftW#S ! ftOT*- 


m *no3*n* - f 
tot wfafai ! 

m i mawsm * iw ft- 
■jprcni* ! *ft~ 

3j3r#ft ^n^sr ! ?3^r isr - 
*TORR ! toiwto * 3- 

Damya % Damyokti 401 

ELA NIDAYA" (At&nal 

Why do I not get your grace ? Why this indifference ? 
This is not the time for such attitude. Come, Oh Supreme 

sjjj^ft - 'qoRnftfl' 





3sr fifsr^ ^55 f3rf% 

fespn ^g fitrcrerar I 

f%% f^T ! ^l%f% cWTCH 



Oh Lord of my soul, come quick and protect me ! 
Have you not similarly blessed sixteen thousand Gopies 
with the melody of your flute ? You have also, as the 
lovely boy Krishna of divine beauty graciously fed all the 
young boys that had the fortune to come your way, with 
butter, cream etc;, in a sporting manner^ 



TOiawr ! fer A53, %- 


Oh My beloved brother ! The bright emerald-hued 
Rama! Pray, do not forget me. Bless me soon: I have 
taken refuge in thee. 

Vouchsafe to me the affection and love which Slta bore 
for you. 

flftft 1 - '^^taRR* 




% §t iwprsppcsreisr ^rq, - 


h. *rc«n»ra«?w3i«nRin: ' 

•JTOJW lf**I%f?F wiw. 


Dainya, Dainyokti 



gpcgftsR $t$\m v$$k 


%v& *rg sftw 5 ^ ^w 

*rctfe $# ^32 wn 


$%^f**r ^rafirr ! *!$t - 

3%g<sf ^t ift RftT TO^ 


sfl^ twft ^prfi*Rl3 

3ts % wr** sffer^ns 


*ft *$ %5*T 3§ITp5 q5RT 

^rr^r ft^re «swnrr 


si'srg^r qwr ! to ! aFRTsn- 

OTsrorfcrgcf ! qiftcEaflTOfa 1 


* JE JE SIT A RAM " (Saverl) 

Hail Oh Sitarama ! Hail Oh auspicious, beautiful and 
merciful Rama! I have sincerely believed in you; Pray* 
protect me ! Is it a great thing for you to save a helpless 
one like myself ? Should you be so indifferent to me ? I 
have firmly believed that you are the God and have solely 
relied on your holy name; Is it possible even for Brahma, 
and other gods to know the truth behind you, Oh Rama* 
who are, however, within reach of true devotees ! 




qiil *ri *ft *rofss • qif| m «ft ^ (qj) 

v sif^at qi^gsf - ^t%fe - $s w§ (qj) 

^. %| *ftt go^ns - JTfT §§#»n3 (qj) 

V wp# wfil - %pr %Rr 3§ *)g (qr) 
v. =*$ft iftgj #g - #f sift; ^*ss (qj) 
<* 3?%2g Ste#sj for fofMr q^ir (qj) 

V ft*R& T3*r$j #srai3g ?ig q#sf (qi) 
**• q^nj^Sf *ns - firg *6HI*nj * la? (qj) 
c m*t %fo l&psn snq^nqre *to«f (qr) 


Protect me, Oh Ramachandra ! I have earnestly taken 
refuge at your feet; Why this indifference ? You are the 
only saviour ; and I have been praying to you. Affection- 
ately lift me up and bless me* Show me your enchanting 
face once- You are immanent in alls Who is there to 
surpass you ? From my early days. I have been seeking 
you; protect me. I have always been praising you; For- 
give and protect me ! Oh Protector of the distressed ! 


Dainya, Dainyokti 


mmm - l wmm' 




% writ *m flgn JJWriiSir 

rmrs siw <rwr srftqfrf%fsT 


'• f^RRT ^iwt$ JRt- 

*4 ^13 iPl«Tlt ^JSFT 


V jjat**' 33 srajpnft ^3 9- 

SPIR 'friS fi^i5ll?C a i 


v. ^5!%^ <a^55i4 srersn:- 

^m %<r f^s# s*irc 


H« 'enlace ^iiTcr c^- 

vm^ *re ar^sf %ig 


$. ' ft*R £Nn *KI *ft *T«[- 



" RAMA RAMANA" (Sankarabharanam) 

Come, Oh Rama* Come ! Who is there to equal you 7 
Listen to my appeal; Can even Adisesha adequately praise 
your glory ? Pray, fulfil my heart's desire* and show me 
your enchanting face ! I shall stand by you and serve you 

Your holy feet will enable me to cross the ocean of 
Samsara. Can't you bless me promptly ? 




srrag fltesrissqr ot ! (?) 

siga^ §ft ^ #?rft; (?) 

Hrft3$iii% 3?5f qf fa (?) 

to* sifa wig %f% (?) 

srsSre; ite ? enfa Stara (?) 

sutcito* cn^gg^i (?) 


Oh Dasaratha Nandana ! Protect me, with your grace 

Enough of this trickery. With my heart drawn to women, 1 

go about freely preaching your path; I try to propitiate the 

, rich to maintain my body in comfort. I cast wistful eyes on 

women and indulge in back-biting. 

I am a forlorn creature ; prayi come near me, redeem 
me and sanctify me* 

a, Dainyokti 40« 

You are everything. You never come. I have dropped 
my haughtiness. Quickly protect me* I love you. Why do 
you hesitate ? I cannot bear, Oh Lord ! 

V <T§*irc ftj ii% qift- %s$teng 

t^nf aft OTTOS #* «5T*3f*tf% (ifr) 


Oh Sita Rama ! Pray, listen to my appeal and vouch* 
safe to me deep devotion to your holy feet and protect me ! 
My sins are nothing to you. 

You have been familiarly talking to me for sottietime* 
If you do not do so now, will I leave you ?. 

40& TYAGARAJA kirtanas 

Think deeply of the traditions of your race and bless 

I have been singing your praises often and appealing to 
you; Why should you not converse with me in a lively 
manner ? Without placing my faith in the people of the 
world, I have installed your bleseed feet in my heart for 
long now. Why do you look askance at me ? 


£Rrf& - *qift<RW 




<u *ffl wt® ^s*ftT gSftr- 

ift«rra Hr^^frrw 


r* *rR3^$T$*^ §!•* 

Kfffi ^•SRSRqfa? 


\, xff&% *ft «fTfnr*f firsr 

sra^ft 33%ftf 


v. su^sf gsr WRisp ?it 

f%?cT %ft ^T%5^r 


V ^hflRlft *ft ^ot ¥j% $- 

*?fi?r **R^jp% 


^ sire srfssg 1$%& *$ 

• CO. 

Dainya, Dainyokti 409 

*• 1^ *itefe g^g?f %* 

11 PAHI PARAMATMA " (Varftli) 

Oh Supreme Being ! Protect me always. What is the 
use of a life without true love for your holy name ? Of what 
worth is he who does not constantly turn his mind to you 
and meditate on you ? That man is, indeed an asura who 
neglects to develop devotion to your sacred feet, which is 
not easily obtainable; There is none else who could save 
me from my six internal enemies and treat me lovingly. 
Have I had one thing at heart and another in speech t Is 
my humility only a show ? 


'TOsfiro' - n 



w vrfiPPFi flfc TO$r P 




iter g*T5 srew^tera ! wtoirt I 



^fSsrpr Si^rg^f srffcraa *taft zfc&z ? 

3ffrT$3«s $(mfi: *rg ?w?re ? sf^ 



qifaift fagfaa - #$€tf^ *iftft *ft- 

Sift i&ftfiwr ? *?ra«nf* i to §§<#?: 



«fi* %® qfct *wnftSH *tg 

^ fh ifoft «ms*m » wmriftt 



(Grievance, anger, remonstrance) 


Are you still indifferent towards me ? That disposition 
ill becomes you. 

Having given assurances to your true devotees, should 
you forget them ? 

Should you not cast a kindly glance on me at least once 
with your lotus eyes ? 

Is this the way you bless those who rush to you with 
ceaseless longing day after day ? 

Pray come and bless me; Trusting that you yourself 
will know my mind, I have been worshipping your holy 



fog wfaft 515 «JHcs*ft ? 

s^ sisg wn^wjJSra ! (it) 

Artiarsha-JSosha-Roshokti 411 


It is not an act of respectability on the part of one like 
you, the repository of all mercy, to hold me to ridicule 
among my compeers. What is your reason for not protect- 
ing me ? You alone, the greet one, have the reputation of 
discriminating between those who are of you and others; It 
is not at all fair that you should forsake me who is holding 
fast to you. 

V5*r sRftftft *fipj*r sRftfift (?) 



arapw * 'fits «Rfr ' 

mWz %$ ^f *- (ft) 

^g wm ogv«3 % i- (FO 



Is it for this that you have created me— for me to toss 
about and for you to enjoy the fun at my expense ; to get 
angry with you for constantly besetting me with dangers 
and distress at the hands of those nearby, to develop in 
me unrighteous desires for property, wife and children and 
inordinate greed for wealth, to be insensitive to wrong, and 
to associate with imposters ? 

Can you not glance at me soon with your beautiful 

I^g*T7$ ng *%*r$ g°%^ m t (3) 



srftfig tfl*H ^f #t (3) 

fefl qfoft ^55 (3) 

\* ^I3°f 5TOTFSW SW~ 
l^fr P *5- 

A marsh a-Bosha-JRoshokti 413 

<KE3 3J#tot ? ^ag (3) 

^il^ vS^Mwtes^t ? ^ssg (j) 


Oh ! the beloved of the devotees, redeemer of the 
fallen and Lord of three Saktis ! It is not proper on your 
part not to protect me. 

Is it because your reputation for undoing the effects of 
past evil deeds has got shaken ? 

Is it because your fame for not going back on your 
word has got tarnished ? 

Is it because your compassion refuses to avail you now 
to bless your devotees, known and unknown, as of old ? 

Is it because your capacity to save Bhaktas has got 
exhausted with the number so far saved ? Tell me. 

Is* it because Sita who is always with you advised you 
not to respond to my prayer ? 

Or is it bacause Lakshmana (who has conquered sleep) 
in a fit of anger asked you w Why worry about him ? " 


Is it because your eyes got blinded with tears of joy at 
the sight of sweet Bharata ? 

Is it because Anjaneya, holding your feet fast, implored 
you not to qo to my rescue ? 

Is it because Brahma uttered the untruth that I have no 
devotion to you ? 

Is it because Saraswati protested much that it is beyond 
her (to commend Tyftgaraja) ? 

Is it because Ty&gar&ja himself forgot to keep you in 
his heart ? 

Or is it because your .sister, P&rvati dissuaded you 
from associating with me ? Pray# let me know. 



to afa *ftf%cr ?mmu ? 

ftfora §^ ^ *w ! (3) 

^ qf^r ^ wm^rgg i (*r) 

Amatsha~Ro$ha-Ros'hokti 415 

" NANNUBROVA " (Abhogi) 

Why tarry like this to protect me ? Pray, tell me what 
my faults are. From my childhood, have I not longed for 
your company and prayed for it ? Are you not born with 
brothers who are true servants and have you not begotten 
sons and brought them up ? 



How is it that you do not speak in response ? Have I 
sung to the praise of lewed and dishonest people ? You 
are everywhere - far and near - and have also taken abode in 
the lotus of my heart. I have now known the way and have 
been feeling exultant over it; 


sffcsn^ ! gg 5ft srses -aft %fe gip ? %?q% (aft) 

11 OR AJUPU M (Kannada Gowla ) 

Oh ! Foremost of the Raghus ! Is it just and proper for 
a saviour like you to be indifferent towards me ? Pray make 
clear to me what is the relationship that subsisted before, 
between you and your devotees* What is the reason that a 
sense of honour did not worry you ? You the embodiment 
of Punya ! the protector of the distressed, you who regard 
those who have taken refuge in you as your progeny, you 
who are ever fond of music ! 




^Nsr ? CT53N3 J *ig sita (#) 

$*i ? 5% ^Rragp INN* ! sig *N ft* ($) 

Amar$ha»Rosha-Bo$hokti 417 


Why do you still hesitate to bless me ? Oh lotus- eyed 
one that surpasses a myriad suns in brilliance ? Have you 
come to understand that I am going about begging unima- 
ginative people ? Is it to delude me that you have all this 
reputation of destroying the sins of all your real devotees ? 
You have coronated even Sugriva, a monkey. 



WTO !! ft*W*TT ! 
1. *Hf|t% ftTO #«R %fo% 

% $iR&Er 5 # ^m ! ait <tct tt- 
5tto ! *r$ ere* gqftqT- 

v ! TOtro *Rg*n$* 


*re *Nr ^t ; wnncrar- 

fispT 1 % WWII I Sato- 
*TCS ^M\ SN^tt eft 

335 %f% %% ^nfc ($) 

" KARUNAJALADHI " (Kedara Gowk) 

Oh ! Ocean of compassion ! If without listening to 
my appeal you continue to be hesitating, I cannot put up 
with it. Oh lotus-eyed Lord who kept well his fathers word, 
you are my wealth. You will not lose your patrimony if 
you deign to show your mercy to me* Why this disputation ? 
It is not in my power to bear this any longer; This is the 
time for you to vouchsafe to me devotion to your holy feet. 
I cannot beg of people who are infatuated with wealth, My 
mind is getting turbulent I appeal to you as this body 
(of mine) is yours. 

gt& - , 'wtor 



m ton ! wi-wt $tm ? 


. ft) 




wn fWtagftft <nrow fcfe*#% 


faro TOftpt $rogra sta?- 


Arnar$ha-Rosha~Bo$hokti 419 

w RAMA DAIVAMA » (Surati) 

Oh! Lord R&ma! Are you gradually becoming 
miserly ? Pray, show me your world-enchanting face. 

Why all these deceitful ways ? Has your house become 
a golden one thereby ? You are treating me even as 
Ranganatha duped Vibhi3hana and even as you yourself 
smeared the Gopies* faces with butter after eating it, Show 
your skill and remove my distress. I am patient and remain 
a refugee of yours. Oh Redeemer of the fallen ! 


*fg> mil «ft wptoi ftsr- 


Oh you of truthful word, the protector of devotees 
do not try to establish that there were no human 
witnesses (to your declaration that you will protect all those 
who take refuge in you); You who belong to the Race of th§ 


Sun, who is the witness of the whole Universe; If you do 
so, will not onlookers laugh at you ? 

Have you not got abundant prowess ? Is not Par&sakti 
Herself under your protection ? 

Is it not possible for you to know the genuine devotion 
of Ty&garaja who has renounced allsense«enjoyments ? 

ftsr H&jsg ^fe$ra qif^ft 

5ft wft% *?fc& ? (ft) 

^ *ffa ^?§55 ^ *1W 3t%S ift (fir) 



gft ww g*ro fNt% q- 

fta wnRW3«r ! *ft *i%* ! 5ft (ft) 

%l NIJAMARMAMULANU w (Umabharanam) 

Oh Rama ! Why should you harass even those who 
know the real Truth, viz. that it is you that have created 
the various minor divine manifestations and set up lilas 
appropriate to each of them, that it is you that have created 
the followers of six systems of faith, based upon Vedas' 
S&stras and Pur&nas, those whose creed is to seek salvation 
through the recital of your Name and Kings on earth, and 
that it is you who have made also all these deluded men* 



Amar$ha-Ro$ha*Boshokti 421 

Sc^fs *iot &u ? mt 0?) 

wra3S spnrwg ster fir- 

11 EMINERAMU " (Sankarabharanam) 

What guilt of mine prevents you from coming to my 
protection quickly and do you feel any great burden on my 
account ? Have you not had the reputation of having saved 
Gajendra ? Men of knowledge have sung in praise of your 
high qualities that you are the friend of the distressed, the 
God of all Gods, the incomparable Great one and 




i?5 *3pw WW * {A) 

terror wirfsa %fef$r 


11 ENTUKU PEDDALAVALE M (Sankar&bharanamu) 

Why don*t you bless me with the real wisdom such as 
the great ones have as the result of their knowledge of the 
Vedas, of S&stras, of their inner meaning, of non-differenti- 
ating Vedanta and of. the secrets of N&da Vidya ? Where 
am I to go ? I have been crying aloud restlessly like 
common folk, but the fruit is still bsyond my reach. 


*ra 5 wife ! g^Rrerc i «n (ty 

ft^ TO ! qw^TOS %- 

?^fe «sft% <?%$; sir (^) 

Amar$ha-Rosh%*Ro$hQkti 423 

11 EDUTA NILICHITE " (Sankarabharanam) 

If you come and stand before me, will you lose all your 
wealth ? Is it possible for me to transgress my fate ? 
Should I, knowing this, (sit quiet and) be deceived ? 

Why do you weigh the pros and cons ? You must 
know my situation. I cannot ask for boons. Consider my 
prayer; This is the time to bless me; I cannot pray to 
other gods. How is it that you do not know my mind ? 
Why this wanton obduracy again and again ? This indif- 
ference towards me cannot find a precedent in the annals 
of your race, and Suras and Asuras will not applaud you 
for it. Why this intractability on your part now ? 

qftfsr *i*rj- (*r) 

See above pages 211—212 


Oh ! King of Kings ! Has not the question of protect- 
ing me come up for consideration in your mind ? I have 
always regarded your Rama Avatar (role) as the best of your 
ten avatars* Probably, Sita during her conversation with 
you did not ask you to do your utmost for me. What 
impression did my crying make in your mind ? Protect me; 

424 TYAGARAJA kirtanas 

SlfWJJ^ - 'WW*' 






5?wrt^ %?$3-*itft Afang, 5n (g) 

1% VALLAGADANAKA " (Sankarabharanam) 
Do not say that it is not possible for you to protect me. 
Why has the history of the Bhaktas of old been written ? In 
every Yuga, there have been instances of such happenings; 
Concealed in the pillar (in the case of Prahlada,) hidden 
behind the tree (in the case of Sugriva), and lying in the 
lap of Yasoda as a baby (in the case of the dandy Muchu- 
kunda), you have been saving them all and also several 



v #$ ft%3$ ssrcrc sits jarronr 

S^ TOSsg m% <rsf aflr f^^q^^rr ? (??i) 

I- "5S #* **3^ # *rf*w 

w^s to wrj$ topii %fe% (i?i) 

Amcwsha-Rosha-Roshokti 42& 

11 NAMORALAKIMPAVEMP (Devagandhari) 

Why do you not listen to my plaintive appeal though 
you know me to be your devotee, ardently worshipping 
you, without a gap, like beads closely strung together, and 
having no other desire ? Having heard of your great glories, 
I have absolutely relied on you. When a monkey* unable 
to bear the torment of his brother, took refuge in you f you 
gave him protection ; if it was due to the fact that he had a 
fine neck (Sugrlva), do not I also have a similar claim ( I 
have a fine voice) ? 

When a R&kshasa sought your refuge unable to put up 
with the rebukes of his brother, you gave him protection. 
If it was due to the fact that he had command of sweet 
words (like those of a parrot), are my words fearful 
(Vibhlshanama) ? 


q$m «ft %*at «rras %% 


Of what pleasure is it to you to speak untruth to me ? 
Time may pass ; but words spoken will remain for ever* 
You have given me words of assurance several times that, 


as you are my father and mother, I need not have any fear 
whatsoever ; you have shown me special grace among my 
compeers in the world and have commended me to great 


&ft*«ft5S3$ tin* I *ft (s) 

wi^r ! sftgrrocraftga ( at) 

u ATTA BALKUDU " (Attoa) 

Oh ! Rama ! You are capable of saying one thing at 
one time and another thing at another time. What can I do 
under these conditions ? You will rock the baby in the 
cradle and also pinch it as you like* You know how to 
punish persons and how to make them immortal also • 

You bless them, taking due consideration of their true 



kmarshck-Rcpha-Itoshokti 427 

" NIKEVARI BODHANA " (Suddha Saveri) 

Who has instigated you P You do not freely talk to me ; 
your mind has changed. 


wmft wa ^r ? wwftqrai ! wo ? 


^♦ff ^laswftspig-SsrtiT «rawn *njt 



^ fcc fflNwga ^ 

*fti jfi^i i^i ? W| <t 



SKWIf W SFRfJfig 3o5 

3§S toss <rf%3^ %?f ? 



W? 1 *TT !! OT H! ^99q%% 

swrasf Sra ? wpncr«3?r ! 



Have you no special consideration for me as being your 
own P Can we ever find such a trait in the kings of the 
Solar Race P Have you not voluntarily called your devoted 
servants and made presents to them of necklaces P Have 
you not given monkeys the honour of your company while 
taking focd P Pray do not annoy me and delay your 
blessing P 


5>wWlTO &U tit IW I fa) 

*£tft% 33^f *frww *f P ft) 

^5$ 3*%^ %^t ? 

«TOa nft wprcwgpr ! tot*t 9qj ? (*t) 

11 ENNALLU URAKE " (Pantuvarali) 

Let us see how long you are going to be silentt Is there 
none to question you ? Did you not reign over the city of 
Saketa for some time ? Did you not fulfil the desire of the 
sages ? 

Did you not, at the instance of your wife, protect innu- 
merable devotees ? Have you not declared that it was your 
firm resolve to vouch salvation to the wise. 

Have I not reposed implicit faith in it ? 


qft$ vr ! qng* wcPr «rwt ? (q) 

qw wfa&w w tffaw lifter (q) 

Amarsha- Rosha-Roshokti 4 2y 

H PARIPURNA KAMA M (Purvakalyani) 

Oh the most merciful one ! Have we ceased to keep 
you in our mind ? It does not look that you have the mind 
to give us your Darsan and protect us. What equity is this ? 
Is it possible to bear the annoyance caused by low class 
human beings who are votaries of Kali ? 

5#WBf&r - '^313' 


sft m% TO»*ift ^ Tft is^s p 


$? Hig^f «&$• Jfafo ^ 


s#rwr tfte jftf -settt^ lift 

*. (tag %^I3 Ss^iT-sfawif I <*tT 
^i§55 sftf%fcfos-snT*ig ftsst 

" NIDASANU DASU " (Hamlr Kaly&nl) 

No doubt I am known well as the humblest of your 
devotees ; but of what good is it ? 

You have no love for the poor and the holy; 

You have slighted me among my compeers; While not 
showing me your grace, you callously dispose of me by 
attributing my difficulties to my Karmai 

Have you not in the least any feeling of indignation ? 
All sweet words have abandoned you. Still they say that 
you protected devotees in the past. 



?!§!* W«RT3T $*lf%3 ! (tt) 

" MANAMU LEDA u (Amir Kalyani) 

Have you no self-respect ? Have you no interest in 
your own people ? Such a one like you devoid of attach- 
ment can hardly be seen ; you are the father of Kusa and 
Lava, and me who has taste for music ! When Sugrlva 
spoke to you taunting words, you, with a sense of wounded 
dignity, made him a king, you who are worshipped by your 
servant Tyagar&ja ! 

sigq*r gnfgft yfa fog %CTfcr 

igsftfiw ^rl% (si) 

*rg<r *n%w %*n<?rofo («) 


5R35 STffiRWi SffiepTOffit 

Amwma-Ro&ha-Boshokti 431 


I have placed my entire faith in you and followed you 
believing that you are a matchless repository of all good 
qualities* But you do not lift me up even a little and show 
your grace* Tell me* pray, through whom should I make 
my application; 

You are the son-in-law of lanaka ; do not be inert and 
unmoving like your mother-in-law, the eartht Enough of 
your trickery; Why this duplicity ? Without seeing you in 
person, I have been doing my prayerst I am, no doubt, 
seeing you in my dreams, Oh Lord of the Universe ! I have 
heard of your having protected Droupadi by an endless 
supply of sarees; 


m *w vn flarow vmvn (c) 


^tmvs &g%fc *fefo fkǤ $foft 



m% ^mm ft« inw $w?*rr 



33 §3i n% q<*K3f snigt &b fc«# 



^rftrjp iSRprf^rarai snpspn 



WT SfgF&i 195-WJT «k*MI 



*rereft tinfez nfc*4i taw 



tft fiMBf *rfc-ft3w *re t5*n 



<u. *?fe *rfe aro? SfMraift %$ ^$" (<r) 

<> v wgms wm^^r^ j^esws (TO 

Oh Rama! Which friends' dissuasion is this that you 
are not coming near me ? Whose unbounded solicitude is 
it ? Do you so unduly gloat that you have put me to 
torments ? Do you feel joy and pride that there is no other 
saviour than yourself ? 

Does it redound to your credit that you should harass 
me ? Can I bear it ? Why this famine of words, disabling 
you even from giving an assurance that you will bless me 
with your grace ? Or is it a burden for you to do so ? 
While I am crying for you # is not your mind moved ? Is 
your heart made of iron that it remains unmoved by all my 
appeals ? Pray, listen to me> 

Are there not great souls to represent to you my for- 
lorn condition ? Even if they are, are they of the same 
mould like you ? Or do they treat my case callously as a 
child's play ? 

Is all this due to my karma or your hesitance ? 

Having affectionately sung your praises, should I have 
in the end to say all these things ? 

Are you born of a race which is incapable of protecting 
people ? Are you worried over it ? 
I cannot stand this. 



Amarsha - Rosha- Roshokti 433 

*rfcr&6 3°!^% *i8Wt («r) 

*?% Itq&re *r%<?t (*) 

%l DHARMATMA u (Kedara Gowla) 

While I am appealing to you as a Dharmatma, is it right 
for you to reply dubiously ? 

Having earned the reputation of being the redeemer of 
the fallen, is it good on your part not to duly realise its 
implication ? 

When I seek your protection as a forlorn one, is it 

proper for you to be unfavourably disposed ? 



When I am eagerly desiring to have ten thousand eyes 
to see and enjoy your glorious form, is it right on your part 
that you should mortify me by denying it ? I am guileless 
and have sought refuge in your blessed feeti Is it fair thai 
you should find fault with me ? 

Why vex me with your trickery ? Is it fair that you 
should not come to my succour ? 

I appealed to you to make good your past promises ; is 
it proper that you should keep silent ? Is it fair that you 
should forget me ? 



m® $to ^ ^f % ($) 

$. 3R *ras ^ «ft u- 

*3P3lfcwfrqft (f) 

Amarsha^Eosha'Roshokti 435 

" KUVALAYA DALA NAY ANA " (N&takuranji) 

Oh Lotus-eyed one ! Protect me* I have been passion- 
ately loving you. Where am I to go ? I stand meditating 
on your bewitching face and pining ; but you won't look 
at me. What virtue is this ? Though knowing my mind 
well, you have forgotten me, but still you pretend to be 
remembering me. Is it due to fear of Kali (this iron 
age) that you don't come down to the Earth ? Or is it that 
you are a God devoid of glory ? I have been singing 
constantly with all my heart that you are supreme among 
Devas, I do not know other religions. I have done Bhajana 
with a pining heart. I have positively given up the world 
(and if you don't show your grace to me) will you not earn 
the bad name of being meritless ? Give me wisdom, stand 
by Ty&garftj and accept his worship. 


aft W xm staffer sftf%3 


I $raft WW *fN% left) 


wrfcf^f qtft-feflr^ mvw (aft) 

to* tffiwffr Sbji qfan* (eft) 

$ TO5 fa$ 3T553 iftteg (Bit) 

11 OH RAMA RAMA " (Naga Gandhfiri) 

Oh Supreme One! Repository of Mercy! Why this 
deceit ? As the Yedas in all solemnity proclaim their belief 
that you alone are God, I placed my faith in you. Contacting 
with the wise, I have come to believe in Truth heartily* I 
realise that you are the most precious of relations, that you 
are the ocean of m^rcy and that you are an unfailing 
upholder of Truth. 

You were immensely moved in narrating to Lakshmana, 
the glorious life of Bharata whom you blessed ; you derived 
considerable delight in hearing about Slta from Hanuman 
and even embraced him for it ; you have blessed several 
devotees in response to their prayers. 

Still there is this delay on your part to protect Tyaga- 
r&ja; I cannot bear this. Is it fair ? 







Amarsha-Rosha-Roshokti 437 


qigW5*B tflfTgft ! %f§sfog (%) 

*. «rsRPT« iMfasft ^rfl- 

V *mr ! aft ^in^isr ^jtiertr: ! 3tar- 

wmm ^r, tftafasfcr a$r (%) 



Oh! Incarnation of Love I You have made me- 
one who is passionately devoted to you-restlessly tossing. 
Have you forgotten all that you did (to your devotees) be- 
fore ? Have you forgotten how you unhesitatingly made 
friends with a Vanara, Sugriva for the sake of your wife, 
Slta-your loving Bhakta (Devotee) ; 

how you counselled your brother Lakshmana to afford 
protection to Vibhishana and how true to your word you 
fulfilled the promise made to Vibhishana to make him the 
king of Lanka ; 

how you conferred on Anjaneya, who brought you 
Sltft's message, Brahma Pattam (Kingdom of Brahma) ? 



^. s% $fim sfr *fg*rfii 


Oh ! Prop of the helpless ! Why does not your grace 
flow to me ? 

Have you forgotten me in the bustle of your glory and 
splendour ? Or, are you not here ? 

You must have seen me time and again restlessly tossed 
about like a drop of water on a lotus leaf, frightened by 
utter inability to bear the pangs of endless Samsara. 

You must have also seen me reduced to half my size, 
struggling to avoid the friendship of those always addicted 
to vicious sense-enjoyments; 

This is not the time for delaying. If given up by you, 
say where is the other refuge for me; I see no other way 
for salvation- 



Amanha-lloBha'RoshokM 4&§ 

% wftfira ? ifaarofaT (*ri) 

grcsrsr %?t ? fife *w ! wr TW P 


qsk finite *wt filra %*ror ? (tt) 

TO % g*r wrc*w$3<n 1 fm i (it) 

w GARAVIMPA RAD A « (Ghanta) 

Could you not show some regard to me ? Why don't 
you come to me when I call you? Should you not respond 
even as a formality ? Am I not taunted by my own compeers ? 
Knowing that, are you not moved by compassion ? Is your 
response a matter to be disputed about? Have I not fixed 
my faith unshakably in you ? Does not the babble of the 
child delight the parents ? At this stage could you not say 
something (in appreciation) with your charming voice in 
regard to my songs on you ? Is a screen to stand betw^fen 
us ? A wife purchased for money, however beautiful she 
may be, cannot have such a lasting relationship with the 
husband as one who has been chosen for her virtues. I am 
afraid your indifference is getting chronic. 




ailMhn ^^urs ift P ftssf^? 5ft (t) 

win * info Wr fcr wfott ? 
•nrajft fta§ wf ifj qfanft ? 


Can you not realize the distress I am undergoing for 
not having been privileged to see your smiling face, and 
bless me ? Your attendants, who regularly put you in mind 
of what you have to do, are not at all likely to be partial and 
interested* Have they forgotten their duty ? Does not 
Garuda obey your orders and act promptly ? Or does he 
say that the Earth is too far for him from Vaikuntam ? Oh 
Lord of the whole Universe ! To whom am I to appeal ? No 
more cunningness ! I cannot stand it. Come and bless me. 

iflt - *4KfR' soft 

sit *pt ! mvm .• (*n?) 


Ammsha-JZosha-BosTioicti 441 

" SRI RAGHUVARA " (Bhairavi) 

Oh Raghuvara! Why this indifference which is quite 
foreign to your race ? Why should you not bless me ? Why 
this disputation ? 

You have by your side Mother Sita (to commend me 
to you); Why should you not understand my hearts desire 
and forgive me for my sins and failings and take me by the 
hand for protection ? 



«sr ! *g rtfing 13*3 
«iftft ana* WPiwaff * 



Oh ! Rama ! Pray, do not be unfair to me, treating 
me as a stranger. Oh best of Kings ! You have forgiven 
many people who have done innumerable misdeeds. Did 
riot Jadabharata take pity on the youngling of a deer 
and remove its distress ? Did not a tortoise save a 
mountain from sinking into the ocean ? Did not Dharmaraj 
go to the rescue of Duryodhana who was treacherous to 
Pandavas ? Do not say that it will not be possible for you 
to protect me in my middle age from the troubles and 
tortures of my elder brother. 



?«jfe - '*P?I Sft^' 


m l attfte *rg-tf%3 ras tfl far, «ft 


gtwi^ssfarr t is«t ! 

!5trai§§i i»rt ? 


i> %vn§ %fcr WKT-gsfo wsfit st- 

^ft fa §$ mm sftfo *nf%* *ft 


\. ifct^T Is st-T% ^iJj, fCTn ! qsf, 

1% swat l^fer ?}{% %%^#j^ 


^ %nl w^sf *iwhr**pt 

«nn 5rforf%* siTOi*rg<T .' «ft 


11 RAMA LOBHA MELA u (Durbar) 
Sri Rama! the protector of Gajendra I and who took 
birth in the race of one who gave up his body for the sake 
of a hawk! 

A mar$ha«Bosha-Bo$hokti 44& 

Why this want of compassion in the matter of protecting 
me ? Will not the Devas laugh at this ? Have you not 
blessed K&k&sura and Vibhishana who sought your refuge ? 
How has the mentality, which prompted you so lovingly to 
respond and go to the rescue of Draupadl who prayed to 
Krishna in a moment of distress and despondency, deserted 
you now ? 

Will not Indra and other Gods laugh at this ? 

iwt %ft ? cnhrfft * (*r) 

<rc;g*n ^^5 % {iprcsq (*r) 

11 MARI MARI NINNE " (Kambhoji) 

Oh All Pervading one 1 Though I have been incessantly 
crying out for you, your mind has not been moved by 
mercy; What was the reason for your rushing to the rescue 
of Gajandra on the bare hearing of appeal ? I have heard 
of the story of your having presented yourself before Dhruva 
with all love. What was the secret of your having taken the 
form of Narasimha for the sake of Prahlada, the son of the 


Enemy of Devas ? Pray, tell me of the glory of your having 
blessed Sugrlva who had been guilty of having forgotten 
the promises he had made* 

It is not possible for me to bear this neglect any more. 
I shall not hereafter listen (to any reason for such attitude)* 

3ra*m%5 - *ww&f£' - 


5fT ^ jjfi& tr?^ %$?§*} 



emfifrftR *fo® aiyif sf *fts 

grfsrn sTrarate «R$Rte qftqre 



ipafir ai^pn- 5*&g *if*5ir 

S?crfef%ft ^pr^r JWtft % #^r 



frforefe* ^W^ww 

5*r are^wta-^ #r% g*Ri 



sRRftfH^rad^ w^ «ft *5tw 

wr ttmvm qifeawroar 


" INKA DAYA RAKUNTE H (Narayana Gowla) 

If I do not get your grace even now, how can I bear it ? 
When I am so passionately longing for you, why don't you 
come frequently to protect me ? Why not now at least ? 
After all, is this treatment of me becoming of you ? To 
whom can I appeal ? Are there no Devas here ? But will 
they be equal to you ? I am convinced that you are the 
Lord* Sri Raghu Raja ! You are the destroyer of all fear* 

Amarsha-Bosha*Bo$hokti 445 

%*r - 'tot fig far - qj 

t^*r ftg fipn t% *?t$ 

WfW* ftcqtc^ #?N% (q) 


91^ % ^f^n *?rf (q) 

otf ^ t*rai jm 

v. ^fSTT feg $%3^T cot- 
tsnsg &r ^r ste 3- 

OhSltapati! Ever-cheerful one! Who is there, besides 

youi for my refuge ? 

Will not your grace be made available to me ? Won't 

you hear me ? Won't you be kind enough to speak to me ? 

Is this proper ? Why dispute with me ? Am I a stranger to 

you? Is it right that you should annoy me without coming 


io me ? Are you still indifferent ? Am I such a loathsome 
object to you ? I have desired you # Oh beautiful Rama ! 
Pray, sustain me. You have not understood my inclination. 

Oh Light of my life ! you are effulgent. Why this 
stiffness ? I cannot stand this delay on your part. Are you 
feeling any delicacy to come to my succour ? 





ot m cro <a*r %$&*$ 

KMIS #3*1 ait w 


§fe srafcrft $fe «3f im 

§ *t§r dsrrat tit im 



*{\£<m sng "tks i^^ 

JJH51S- %ff# # W 



W3 ^g §?f# s?t *h 

vrflAfir qfafttft tit x& (^T) 

^rag %$ wm aft *w (^ 

%. qfirtnwr % ft#r «ft 

«rar qjre *tfarr $t *w ($) 

*, ^Tfe «res ^%fe gr§s> #sr 

qift 3fc qt^rr tit m (v) 

^S^ IWqfafl til TW (q) 

Amanha-Rosha-Iloshokti 447 

^31% <^%t eft m ft) 

<U, aft sr^ot sthwarc wr- 

*PT ^« gspr aft *w (*i) 

w RAMA RAMA RAMA w (Mohana) 

Oh ! Rama ! When I approach you with familiarity and 
call you endearingly R&ma-Rama-R&ma, why do you accost 
me with your Royalty ? 

What life is this? What existence is this? I don't know 
what you are thinking of; 

Hearing my delightful songs, why is it that you do not 
speak to me ? Why is it that you don't show compassion to 
me and take me by the hand ? 

Without removing the distress of one like me, who have 
been longing for you, what glory can you have ? 

Would it compromise your position in any way, if you 
deign to treat me fairly among my compeers ? 

Have I failed to keep company of those who are dear to 
you ? 

What close relationship did the Bhaktas of old bear to 
you ? Could you not have the least consideration for me ? 

Has my disposition towards you differed much from 
that of those who served you in the past and whom you 
regarded as your own ? 

Have you; after all, decided to deceive me Jby appear- 
ing to protect me and not protecting me, and by appearing 
to see me and not seeing me ? 







eft WWT ^ %W $- 

www *wm ifNftft 



ft* irffaf % feat fa 8n- 




%fe^r qgs ^>fe% St- 
rife ^r^ dfemsEft 



«W TO ^R If f 3 


4to ftps § iift qgi 








" OH RAMARAMANA " (Kedara) 

Oh RamSramana ! I cannot bear this. I heartily believe 
in you. Come near me, only to be served by me. My 
crying has not moved you. My faith in you has only brought 
tne more concern and worry. What is there left in this 

AmarshcrRosha-Roshokti 449 

world for distressed people ? You have made me restless 
and have exposed my frailties in the market ; and you do not 
choose to take me by the handi Did your own people, who 
had sought refuge in you as a great hero, struggle in such 
an ocean of misery ? I don't know due to what old score of 
anger of the great Sarasvati, I am suffering my present lot 
among my compeers. I have implored you for a gift believ- 
ing you to be a generous patron; I didn't find any one 
equal to you, nor can I find one in future also. This is my 
solemn affirmation; Should it not be a matter of concern to 
you as to what is to become of Yoga Siddhas ? 

$t m aft m srarcw *Erere (*ft) 

<*. \s ^firto *§ to $pixm (aft) 

\. 31*5 3TOTR5 §g*TSfte cTT55 5TIS5 (sft) 

\* *c iwfti ftWwc siwto (*fr) 

*v ww f*gs to *9iw *iww (*ft) 

<:, f%?3 $§3: ^cf %ffa sftaRT (sft) 

1 1. ftwwftl TO tow ftW5T (sft) 



Oh Sri Rama ! Where am I to go ? Will you not come 
quickly to protect me? I can't bear this: Have I not 
reposed my faith in you ? Would you not treat me lovingly ? 
Does this become you ? Who is there besides you to ward 
off the inner six enemies ? No more disputation. I have 
no way of redemption^ How long am I to pray to have my 
worries removed ? The like of this cannot be seen in this 
world. Is it not true ? Don't act against your family 
tradition and don't forget me. I won't leave you without 
your protecting me quickly; 



kw vm *w *nt 4far 

w spwiyn # ira fa) 

SMg g§ft **&% 8& W fa) 

\* sraj ens wi §§€fg 

«R^5" iwi # wr fa) 

^|s§ 1^1 ait iw fa) 

^JT 3!CT^r ^ *W fa) 

gsreersre ^5[t & xm fa) 

otjw ^tf aft *nr fa) 

Amarska-Ro$ha»I!o$hoMi 451 

3*5**3 ?R5^j aft iw fa) 

ft*r ig^rr *T«*cr art xm fa) 


Oh Rama I Is it proper that you should withhold your 
grace from me ? Is there a mother in any community 
in the world not protecting her own son ? Is there any rich 
man who deceives himself in the use of his own wealth ? 
Is there any place in the Universe where you are not ? Are 
there parents who become rancourous at the words of their 
own son ? Is one, who is firmly fixed in Brahman, capable 
of infamous deceit ? Is there any one who can escape the 
result of his past actions ? Is there any possibility of finding 
any one among the wordly-minded people, who is free 
from desire for gold and women ? Is there any one else 
for Tyagaraja but you ? 

mfay* xgm ^ w fa) 


awsg §3 3tawrtCT*r fa) 

3*t§c5 $®m&§ I^TOST fa) 

qte^t wtmA ^raS^ fa) 

\. m sift* %m$t% s»- 

^tobtc fi^^fl n%|^| fa) 


qH%Tlft itew *R$3Pf fa) 

Tigft *mfc*r ^iftfir ^ #a fa) 

w RAmABHIRAMA " (Saveri) 

, Oh Rama I Why do you tarry ? Should you show all 
enmity to me ? You won't give up your tricks. I have not 
asked you for your wealth. I have no desire for this world, 
which is full of deceit. Oh Protector of Devotees ! I have 
not any other refuge than you. Who is there equal to you 
in this world ? I am caught in your net. I cannot give up 
my desire for you. Does it befit you to forget me ? To forsake 
me is a sin. Can you have the mind to do so ? Give me 
your hand ! Take me across the ocean of Sams&ra and give 
me salvation. 



TOf *ft %$U TFf I , (q*) 

5% iter §roi *nr ! 

£mttr$ha-Bo$ha-Bo$hoktl 453 

tt PARAKU NIKELARA RAMA » (Kiranavali) 
Why should you, who are immanent in the movable 
and the immovable, be indifferent where I am concerned ? 
Have I treated you with scant courtesy like Sabarl who 
gave you the leavings of fruits after she had tasted them, or 
have I, like Guha, given you a bed of leaves without realis- 
ing your status ? 


^ % 917 WHCisiger 1 (t?) 

" ET1 YOCHANALU JESETURA " (Kiranavali) 

Why hesitate to bless me ? There is none to raise his 
voice against you. Among the crores of Devatas, you are 
the most supreme. You ought not to go back on your word. 
Great Rishis say that you, among heroes, would never 
retract, as you are a man of one word only and as you 
uphold all the innumerable worlds. 



qtfeftpT *nqif55?ft^r fa) 

g«$i% 5ff&re sift gssSfa *?ss§ 

OTiWIr ilN^wpnwft^ ! fa) 

11 NADADINAMATA " (JanarajanI) 

Oh my father; Sri Rama ! You should not go back on 
the assurance you gave me a year ago, that you would 
certainly protect me and never abandon me. You then 
said in all seriousness that you would avert any danger that 
might confront me (what threatens the head will be made to 
carry away only the turban that covers it), that you would 
allow yourself to be caught in the net of a really loving 
devotee, and that you would make me swim the ocean of 

* *wg ffifrmi ? # m i $) 


Amwsha'Rosha-Roshokti 45B 

" NE POGAD AKUNTE " (Desyatodi) 

What do you lose if your praises are not sung by a 
mere boy like me ? I have now indeed jmown your mind* 

For worshipping you, there are Suka, Prahlada, Narada, 
Paramesa, Rudra and other celebrated Bhaktas ; for feeding 
you, there is your consort ; for chanting your praises, there 
are sam&jams of wise men. You have your brothers, 
Hanuman, Brahma, Indra, and other gods to claim kinship 
with you. 





«ft trw5 v*m *m stei 


re£ ^5 sftg^r fit <cit ^ 


oft «MBl war « w i* 

18*33 filial 


^2 afaS[$TI 11TB Tft* 


t. *nw* ate ^^ ftsriro- 

vs # 8T939 S^FS flf 

$T2 ^f *P*F ^JFR?£ (sft) 

c* <ri?pft3 WTO «ft OT TO 

V$* fe^ffi S^cTO^r (eft) 


Sri Ramachandra ! You alone are the prop of the 
Universe. Pray, protect me ! Come before me. I have not 
been able to see a God like you. Where am I to go ? Why 
this aversion to me, when my name is mentioned ? 

Though the mother may beat the boy, will he forthwith 
let go his hold of her feet ? 

Does not my distress catch your attention ? Has my 
case become a matter of ridicule to you ? 

When the husband is angry, does not his chaste wife 
know how to conduct herself ? 

You are the redeemer of the sins of true devotees* 
Why hesitate to protect me ? 

You are stainless and the repository of all good 
qualities* DonH try to play false with me* 






Wftft -- '^ W^' 


lift VT^S *NW 













sgt«?g55| 3% WIT 









Oh Raghava ! Protect me ! You are my refuge; There' 

ore, come to my protection soon. Though I prayed to you 

much, it is a wonder that you do not show -even a parhcle 

of mercy to me. I have appealed to you as my chosen deity 


to redress my troubles- Without your grace, of what use is 
my existence ? You probably regard these as a child's play. 
Am I a fit person for your test ? Is it becoming of great 
persons to behave like this ? This is the time for you to turn 
your eyes on me* I cannot go and beg everywhere! I 
have none else to protect me and there is no God higher 
than you. You are worshipped by king of kings. You are 
the Lord of Ty&garaja. 

waft - <^$ficr> - fis2 


%I NE MORABETTITE" (Rupavaii) 
Oh ! Destroyer of sins and iniquities of the Kali age ! 
If I break off from the ordinary run of people who seek 
the company of the dregs of society, and appeal to you, 
why should you get annoyed ? Have I made any penance 
and asked for a gift ? Have I indulged in any hypocritical 


Amar$ha-Bo$ha*Bo$hokti 459 


*, 3*rarf*ri%, *i*r ! feFcrcirg^ Ufa 

^Tfeqil% 3?313 #fi ^> ftj (3) 


Is it fair for you to forget one who has been solely 
relying on you ? Oh ! Rama ! I have been, from my early 
days, acting in close consonance with your will ; have been 
doing countless services and worship with fervent desire ; 
have installed you in the core of my heart ; have been 
praising your glory with exultation ; and even when 
enjoying pleasures have had my mind resting in you. 



&mft ifiroras |MN *fi%3 is^ ? (*) 


How is it that you, God Himself, do not show any love 
for* or interest, in, one who is your own ? Oh ! the foremost 


of the dynasty of Emperors ! Who will prevent you, if you 
yourself deign to bless me ? Why don't you come and 
save me ? 

yfct ^ws ^ 3ia> tfs (w) 

" ADA MODI GALADA * (Charukesi) 

Can there reasonably be any room for hesitation 
in the matter of speaking to "me, when I have sought you 
as my only friend and held fast to your holy feet with 
devotion ? True, when the learned and loving Hanurn&n, 
himself Siva's Amsa, approached you, you instructed 
Lakshmana to talk to him. 

€t£r ant$ 5n*Nr Spr ^f 

»&fon**3 wft xm % («&) 


smg sft #i§3 *ifirctaf3 

sf3*P ift s*ra> ftg (#) 

Amarsha-Bosha»Bo$hokti 461 

far fe qagsst sft^fe 

" KONIYADEDU NAYEDA " (Kokiladhwani) 
Though I have been, at all times, ceaselessly and 
devoutly singing in praise of your blessed life-story and 
have been genuinely adoring you with unbounded love, 
enraptured by your beauty, why do you still bargain. You are 
fully aware that I am not the man to seek other religions 
or other paths: 


*1% ftps #$% ; ^i%f^r 1^11 ? 

xtt $m t *ft ^prt^ ! gvnfcr i (si) 

Have you not promised that you would bring me up ? 
I have accordingly rivetted all my affection in you alone. 
Why then this indifference ? I have been panting for your 
arrival. Pray, do not plead any excuse; I will be obliged 
to reproach you. 


See above page 113 

The wise declare that for those who consider that He 
is, He is- Will such words of the great become false 
today ? I have developed in me a sublimated, desire to see 
your beautiful face,shining like mirror. Why don % t you then 
grant it and come to me ? 

See above page 113 

wiftft fair €r$% ? *taw I (?) 

*T*T ^?|f V ? sit ^fWCW ! (?) 

m% star ^r ? sffcra l #- 

Amanha-Rosha-Roshokti 463 

B IDINIKU MERAGADURA " (Punnaga Varali) 

Your disposition is not favourable to me. This is not 
proper on your part. My mind is very much upset over' ite* 
I have always worshipped you with devotion; I have 
implicitly and always taken refuge in you as the sole saviour , 
as a repository of infinite mercy, and run to you with devout 
prayer. I have wept before you with tears in my eyes that 
I have not been able to secure your grace. I have always 
regarded myself as your own; You are ever blissful You 
are everywhere. Are you not aware of my condition, does 
not your heart melt at it ? Can you not forgive me ? Would 
it not be an act of punyam for you to do so ? 

2psr *m *ftf *r#$fc (sft) 



%ft jwBfcfl ? *Ȥ Oft) 

" BROVABHARAMA " (Bahudari) 

Oh ! Karunakara ! Is it a heavy burden for you to 
protect a single soul like me ? You are the whole universe 
itself and, as Krishna showed it all to be in your stomach, 


Have you not lovingly borne for the sake 6i Devas the whole 
weight of Mount Mandhara when the ocean was churned, 
and have you not lifted the mount Govardhan for the sake 
■fcf Gopis ? 



*nft *nfefe ^nS^r ? gfir- 
^fe sta&na ^i^r ? 

f^r^f 5?mft % 3fosrc%<?i ? (in) 

^S *H* ^1^5^ ^$ *^f (*T) 

V *arrcitarc ! gdK^sr- 

Oh peerless Rama, worshipped by hoary sages ! 
Should I be reiterating my prayers frequently ? Should 
not one direct appeal be sufficient? Should you not 

Amarsha-Rosha-Boshokti 465 

respond and remove my distress quickly ? As an all-perva- 
ding God, are you not aware of the condition of my mind ? 
Oh Ocean of Mercy, Oh Perfect One ! Why this indiffer- 
ence towards one who has supplicated to you in the belief" 
that you are unmatched by Devas ? Of the potful of rice, 
only one grain is taken for test to see whether rice is 




*ft m sft Km sft fRtlW 



^5*0 ifft*T %*%* VW 



^is^t g^r mm ara^qi 



^t 3^3 f^3 ^§33 



^3^ 5253 fSr^B s*np2 



5f *&• ufrrr |% sftf ^*n 



qi^r^wi ^ttst ^iw 



tr5r?JT wm) q&fk ^iTjft 



tprfs #<Uft Stf^T rrTCWft 



ipnaaSt^ra^ jftf^ar 



qftft *ti& <fl[*r *tps**s 



flgraPS^S 75T ^2 



gfg ?ft W3 g?q *y«d 



ipi^t^ c'lPW^t 





How is it that I do not get even a particle of your 
grace ? Is this (trial) not sufficient ? Oh Merciful one ! I 
Cannot bear it* It looks that you will not come to my rescue 
now. Sometime in future you may think of protecting me. 
When, alas ? And yet you are reputed to be merciful. Is 
all this still to be secret ? Is it fair for you ? Pray, treat 
me well. I don*t know the effect of what past old sins of 
mine is this, my present lot, or of whose curse. Or was it 
occasioned by anger in the past ? How long am I to be a 
forlorn one ? Does it redound to your credit ? You are 
reputed to be truthful and perfectly calm and to be the 
protector of devotees. It is proclaimed that you are every- 
thing, the embodiment of Truth and model of detachment. 


8!5WWGt q^-^^Hg%q5qt^T P (8?) 


" ATUKARADANI PALKA " (Manoranjani) 
Should you not show at least this much solicitude for 
me ? How can I bear this ? Show me your grace. When 
I, who am well-versed in Vedas and Sastras and who tread 
the right path, am accused, should you not intervene and 
find out which Devata is responsible for the accusation and 
tell him directly 'it cannot be that 1 ? 


Amarsha-jRosha-Roshokti 46? 

sfalftftft IBB % iFT *teg ; 

sJtepift ^fq-^% tosm^t g- 

cries sris wtwht *ra ! ($>) 

*C -• <nfca btot sit 4teif%s (#) 


Oh Lord of the Universe ! Bless me ! Why are you 
indifferent ? If you do not come to me, can I bear it ? I 
seek you alone and will not covet anything else. I am your 
own- Appear before me so ihat I may have an idea of your 
wonderfully beautiful form of blue hue. Apparently, you 
do not have the mind to bless me. I can no longer bear 
this. Is it fair for you who have taken the ten incarnations ? 
Oh Rama ! All the same, I am holding fast to your glorious 
feet as my only refuge. 




r. *wft $tffr qi^ *r«$*f§ sis 

<r%| sit ottc gft JFtftS oft) 

"NIKU TANAKU" (Begada) 

It is said that there is no predestined tie of relationship 
between you and me. Or can it be that you yourself have 
no mercy ? In spite of the fact that you have taken abode 
in my heart for a long time, my desire remains unfulfilled ; 
in spite of the promise made when I took refuge in your 
lotus feet that you would bless me, you turn your eyes away 
from me now; and in spite of having accepted my worship 
in this birth, you forget me. 

w$m - '^^Rf#B' 


sft «6RT «ft«Nr «R5r%*R5 %5W &Q ? 

3151 p 


iwiRgs #fl$ w-«3 f ^E&rofecr ? 



Vitarka- Vimrisya-Anumana 469 

sfcK ! %^ %ik $m %fa 

" SRI KANTA MY ADA" (Bhavapriya) 

Oh Srlk&nta ! Were you not equipped with the famous 
astra mantras, Bala and Atibala ? Was not their glory 
demonstrated by you on several occasions ? Further, did 
you not convert a blade of grass into Brahm&stra to kill 
Kak&sura ? With all this prowess, how is it that you are 
not worried about the plight of Dvijas whd do not know the 
right path ? 

(Doubt, Cogitation) 



<r ?ogft *rf**f?R> ? % it *&& %ftfirc> ? ft) 

qi^ wprns «ft *igi W$ (tr) 

$% vt^fo &&* wn% %fe- 
d^Tf jqfag fqfeft- 


$m rag jroJtagft* ft 

" E RAMUNI NAMMITINC5 " (Vakulabharanam) 

In which Rama have I fixed my faith ? With what 
flowers have I worshipped him ? Is it not the Rama that 
unfailingly destroys the enemies of true Bhaktas ? Is it not 
that Saketapati, who losing patience, let go his arrow at 
Kakasura, without any misplaced compassion, and deprived 
him of one of His eyes, for his misdeed against Slta, 
when she was lulling him (Rama) to rest ? 

Is it not that Sri Rama who killed Vftli for having 
deprived Sugrlva of the company of his wife and children 
and made him run to the mountains ? 

Is it not that guiltless Tyagaraja l s protector who 
destroyed the arrogance of the wicked Ravana for having 
administered harsh and cruel words to his brother, Vibhl- 
shana, who, unable to bear them, had to seek Rama's refuge ? 

3FN 4*9 i «iW 33 (q r ) 


«Mre wroaft (err) 

1 P r itarka-Vimri8ya~Anum8na 471 

I do not know whether, after all, I will be protected 
by you with sympathy and good words or not. In whatever 
way I might have found fault with you, you need not attach 
any blame to me. I have closely followed the teaching of 
my Guru, that the true path to salvation is the Bhakti 
marga, being the most comprehensive one. 


«rf^«6 ira^s %fefa ^if a$ 

«IV*IFS * ^93 ^^ s^ftH $' 
tifir *ft sR3§ ws mg*r ; 


I do not know whether you will come to my rescue or 
not, nor am I aware of the result of my worship. 

Though I wildly wander, my mind and my faith are 
devotedly and lovingly fixed in you. 

Knowing the real significance of Vedas and Sastras, I 
rest contented to repose my faith in you and you alone, in 
order to ward off the torments of samsara and avoid the 
company of evil-doers. 

I have spent my time solely in meditating upon your 
form of exquisite beauty, relying on the adage of the great 
people that everlasting bliss will surely be the reward for 
sincere and earnest devotion. 

Not the material wealth of the world, but the repetition 
of your holy mantram is the prop of my life. Pray, forgive 
me for my faults. 

Vitarka - Matas — (Dvaita & Advaita) 



8# srag *n%? gran 

l9 •^ WHW3S 



Vitarka-Matas — Dvaita & Advaita 473 

11 EDARI SANCHARINTURA « (Kantftmani) 

Which path should I follow ? Pray, tell me ! If I follow 
the path that regards one's self as every thing it will be 
hard for you . On the other hand, if I appeal to you for 
protection as a Dasa, You say that I am a Dvaitin. 



tag gem ? ait^j mw (f ) 

«frcg*ii3 ^§35 *ra> (I) 

TO W cfW g*RT^%st 


Which conduces to bliss, Dvaita or Advaita? Pray, 
instruct me Clear my doubt. Ycu have, in this Universe 
of Pancha Bhutas, vouched happiness to gods like Siva 
Brahma, Indra, etc and to great devotees. 

(Faith and assurance of help) 

WW *falW - f ^<5 X\i& P Bit CTTjft ! # (f j) 




^g^t $5% n$gg *w5f $fo wn stfsrc * (^t) 

sT^rg ^ jfafr ^g for^ta %?i ? 

$*rafi ?ff *ta33 e^n»ncigfeft «R?wft8^i ? *ft (si) 


Oh Raghuvara! You had initiated me, with affection, 
into the secrets of devotion and sublime life and protected 
me always. Where is all that mercy gone now, Oh ocean 
of mercy ? 

You have assured and consoled me, saying that all the 
abuses, molestation and cruelty to which I had been 
subjected, were all thine and not mine. 

You had asked me to put up patiently with innumerable 

You had nourished my body with the necessary 

You had made me firmly believe that you were my 
father and mother. 

Visvasa — Abhaya 4^5 

TO3 ^wre gteg iftgi q^ <=g<# 

" PARITAPAMU GANI " (Manohari) 

Have you forgotten the words of assurance, which you, 
seeing my distressed condition, lovingly expressed, when 
you were in the golden boat on the Sarayu river in the . 
company of incomparable Slta, that you would take me to 
you in another five days ? 


f qffcft m^fe wRis 

"SITAPATI" (Khamas) 

Oh Ramachandrai You had with a loving heart, 
condescended to reveal to me all your glory and in the 
presence of Anjaneya and others gave me words of assu- 
rance . "Why should you be afraid in this world ? " These 
words I have cherished in my mind as a sacred charter. 

See above page 349 


"ENTA VEDU KONDU RAGHAVA" (Saraswatl Manohari) 
I have reposed my faith entirely in you and believe, 
with joy, that the greatest happiness consists in seeing you 
irrone*s heart. 

See above page 349 




\%'% - 'ywmmFii' 

- ^ 

imm mim ? ffj %& ?ft^r » 


STigsft ii^fr sfrtt %- 

§5^. idwr .' ?wrc*f|<r 


g^5ft%sre s?ftf *ft iff 

aftgroi «n^T ^rg§ ?tf- 

*rf*ft 5?*5#^fe, Wit 

jft«a«R5^Pr *rer- 

<m lifer ^ ftfe; JT^qR: 

ff^fNr %fr «n site • 

*r*s srMSri&r, ikfm 

#sng ^qfa *rf?rqfe 


sn^fofc ^ q^w?§f 

*% 1WT3, THTW<Tr 

WWSpfJ* 5ft $^g^ 

^S*l«tii, *?ito3»- 

Wl# fiterg %T TOT ! 

<^5 feftriij, ^fhrm tf*r .♦ 

TOTCWRW l Ql$$mi ! 5RTT- 

W* %gsi%3 ««f * f^stfr 


^ra&sf % *rara 5%, 

%W ! ififa ifta>- 

Visvasa — Abhaya 477 

sfWlfe \W&% ®]*m 

tt RAMA RAMANA " (Vasanta Bhairavl) 

Oh Lakshmipatl! Is it a burden to you to protect me ? 
Oh the best of men, the matchless one ! Are you going to 
tell me that there is not enough manhood in you to 
shoulder it ? 

I feel proud that you are peerless. Unlike ordinary 
people who fail to develop faith in you, being ignorant of 
the secret of your greatness, I have significantly heard and 
understood your glory. I have accordingly sought refuge 
in you so that you may take me in your hand and bless me. 

As a result of my inner awakening, I have declared 
before common folk that in you they will find the Supreme 
Being that protects all, and have proclaimed with unchal- 
lengeable authority your glorfes. Pray, uphold with mercy 
the truth of my words. I implore you and prostrate before 
you. Why so much hesitation in supporting me ? 

I am fully aware that you do not respond to pretensions 
and formalities. If I go to you in all sincerity in a forlorn 
condition to unburden to you without reserve my difficulties, 
why should you pounce at me like a puffed rice from the 
frying pan ? Listen to me 1 You have graced my house with 
your presence; and I am not going to give up your 
Japam and Worship. 


m^t fSgS&i * Hgrftwa a^sw ? (n) 

«fo& %ig tt% *% * 

sragr gr *s %| 51% 

§f* ^J?p ateg wmg 

rrr war swgft 337 &?j (^) 

#W %8§ fr^rr srsrctfe 

W$n &?r ? ?ai ! (q) 

Vfav&sa— Abhaya 479 

11 ENNADO RAKSHINCHITE " (Sowr&shtram) 

To infuse confidence in the people of the world that he 
will surely appear to dispel the darkness which enve- 
lopes it and remove their distress and inaction resulting 
therefrom, does not the Sun, cut of compassion, send Aruna 
to herald his advent and thereby cheer them up ? 

To delight the hearts of all good people who, feeling 
the want of water, eagerly look along the river-bed for it 
and to assure them that she would really bless them, does 
not the Kftveri, sharing their concern, send in advance the 
western wind and start the springs ? 

In prospect of granting Lankadhipatyam to Vibhishana, 
did you not magnanimously offer in advance, through the 
all-knowing Lakshmana, assurance of protection to Vibhi- 
shana who sought refuge under you, unable to bear the 
torments of the arrogant Rftvana ? 

Should you, in variance with your behaviour as detailed 
above, having once before favoured me with your grace, 
act in this manner now (withholding actual protection 
from me) ? 

wpA ' pns zfflw% ' 



^si 1 * %gwar 



fopro 3ft* ft% lift $ 

-*f5g« srfwrSRr ? $t jm i 



11 INNALU DAYAR AKUNN A " (Narayana Gowla) 
What is the matter that your Grace has not been made 
available to me all these days ? Pray, tell me at least now. 
From my childhood I have reposed my faith entirely in you, 
and in none else. In the past did you not faithfully stand 
by Sugrlva and remove his distress ? Did you not show 
him a sample of your prowess only to convince him ? Did 
you not put up with his failings, overlooking them, make 
friends with him aad vouchsafe to him in the end devotion 
to your holy feet ? 

Did I ask you to give me gold; wealth, horses and 
elephants and did I ever utter an untruth ? I have never 
forgotten you; I have always cherished you in my mind as 
my family treasure. 

I have always regarded you wholeheartedly as my 
father, mother and brothers; I have been worshipping your 
blessed feet with flowers. 



Visv&sa—Abhaya 481 

^ERW^fpt ! % ^t ftg 

IftfiWJ 5 OT ! ft) 

11 EVIDHAMULANAINA" (Sankar&bharanam) 

Won't you have the mind to bless me somehow ? 
However deeply I may consider the matter, can I find any- 
body except you to protect me who panted only for the 
worship of your holy feet ? Are there any Devatas who can 
protect holy people with mercy as you can ? I have always 
firmly believed that you are the friend of the distressed and 
have constantly prayed to you. Who is there who could 
live without your grace ? You are the witness of the whole 



3R13«3 T13 5 OT ^ ! (8?) 



SOTsw ! sagger i ifi- 


Oh Rama ! I am not a destitute. I have heard the 
ancients, well-versed in the Vedas, say that you are the 
Supreme. The silly folk of the world, seeing that I have no 
support of man, call me destitute. 


312 - *fa>*fSR> 3uft 

ftir wr §g WB5 (ft) 

wroifif <?^ %§% (ft) 


Oh Protector of the Universe! I meditate on and 
worship you alone* I cannot bring myself to approach 
others; You bestow happiness on those who do snana, japa, 
tapa, yoga, dhy&na, and samadhi. 



Visv&sa— Abhaya 483 

wwfo gpiT *fttft 

■w H *if^ ifefiH *rc %i?pi 

*ra<ra f*§ft %R5 sfttf (*) 

Oh Life of Sages 1 I have always reposed implicit faith 
in the lotus of your holy feet. You have broken the bow 
of Siva to put down the arrogance of kings. You have 
relieved Ahalya of the distress she had been undergoing 
in the form of a stone as the result of the curse administered 
to her by the wrathful sage Gautama. You have driven 
away the fear that took possession of the mind of Sugriva 
who was unable to bear the torment of his brother, Vftli, by 
gasting to the winds the body of Dundubhi, 


iwfe - 'fift^r 


3ifo $S3gf*# life ^% 


^spRER ! ?! %T cisfg ^{% 

From my early days, convinced that everything in the 
world is unreal, I have placed my implicit faith in you and 
you alone, Oh Rama! I have seen people learned in Vedas, 
SSstras and Puranas stand bewildered at the undeter- 
mined religious controversies. I have seen people roam 
restlessly performing Yagas passionately for worldly 
enjoyments. I have come to the conclusion that unless one 
obtains your grace, one cannot thrive in life in this world. 

See above page 20 

Realising the futility of seeking protection of all and 
sundry, I have reposed my entire faith in you. Pray 
protect me. 

See above page 20 

Visvasa— Abhaya 485 

*. *wr ftss ?Tii% ^^ros-wag ^3 $3 (*) 

v. 3s*$ §ft *r«t 1*31135 flteftf $3 W 

^ sfowjp «bw wftj «*5*ra ftg (*) 

*. *Sf « wwwpt-twiHrt <fl53«r ftg (i) 


Oh Jewel of Raghu race I Would I allow myself to be 
deceived without reposing my faith in you. Who would drive 
away from my mind all evil propensities, and make me 
regard wealth, family etc of the toy house as not my own, 
and would free me from restless and ceaseless births and 
deaths, giving quietitude to the senses by your charming 



^3 srfN 35$ sftegtf (?) 



Oh Lord of the Universe ! Is it possible to say more 
than this ? Am I a stranger to you ? 

Just as water is essential for the sustenance of lotus, 
faith in you is imperative for my life. To me you comprise 
the earth and the heaven. 

Mine is the life reposing faith in you just as the Ch&taka 
bird eagerly longs for the cloud. I have been keeping my 
sinful heart in ardent expectance of you. 

Just as the lily 'blooms at the sight of the moon, so do 
I on seeing your charming face. 

Your grace is my royal fortune and to be full of you is 
the highest happiness. Oh Raghava, Tyagarftja's fame is 
that he is yourss 

*mt ! fed tfeRQ fifrrgn far ^ 

«B%, W?3R«fh fax 

Narma—-]tfarma»8tuM 487 

^Ifd«ra i asrc s fa) 

SWOT ! #et ! WFT- 

qfjRR^TO5RJW ! «ft fa) 


Oh Rama ! I have relied only on you ; you are the 
embodiment of grace and compassion. Pray, protect me 
and bless me with devotion to your holy feet 




(playful liberty with Lord) 


(praise playfully expressed) 

ft^oS 'sTctw 


^SRPW facfJR qfa? 

sft *ffi3 f!t^6 # W 


V fofc 5TO55 ^€Rf WlW 

ftl$ Ss«t (* HaW^) 



\> m sit #r *f3*#* %- 

3. Tift* sd^s !jjj% ?rr gfe ?i 

" S'lTA NAYAKA " (Riti Gowla) 

Oh Sit&nayaka! Protector of refugees! Raghukula 
Tilaka ! 

Have you got upon the mountain unable to bear the 
worries caused by destitute devotees ? 

Have you run away to Sri Rangam and comfortably laid 
yourself down there, to prevent devotees approaching you 
with harrowing appeals ? 

Have you started going yourself abegging of Bali 
Chakravarii, seeing that you are likely to be troubled by 
devotees by begging of you ? 

Have you joined the company of monkies to keep out 
the devotees who, attracted by the beauty of your person, 
rush to you to have your company ? 

Have you stolen the sarees of the G6 p i Sj seeing that 
Kuchela (in tattered clothes) is approaching you for help to 
remove his poverty ? 

Narma^Narma-Prarthana 489 

Have you become the blessed Lord to protect me with 
a melting heart, truly realising my condition ? 
I have now understood your real nature. 


(Prayer playfully expressed) 

" KULABIRUDU " (Devamanohaji) 

Sri Rama ! Save the family trait of your Solar Race. 
You are the prop of all the pious souls of the world and of 
the Dev&s. You are pervading the Vedas and Agamas. Do 
not do unbecoming acts. You will earn for yourself eternal 


i- tfr ^i^ i swum I «ft*RS* 


sils'S %*# <Ti§geJT fa- (^) 

^ft i^<4 %fR^5 »hpit 

9ff3I *fti3 #Ff*3 *TTf% 

Oh Rama ! What boon shall I ask you ? I could not 
have even the privilege of worshipping and meditating 
upon your holy feet. 

The determination not to give up, on any account, the 
task of carrying out the work that you think of, nor to give 

Ufarma — Narma-Prartham 49l 

up your blessed feet themselves, has become the monopoly 
of Anjaneya. 

The supreme happiness of looking after the welfare of 
hosts of your devotees, and doing it as well as you wdfild 
do, has been appropriated by the youngster — your brother 

The ecstatic loving devotion which longs only to hear ^ 
of your glories, which desires ever to chant your holy name 
and which seeks to see diligently the footprints of your 
blessed feet on the earth, has become the sole possession 
of Bharata. 

The rare fortune of incessantly serving you, knowing 
fully and following closely the trend of your mind and 
giving up food and sleep, has exclusively gone to Laksh- 

The bliss of identity with you, transcedin^ body- con- 
sciousness, discarding evil tendencies and realizing you 
always in the heart as the Lord Himself, has been solely 
reserved for Sita. 

I shall not ask in this life for the comforts of this world 
or even for the status of Indra. If the royal path of Devotion 
is vouchsafed to Tyagaraja, that will be a real triumph for 



*|*rasft u^s ^ri% ft- 


a| ! ommga xm (?) 

" BADAUKA DIRA " (Ritigowla) 
Oh Lord of the Universe! Saketa Rama! To get 
refreshed pray, lay yourself down in the lotus of Tyagaraja's 
heart after cleansing it of impurities of sin. Moved by 
compassion at the distress of Brahma, you took your birth 
in the Solar race, went to the forest with Site, killed 
Maricha in the form of deer, conquered the wicked 
Rakshasa, Ravana, gave Lanka to Vibhlshana of firm faith 
and afforded protection to the gods. 





Narma — Narma-Prarthma 493 

nHI ft?q ?II%e5 %^ 


J tfi sift: %p s#$ ^ni 

7% 111 iJfo ^l|^ ^T 

P 5Rq ifa ? %&$ ; 


nftftpaRR ! OTHWgg ! 



Oh Sri Rama ! Pray, tell me what^way is there for me 
to follow ? Where could I go ? Had I been like Ramadas, 
Sita Devi would have spurred you on to go to rfry succour. 
When Ravana and his reserve forces were destroyed by 
you, Trumurties were superbly praising you, while I on the 
other hand gave you only a faint praise, considering you to 
be only a king*s son. How can I, therefore, expect any kind 
and considerate treatment at your hands ? 

5fi sfcss flft iferc fcn ? 



*re *m& mas 



Oh Rftma ! Having heard my plaintive appeals, should 
you forget me among these worldly rustic people ? Did 
my appeals appear to your mind as sharp weapons like 
Thomara and Nar&cha? Still you are the redeemer of 
devotees of their sins. What heavy bribe did Gajendra give 
you, what did Draupadi give you when her modesty was 
about to be outraged in the open court ? You are known as 
the over alert one, the protector of the good and real 
devotees, specially of those, whose devotion is heightened 
by their knowledge of music. 


TOfir vftps 5ff^«i% wft <$■%?[ ? &m$$ ft) 


I do not know why I could not get your grace when I 
pray to you helplessly. 

Probably you will show mercy to and protect one, if he 
had wealth at his command. In the past, you protected 
Prince Prahlada, though he was the son of your inveterate 
enemy. But when I have clung to your holy feet with true 
devotion, did it ever occur to you to bless me with a boon ? 

Narma — Narma-Pr&rthana 495 



^Rkgs?*, fissure 3*5*1? (*i) 

% % qrwtahp wfc sfa# ? (v) 


Oh Ramachandra ! Why does not your grace come 
to me ? When I" call you with affection and love, why should 
you not come before me ? 

Can the reason be fatigue of forest life, anger on Kaika 
or my own sins or want of your capacity ? Can it be in- 
dignation at your having been called a woman,, or the 
starvation forced on you in the past r or forced cottage life, 
or my misdeeds ? Can it be false friendship ? Or, are you 
vexed at my very sight ? 

Is it fair that I should be teased like this ? 

mm i *iot i 

496 tyagarAja kIrtanas 

i. sfttigs *f*3* *ra§ tff 5 (*i) 

*. % ^ sirs ?n-f|fsr sa<cg factor ? (m) 

v. $55 to& gspr ! wr$* ft«%fi P (w) 

i ^srifai .» &m& %?f ! gpi (?n) 


I cannot myself get rid of my sins, and you will not 
have the mind to destroy them. Has your store of mercy 
been washed away by the ocean. Is your arrow broken in 
the battle-field ? Have you left off in the forest your truth- 
fulness ? Having taken a human form, superb though, have 
you lost your divinity ? Pray, protect me. 


flit^fw g^ara ! g^gor fir- 




*# 5$^ afore •' ft- 
*. gifer !«?^f% ^i*r 


Narma — Narma-Prarthana 497 

3nffrf% &?!§ si5rqrf*r 

3?g% 9f^iA 5 aft *ra ft- (*r) 

V §3ft %$ ^ ^afewr t- 

3?t? 5jpr ifpt ; 

<^ t^$ ; eft *w ft- (*r) 

snfir ! 3fe*rre ! # ot ft- (*r) 

11 ADIGI SUKHAMU " (MadhyamStvati) 

Who has enjoyed pleasures by asking you for them, Oh 
Primordial Power and Lord of the Universe ? Destroyer of 

Sita, who was so closely attached to you, had to go to 
the forests. 

When SurpanakSr expressed her desire to marry you, 
you had her nose cut off instantaneously. 

When Narada wanted to know the Lord*s Maya, he was 
himself transformed into a woman; 

When Durv&sa asked for food, he not only lost his 
hunger, but became dull with a full stomach, loathing food- 

When Devakl desired to enjoy the plays and pranks 
of a son, you let Yasoda have it. 

When gopis desired to have you as their Lord, you 
made them leave their own husbands. Oh! What a 
mystery ! Your ways are now clear to me. 

You yourself must take compassion on me. 



(Remonstrance playfully expressed) 


#5 - '^M^f^' - ^[R 

**• ^g^i $*3 src^iTg sn-^fe «ft^^r ? 

§g iAw i *iv (<?) 

% *F *T?r ? ^T^T P ((J) 

V 3^ c 3 3«5 ^fi355f gfere-% ^f&RT 
^3%$ f?f^5 ^i^jgf 
%T*f, «ft sfprjst SfcF ! (q) 

u EDINI BAHUBALA * (Darbar) 

Have not the troubles of the pious and the devout 
reached your ears and set you indignant ? Should you not 
in response to their piteous cries stop your Yoganidra and 
show them your face (to comfort them) ? Are you not aware 
that low men have begun to indulge in unrighteous conduct ? 
Oh Lord ! It is enough ! Stop the fearless depreda- 
tions of these men. Your true devotees are panting to see 
you. The world has not seen your martial prowess in action 
for long: Have not your shining bow and arrow become 
hungry ? Have they not been blood-thirsty too long ? Is 
this a matter for disputation ? Do come soon. 


Narma — Lllavarnana 499 

(Lord described playfully) 

11 ETAVUNA NERCHITIVO " (Yadukula Kambhoji) 
Where did you learn this drama which you enact with 
Sit&, Lakshmana, Bharata, Satrughna and Anjaneya ? For 
what purpose are you taking all this trouble ? Did your wife 
ask of you diamond ornaments, or did your brothers and 
parents want food ? Did your pious devotees invite you ? 

(His own claims & qualifications) 

See above page 293 

" BHUVINI DASUDANE " (Srlranjant) 
Well-treated or ill-treated by my compeers, I have 
held fast to your blessed feet as my sole refuge, Have I 


uttered anything false in the great desire of being your 

servant ? 

See above pages 292—. 293 

See above pages 290—291 

" NIVE NANNEDA JESITE " (Sowrashtram) 

If, knowing # my mind, you yourself abandon me, to 
whom could I appeal ? 

I have taken a resolve that I should always keep the 
company of the pious and the good, and chant Thy holy 

See above pages 291—292 



<u aft <i% m a*sg fqg tfcift 

pg*3 «rttefta *m m* ^ (n) 

\. «sr s*n=i*3 jn-w *?ta$ftr$ 9fg 

Svayogyat&kathana 50l 

^fa ^^fffeft-sft cwnw d g fa) 

" RAMA NINNU VINA " (Sankarabharanam) 
Rama ! I don't see any one else but you who could 
protect me. I have been regarding you at heart ' as my 
father, mother, brother, and my very God and have been 
seeing you in everything. I have been cherishing to you 
deep devotion, which saves people and vouchsafes salva- 
tion. This, Oh Lord of Lakshmi ; I solemnly affirm in your 

Great men in the past have worshipped you in the 
Satvic way. By following that path, I have understood the 
truth that you alone are the means with which to cross the 
ocean of Sams&ra. 

Worldly-minded people look at your true dovotees 
with feelings of envy. They will ruin themselves if they 
abuse you. You fulfil the desires of devotees. I have 
accordingly approached you and sought your refuge. 



%. wife* %m?w ^cf l%5? ^f^nflter (*r) 

v». ssri^r *reg%f^r ftj-?^ ^crtff^r (sr) 


Oh Redeemer of the fallen I How is it that you do not 
talk to me, nor show me even a little of your grace, though 
I endure any amount of distress, though I weep and cry 
aloud, though I study much, though I meditate on you 
much, though I serve you ardently, though I love you 
much, though I earnestly entreat you to come, though I 
represent to you my condition, though I fix my mind in you, 
though I offer worship to you, though I act in accordance 
with your dictates, though I see you and sing in praise of 
you, though I subdue my arrogance, though I instal you in 
my heart, though I hold you fast, though I abuse you much, 
though I keep myself always around you, though I take 
shelter in your feet, though I speak and sing of you, though 
I implore you much, though I praise you, though I desire 
you fondly, though I take refuge in you, though I slander 
you, though I fight with you much, though I understand you 
well, though I gain wisdom, though I see you and get 
enraptured, though I know the real significance of your 
holy name, though I prostrate before you, though I allow 
myself to get into your grip, though I pine for you much, 
though I feel I am entirely yours ? 

Oh Ocean of Mercy i Come to me quickly. 

Svaybgyatdkathan a 503 

*ro $mm im m wr u*r swr 

wi«lft to 5jj% $*g sr| *w ^) 

V. *fa Sifting <S5flsre| *R 

" RAMA SITA RAMA » (Balahamsa) 
Oh Slta Rama * My mind feels as though snakes had 
coiled round it. Pray, have mercy on me and take me by 
the hand. Just as a chaste wife delights in serving her Lord, 
my mind rejoices to celebrate your festivities. Pray get 
them done by Tyftgaraja and be happy. Just as a 
creeper twines round Kalpa tree, my mind is inseparably 
attached to you and will not leave you even for ages. This 
is the nature of Advaitic realization, real detachment, 
and salvation itself. This is the essence of the Vedas. 





filWFRf 331335 tc (err) 

biff* iirwE iw*[ ira*? *r% (w) 
<*. sit ot % ^^§fel% bipre 

sft$ 5ft gi^fir cfe T§Tt% (an) 


ip* ift5 wc-^gaa qpsftrfir (en) 

*ft <n5 5*5* 3^ ^ft w (an) 

<rfefe <ri*N5 ^5f5j-^r fiNRg (am 

^ s^ §^5 &*?$3 9°& 

#fof% «nftfilr Sgg-s&fe * *mg (an) 

iraflr s^ ftfifefe sfT- 

srcg%8 *ft-qia §fe ?ftf|% (air) 

^3 *fcg «fM^3 *ro 

*?«5£rc% StwRnpw 3tfe%tf $ (air) 

Svayogyatakathana 50S 

^qtfsrfSr m% affair? q. 
% ^srsr gorgg *nft% *m 


Oh Rama I By installing your holy t feet in my heart 
and meditating upon them, I have become blessed and am 
enabled to swim in the ocean of Eternal and supreme Bliss. 
From my early days, I have been praying to you. I have 
abandoned the company of bad people ; and I have resigned 
myself and my honour to your care ; I shudder at sins ; and 
I have set at rest all the flaming passions of my heart I 
have driven away sex desires and I have realized that the 
only salvation for human existanoe in this age lies in the 
efficacy of your holy name. By constantly repeating this, I 
have dispelled all worries. I have put down my Rajasic 
tendencies. I have taken to your Japa in right earnest. I 
have found by discrimination that worldly comforts are as 
fleeting as the wealth one comes across in & dream. I have 
by prayer and meditation clearly understood the ways of 
your Maya. I have become enchanted by your beauty and 
have been caught in your net by ceaseless love. I have 
spent all my years in humble dedication to you; It is not 
possible for either Brahma, Indra or Lord Siva to give 
expression to what they actually realise. That experience is 
beyond words. I have no hesitation in saying that I am 
blessed and it is the result of my accumulated merit* I am 
sure you will not regard me as a stranger, 


W ^1^ fof^ fetf 5 ?rarc$ (^) 



jflififr « ! njsrwc ! «13 (?) 

Oh Destroyer of fears ! This is the time to bless me 

with your grace; I have sedulously carried out your behests 

with all my heart and steadiness; 


'prtfif %*rr *T?tg swrr (q) 

sfiwgsr fig ^if i§r *r (*) 

11 MANAVINI VINUMA * (Jaya Narftyani) 
Oh Repository of Supreme Mercy! Captivator of 
Devotees 1 hearts ! Pray, listen to my appeal. This is no time 
to forget me. Imbued with the intense desire to have your 

Svayo gyat&kathana 507 

Darsan, I have banished evil thoughts from my mind and 
have been lovingly singing your glory. I have never enter- 
tained thoughts which will be injurious to others, but only 
those which do good to others. 

*mi$ tim^ntit dwfir fa) 

ttfc iteg^i fc$ rf%m tfar fa) 

"RAMANANNU BROVARA* (Harikambhoji) 
Oh Rama ! Beloved of the world ! How is it that you, 
who are reputed to abide lovingly in all beings from ant to 
Trimurtis, do not come to protect me? I have not borrowed 
money and become indebted, to gain the approbation of 
people, nor am I given to wrong ways out of haughtiness. 

safcftf - m*&&' swift 

*I 5TRP ! ITS ^ I 

*fa&sq3r 3T vrw* fa 




$® mi® ft$ mmwm (*) 


Oh Raghunandana of kingly charm who dwells in the 
lotus-hearts of Parvati, Hanuman and Narada ! Pray, cheer 
up my mind. Have I not consistently regarded those pure 
devotees, who instal you in their hearts and keep constantly 
meditating upon you, as the greatest of beings, and have I 
not been worshipping them wholeheartedly ? You alone 
can remove my distress. I cannot bear it any longer. 


(His trials) 

(see also under Roshokti) 

snfH% 5 8ft mm \ (si) 

$t?k$R sctf& wigs 

*• %#r 3§^p> ^PHSrjj (^^) 

V «H sre crafts? *ta» %& 



Bhakta Sodhana 509 

35 H iI ^W *ft (OT) 

TT^m 513RT ?Rfrft 35fe 

i^rg* ajg 3oot (to) 

%l^T?r to si *ft*5g (ot) 

wrist Jtepg *FFT%?3|- 

355w5 TOS %£ ^ (OT) 

wftwr sir <jsr *it¥t 

smncrsr 33f 3cRi3$ (*re) 


Oh mind ! Sri Rama, belying the precepts he himself 
inculcated for treading the righteous path, has carried out 
what he wanted to and evaded coming to me, uttering 
words as suited the occasion* He similarly subjected Devaki 


and Vasudeva to a number of trials. Without fulfilling the 
heart's desires of the Gopis, he taunted them. He 
(Paramatman) would always make women pine and bow to 
hinii He would, posing himself as the child of Yasoda, 
allow her to please herself by kissing him and would smile 
at her. 

Though he was a lover of devotees, an embodiment of 
all virtues, and an eternally stainless one, when I was 
eagerly expecting that he would free me from the troubles 
of Kali age and wfien I was praying to him, chanting his 
glorious names, he evaded me without protecting me. 

He appreciated and lovingly accepted my worship as 
being typical of a good devotee. He without coming to me, 
merely advised me not to be put out and not to seek the 
company of the godless brood and counselled patience in 
times of tribulation. 


(Exhortation to Mind) 

SOT '^id' 





?% m ^ ^kj 


Manas-Sambodhana 511 


Banish all evil mentality; Take care to see the really 
charitable one. Oh Mind ! Have you not heard the wise say 
that each gets results according to his desires ? Meditate 
constantly on the Eternal Truth that Sri V&sudeva is every- 


%*% aft vm I H^3Pf IT ^ &% * (fg) 

vsftffik fn%T-3$ qhara %^ (fl) 

«gH *F3R ^ ; w-cqrorcw fRftft (ft) 

11 VINAVE OMANASA " (Vivardhani) 
Oh Mind ! Listen to my appeal. I am making it clear 
to you. Do not knowingly indulge in bad ways and get 
ruined. These ways will not serve you. They won't bring 
you the Lord's Grace. Do Dhy&na and Bhajana. 


»prei «ffog6r ^^b fnii* ftw*rft ? (t) 


Oh Mind ! Why is this sudden disappearance of Sri 
Rama's grace ? Have you raised an impregnable wall of 
sips around me and spoiled all my efforts ? Have you turned 
wicked and roamed about, hankering after other peoples' 
women and wealth ? Have you tormented other souls ? Or 
have you forgotten Sri Rama himself ? 

See above page 7 

Have always in your mind Sri Rama, the conqueror of 
Maya, and worship him. 

See above page 8 

sro ! ^s#i;^ ! m -ww 3#iit ? aft (*r) 



ft*3 ^IS sft* *ftg 9t*fos ? gor ^ (??) 

^fe^ *rsr*r crr?rcr jpigs t^iR; ^feftr 

%$% wrong ra-ffa&B ? spift^r (*r) 

Manas-Samboclhana 513 

w MANASA ETULORTUNE " (Malaya Marutam) 

Oh unworthy Mind ! How can I bear this ? Pray, listen 
to my counsel. Why are you heedless of my advice that 
you should always spend your days in worshipping Sri 
Rama, the ornament of the Solar Race, in all humility and, 
that, instead of wasting time in associating with people 
swayed by R&jasic and Tamasic tendencies, you should 
follow the easy and profitable method to attain salvation, 
which I have been urging on you ? 

STO5 fcK% mm I (S) 


sus^t ^g tft ft* m 15*18535? iftftft («) 

8FTORP *J§3 *W5P 

otto* sfftft spr (s) 


Oh Mind ! Do not be inattentive. This is just the time 
for you to seek the company of the virtuous and the good 
and enjoy thereby real happiness; This is the time for you 
to overcome fear and learn the secret of Bhakti-M&rga and 
realise the immanence of the Lord, the Protector of the 
holy and the pious. 




5% *T3*ft vfa^grt (e^j 

v, mfon&ft g^dfe fas £reg 

sifan Srafrnfen («fty 

*v Brogg^Fj Sing g- 

esg ^FR^-f qnre ^ 

1 1 Wgft fafsiq ^gft q^fa 

Manas- Sambodhana 515 

«**. TOOT srefft wgpft ^C 

*l$3 l| Hftft (#) 


Oh Rama i Are we not your dependants ? Do you see 
any fault in us ? Is it too heavy a task to protect us ? 

Oh Mind ! Listen to me, aim at and seek salvation. 
Regard it as the best course. Know the secret and signi- 
ficance of the various karmas. 

Worldly men will assert that theirs is the only path. 
Don't follow it and get deceived. 

It is easy for me to move on the beaten track, like the 
bull going round and round the oil crusher. Of what use 
is such*a course? 

While in that situation, don*t give up principle and 
truth and be decieved. 

There is no other way. See in solitude the Eternal One 
and the Doer of all deeds. You will be redeemed of the 
sins of your previous births and will be blessed with 

I am thinking of the Lord, but his mind is somewhere 
else— I don't know at whose instigation. 

When I am praying to him, studying fully his disposition, 
he would neither look at me nor talk to me. 

Could it be probable that my worship is tainted with 
anger and miserliness ? Or, is the Lgrd testing me ? 


I will not give up devotion to the lotus feet of the All- 
merciful One, nor give up hearing of him* 

It is enough if I have a darsan of Sri Rama, whom I got 
as the result of my worship in previous births— the con- 
queror of desires, the model of rectitude and the embodi- 
ment of all good qualities. Why need anything else ? 

I would ardently love the Lord Vishnu, adore his holy 
name and conquer death. 

With this victory I shall secure Tyagaraja*s King of 





q#r «% gja% *rag &ft 


M$HIM *flS3 *W^% f TO 

«B'WPig& ii^fnisf 



%n g^rg *ifts ? 

ffcpngr ^ ^ ? aft iro t 



<ntnc % s?wr sflfl fnr 



iRF ^iRsr *Rf^iq?f 


Mangala&h&am 517 


Oh Mind ! Anyway try to have devotion to the feel of 
Lord Vishnu without becoming attached to the illusory 

Why should you have pride of learning ? Why should 
you subject yourself to ignorance ? Why should you not 
have the resolve promptly to enjoy the presence of the 
Gem of the Solar Race in Ayodhya ? 

Are you ashamed to chant the name of Rama ? Is it 
improper to do so ? You do not give a reply. Are you 
suffering from a wound in the mouth ? Will it bring you 
glory, if you act up to the wishes of women ? Fool ! Trust 
not the body.- It is but a water-bubble. 

Wealth and enjoyments will be yours, if you associate 
with genuine devotees. Meditate on Tyagaraja's saviour. It 
is the remedy for the disease of Samsara. 

(Pronouncing blessing on the Lord in his devotion) 

M - 's^sfif* 





ssjrerag* tag*««ft *ssftf% *w 


. fctips *%** siplf $nw, «- 
ffta f&r ^mi^r ^i* ?fo IM {K) 


w RAKSHA BETTARE " (Bhairavl) 

Let us protect our Lord in whose bosom shines Lakshml, 
with the Victory charm. 

Let us protect with prosperity-charm our Lord who 
shines with the divine Sita as His spouse, our Lord who 
appeared with mighty arms to protect Indra and other 
Devas, our Lord who has his abode in the heart of music- 
loving Tyftgar&ja. 

(Expression of gratitude) 


qftiitfSt qfipm i£*Jg 

gfogfo irgsi& ti$ige 


Oh Rama! Is it possible for me to repay my debt to you ? 
To my heart's content you have made my glory shine in far- 
off countries* 

Anubhavas & Bhaktiprakaras 5l§ 

Realizing that secular poets, devoid of devotion, are 
unable to grasp the important and real significance of your 
Swarupa, you have *come down to the world and blessed 
Ty&gar&ja, with the inspiration and the capacity to compose 
divine songs that confer temporal and spiritual attainments. 


(Forms of Devotion) 

Darsana— General 

dfe^ TOT ^STg ^Cft 

* KOLUVAI " (Bhairavi) 
To get rid of the effects of our Purva Karma, Oh 
devotees, let us all go and have the darsana of Sri Rama, 
in his court shining with Kodanda in hand. With attendant 
paraphernalia and with the golden hued Sltft by His side, 
H§ shines like moon with Rohinl. 



'www . - qpirf! 

*ro 3OT www ^^i^g ^# (*j) 



^fRgipjdt *jftr ^3 sftcn (u) 

u RAMA KATHA SUDHA " (Madhyamavati) 

The drink of the nectar of the story of Rama, who had 
come down to the Earth with Sita, Sowmitri, Bharata and 
others, will secure for one a kingdom. 

It will ensure for one, all the four purusharthas. It is 
the abode of courage and bliss- It will serve him as a craft 
to cross the burning ocean of Samsara. It will destroy all 

(Bhajana, Namaklrtana) 



qriOT §§z%\ ? til m* i (q) 

Kirtana 52l 


11 ELAVATARAM " (Mukhari) 
For what purpose did you incarnate as Rama ? Was it 
to make war, Oh Raghava, or to rule over Ayodhya ? Was 
it to enable yogis to have your darsana, or to save people 
who suffer from the disease of Samsara ? Was it to grant 
boon to Tyagaraja who had made for you a garland of gems 
of Kirtanas in various ragas ? 


3psj§?lo5 - 'flq^ffl' 




w& Hfti^38p wro ? %<r 



^55^ #3§*T3-%fe 3*3$ gjj^f 35R 



11 TAPPAGANE VACHCHUNA " (Suddha Bangala) 
The moment the Lord's grace fails one, he will surely 
be subjected to troubles. Bhajana done with the object of 
gaining others* approbation is bound also to bring one 
trouble. Similar will be the result in the case of Bhajana 
done for earning money, clothes, ornaments, provisions etc 


q*st$ m*$t *resi ! (q) 


W$f3fa% 5 «ft ^T *T3R (q) 

qpra ifr| WRDW^fir ¥?src (q) 

" PARALOKA SADHANAME " (Purvakalyftnl) 

Sri Rama Bhajana conducted without the taint of lust, 
greed, annoyance, anger, etc, is surely the means for 
attaining salvation. 

Such a Bhajana, which Ty&gar&ja himself does, wards 
off fear, disease of rebirth, greed which is rampant in the 
world and the attachment to family and relations. 


SPr^s §l<3*fa-Ss<FC *s*m (g) 

ataro ! ^ftrfig sftcqpncrsig?f ! (s) 

u SUGUNAMULE " (Chakravakam) 

Oh Raghur&ma I Not knowing your wily ways and in 
the fond hope that you yourself will will come here, I have 

Smarana-Dhyana 52& 

been singing the glory of your virtues. I am not conversant 
with the practice of karmas nor with the Vedic lore, nor 
Dhyana. Oh Lord of Lakshml ! Pray, forgive me. 



Smarana, Dhyana 

w SRIPATE NlPADA " (Nagaswaravali) 
Oh Sripati ! Meditation on your holy feet is the very 

life and way to salvation to the bright-hearted Tyagar&ja. 
I am a forlorn being. Pray, remove my distress with 

affection. Have not Devas like Indra attained their status 

by worshipping you ? 



H 9 





%ft ^3 %feH «nft 


tfft ^ ^i^u^rgcr ! (t) 

11 MARACHUVADANA " (Kedara) 

Can I ever forget you, the father of Mad ana? Oh 
emerald-hued Rama i Don't think that I can. Unmindful of 
the cruel accusations of persons hostile to me, and even 
though Lakshmi be in my side, shower your graces 

Pada Sevana 

See above page 220 

" SRI RAMA PADAMA u (Amrta Vahini) 

Oh Rama's blessed feet! It is enough if I secure your 
grace. Come and make my mind your abode. 
See above page 220 

See above page 221 

" SANDEHAMUNU " (Ramapriya) 
Oh Rama ! Pray, clear my doubt. Are your holy feet, 
worshipped by Nanda, great, or are your elegant sandals 
great ? 

See above page 221 

See above page 483 

Archana-M&rtip&ja 525 

Oh Life of sages ! I have always reposed implicit faith 
in the lotus of your holy feet. You have broken the bow of 
Parameswara to put down the arrogance of kings of the 
earth, ' 

See above page 483 

Archana, Murtipuja 


flpfoaw - •rctftar' 


*K tftaRwft *r>h: ! 


sf(^5R!R ! $& %$x, *fft ! g»a 


i. sire 3?*s % sipr ^ *$ 

nwft& %qtt% ^m s sr* j 


*. «^f 352 ^reiRfe^i |fe ; 

sufhr fffinrei® f^ ; 


V ^15 sftt «i5KTng ^ ; %- 

^ ii%^re ? sft <qin^ra%?[ 


u RARA SITA " (Hindola Vasantam) 

Oh Lotus-eyed one, do come before me and give me 
a kiss. I shall hug you to my bosom* I shall dress you well 
with golden clothes, beautify you with Kasturi Tilaka and 
brilliant pearl necklace ; I shall serve you with love and 
regard, and shall affectionately sing to you with my mind 
fixed on you. Who is there for me but you ? 



[$W - '^R' 



^a«mt *wrca ^ 133 ; ^ m i 



%&%&& g^fcr src- 


#5f*W55*W, m 





*r*N fig^jp §f% 



IgSm qft??65 I^NJ ff% 

sift §*&% $^t 3ife 

sife^gi w^Wi^ifir fife 


" CHETULARA * (Kharaharapriya) 

I shall decorate you with my own hands so beautifully 
as to elicit the admiration of even Brahma and other 
devotees and enjoy the sight myself; You will have golden 
anklets for your feet, high class golden clothes for your 
dress; your tuft will be decorated with sweet-smelling 
p&rij&ta flowers ; your loins will have a girdle of golden 
beads ; your forehead will be bedecked with a pendant of 
gems in the shape of the sun ; your frontal tuft will be 
encircled with precious pearls and your body besmeared 

Svagata 527 

with sweet-scented sandal paste. So made up to my heart's 
content, I shall kiss you and hug you to my bosom. Saras- 
watl will come and fan you then. In that exaltation I shall 
ejaculate w well-done ", w well-done ". 

I shall thus cut asunder all my bondage. 




OT^rf^ «fir ^erfesFig (I) 

*oi q^f^ %3 ^ %*TJ (|) 

*• ftf ^j *ftft ^I ^8^5 

«r zmm *$& S| 9S^ (I) 

tt HECHCHARIKAGA" (Yadukulakambhoji) 

Oh Ramachandra ! Come ! Come in state, duly 
heralded ! 


You are yourself the father of Manmatha. Come with 
your shining golden crown, precious ear-ornaments, with 
the jingling of your anklets, to the delight of sages like 

Come with your pearl-necklaces dangling, with Brahma 
and Indra praising your glory, gently ascending the steps 
set with precious stones, listening to the music of Tina. 

Come with the singing parrot on the hand of your sister, 
who has come to §ee you, with the celestial beings strewing 
flowers at you, enabling Tyagaraj to enjoy the grand and 
gracious sight. 

3)11 - '*RKfW 


TO $w&&, wr«no'i%a ! qi- (si) 

" ARAGIMPAVE " (Todi) 
Sri Rama ! Pray drink this milk. Accept this offering of 
butter and milk made holy by the touch of Slta, and the 
delicious Chitrannam and cakes to cater for the six varieties 
of tastes. Partake of them in company -with Sita, brothers 
and other Bhaktas. 



i$w$m ' f^rss %*$ ' 



f^g sml, *r§ fN^nrc^ 



gefirairc %fcr £f%-*if 3^33 cjsfo to& 




1% VIDAMU SEYAVE" (Kharaharapriya) 

Pray, accept the p&nsup&ri and do not discard me. 
Accept this with all the spices, as from the hands of Slta 
Devi, whileLakshmana, with all his royal dignity, holds the 
gem-bedecked spittoon in hand. 




sr&T sft<nte g*i«* * (3) 

feragg * «wrn5-ftwifirst *ftg (5) 



u TULASI BILVA " (Ked&ra Goula) 

Pray, accept affectionately the worship and archana 
of sweet-smelling Tulasi, Bilva, Malli and other flowers on 
the various parts of your body, which Tyagaraja does always 
without worldly attachment. 


ww aafta - ' g®# ?552^r ' 


a*ft^»% *ratog«n #5 


WTOf%WRS5-«RlfRg% ^5^3 

3R#E[ 3WT ^55 qras $$£?$ 

^frc **%$! sprtost §*jg«5- 

^%^^Wqfeg j ^Tcgft$I%3- 

3OTSR sfftTgfa fltwron* 3§ft 



M TULASI DALAMULACHE " (Ma y amalava Goula) 
I have often and for long been cheerfully, worshipping 
the holy feet of the Lord, the Dharmatma, with TulasI leaves 
and occasionally with various sweet-smelling flowers. 

Songs on TulasI 


Songs on Tulasl 531 

" DEVI SRI TULASAMMA " (Mayam&lava Goula) 

This is the time for you to bless me. 1 Oh Redeemer ! 
Gods like Brahma and Indra have attained their greatness 
by using you in their worship of the Lord- 

Sankara, Vishnu and other deities will not accept any 
offering which is not purified by you. 

Without you, water will not be lf Tiriha ", but mere 

Without you, Sri Hari could not be equally counter- 

Without you, the Lord would not merit the appellation 
%% Vanam&li ". Who is your equal ? 

t *%fr * *raw ^-erwt ? mr.^str ! («ft) 


%jmm %^ ^H^rar 

w SRI TULASAMMA MAYINTA " (Devagandhari) 

Oh Mother Lovely Tulasi ! Take your abode in my 
house. Who is your equal in this world ? Come with the 
Lord in hand, adorned with high class gold jewels, clad in 
lace sarees, with graceful looks, and spelling prosperity. 

Come, adorned with pearl-necklaces dangling on you 
surrounded by damsels praising you, and by sages and 
rulers of the globe in all directions praying to you, while 
the Lord looks at you with love. 

Oh Protector of Tyagaraja, I worship you with all 
the sweet-scented flowers. 


*WT ! ScRig <*?§& 5fffcR5fFTW? ! (3?) 

Songs on Tulasl 533 

5 ftef ^313 *rft-*ft it^TOgg i& 

a*rat flrcg3g% stales C 3 ') 

" AMMA RAVAMMA " (KalyanI) 

Oh Mother Tulasl ! Pray come and protect me. I have 
always reposed my faith in your blessed feet. 

Knowing that You confer both temporal and spiritual 
benefits, Sri Maha Vishnu does not part with you even in 
his dreams. 

In view of your soft body, of its fragrance and of your 
glory, the Lord adorns his head with you. 



gssft srossffiw ! jttaimTynt ! 



g^i eqpnusnf^ etc: «rfs ifa? 



Oh Tulasl, mother of the universe, destroyer of 
sins! No gods can equal you in steadfastness. Pray, protect 


me. Your holy feet are veritable paradise for rivers. 
Your body is the abode of all angels ; over your head 
shines all scriptures; and your praises are sung by 

Other Upach&ras 
srercgsg 3#war, ^pncnraw i (s) 




SRfq^RrcT sfTOTSB ^fi?% 

^gf isrre ^ swrf^? 

\* sfti§ ^qgg n?ng ft* 
^cisr **Fms ^*Rg ? ott- 


Oh ! Sesh&sayl ! Pray, graciously accept my worship* 
You who run the show of the Universe and fulfil the desires 

Other Upacharas 535 

of devotees, you alone deserve the emblems of royalty— 
the golden umbrella bedecked with precious gems, the 
chowries as brilliant as the moon of the Sarat season, with 
golden handles shining like lightning and the fan of sweejt- 
smelling flowers. 

*. *w *i*rcft *rfe%^T fir- 
*. a&ft ^ft % $tfo%<?u w- 

%l LALI LALI YANI " (Harikambhoji) 

Oh Vanamali ! With profound affection, I rock you in 
the swing addressing you as the Lord of Lords, King of 
Kings; I deeply implant you in my heart ; passionately 
serve you, sing your praises and prostrate before you, 
realising that Bhajana alone is the path to reach you* 



wro <nrag wsntifte (s) 


ffas&r gpfc^g ^nftpT 

€R rag ^31 «ft wi (s) 

"UYYALA" (Nilambari) 

Oh Sri Rama who has taken the form adored by 
Ty&gar&ja ! Pray, enjoy the swing in the gem -bedecked 
hall with Brahma and other gods serving you, with 
pure-minded sages meditating on you, with bh&gavatas 
and bewitching celestial women singing, and sages like 
Nftrada praising your glories. You honour with your 
benign look the congregation of the people learned in 
Vedic lore and unfailingly bless those who have taken 
shelter under you. 




Other Upacharas 53t 

BlftfiSPf qigftft staT (q) 

r. anrcat f^ws^ $fef% fl- 
gfft 3lwr gsfir %:? 

gt*$ ^5$*t inpr tf ai- (<?) 

vfoz mm g#f% sft- (?) 


Offer Nirajara (H&ratl) to our Lord - the Lord of the 
universe, of sweet and mellowed speech ~ when he is seated 
on the golden-hued Sesha, conversing with his consort Slta 
Devi of radiant beauty. 

Standing on either side, let ladies with charming faces 
and shining ornaments offer the H&ratl to the delight of 
Devas and saints* 



Sift 5JJUt 33"^ ^f^ft («l) 

i . ?rfwH ^tfft a* gs % 

"LALI YUGAVE" (Nll&mbarl) 

Oh my God! Swing delightfully on the bed of 
Adisesha along with your brothers and Sita. While she 
offers you betel and nut for the chew, the kings of the earth 
and Ty&garaja adore you. 



^If^ROR - '^R^R^' 


xn sfftmatfe 


3»5S sr^iw Jig $tg atfe 


1* *nf% §fg?3 sife stawig 
ire snRpj ^ife 

Other Upacharas 53§ 

3* 3?3vn sife $*rǤ q^r- 
•* *pnftft safe 

" RAMA SRI RAMA w (Sankar&bharanam) 

Oh Sri Rama, enjoy the swing on the Adisesha and 
bless me! I shall rock you singing. I shall worship you in 
solitude and ever feel happy in your presence. I shall 
offer you cream, butter and milk. I shall spread jasmine 
flowers for bed and give you tender betel leaves. Oh Ocean 
of Mercy ! Glance at me and place your feet on my bosom. 


%5^ ««rft fisa^fir *3 rafter (I) 

Sfcapr ffl!R5«g *teft 33 ^^ (l) 


11 PULA PANPU MIDA " (Ahiri) 

Oh Perfect One ! Pray, rest well on this bed of 
jasmine flowers, after drinking honey and milk and chewing 
delicious pawn and after blessing me. Smear your body well . 
with the sweet-smelling sandal paste and accept the bed 
prepared according to Vedic injunction, with the satisfaction 
that the worship of Tyagar&ja ic genuine. 



sfi in *w w sft Hrasn&fgfor 

u SRI RAMA RAMA " (Gopikavasantam) 

Oh Sri Rama! Pray, take your bed on this couch 
jasmine flowers! I have been constantly praying for 

Other Upachards 541 

your advent. Come hand in hand with the goldenhued 
J&naki who worships you with perfect devotion. Ty&gar&ja 
will lovingly do puja to you. 



<Msg %«<rrog ?refa*ff wc&ot (^) 

^pqr iifan flsrag ^rife^T (%) 

" MELUKOVAYYA " (Bhouli) 

Oh SIta Rama ! Pray, wake up to protect the universe I 
Sages like N&rada are singing your praises. It is already 
day-break. Rise to partake of butter and milk. Celestial 
women are humbly praying for opportunity to serve you. 


The lights lit by siddhas, which have been shining brilliantly 
like precious stones, have become dimmed. Devas and 
kings are waiting to worship you- 

sfasfl[ - 'Wssifoft' - m*m. 



%§# ^ifrsft *t§# ?l$K«ft 



§g$l ^ENt-fojfawf %5 



%5prig wrcfttsft sfewg 

>0 ^3 



ircsift S3§ aw^i^wrg ft»5 

TOTOf 5ft gfiiftstdft dsspnfaw 



usrcF&if^ ftsn^wfifire 


"MELUKO DAIANIDHI" (Sowrashtram) 

Oh Lord of Mercy ! Rise ! It is time for the sun to rise. 
I am offering in a golden cup butter and milk. Pray, accept 
them and bless me with your benign looks. Sages like 
Narada, Devas, Brahma, and Lord Siva are waiting to pray 
to and serve you. Kubera and rulers of the globe in all 
directions have come to learn statecraft from you. 


ftfe - <tow' - soft 



Other Upac hQ,ras 543 

*33* q«ite wras *r«ftf% 

Wlft fiv fltflR hot %®% • (#) 

V *irogg *i%sngT tow 

OT?F&% ^TTO^R JJtfKft 

ttt *fta$ ftwft toSw 

^ftdft WW05 §91^ Wj {#) 


I have indeed the privilege of a seva which is not 
possible for even Brahma, Saraswati, RukminI, P&rvatl, Sltft 
and Lakshmana. I would, after early ablutions, sing the 
gunas of the Lord with Tambura and offer him milk to 
appease His hunger. 

At noon, I would give him a rose-water bath and offer 
Him delicious dishes and pawn. 

In the company of bhftgavatas, I would make Dlpft- 
radhana to the accompaniment of melodious songs, lull him 
to sleep in a bed of flowers and wake him up ne£t mprning, 

544 TYAGARAJA kirtanas 



«5# 55r®KT Slfe (^0 

atfe gprorfo wnfe g^i 



*. gefir ^w iij <pr n%^i 
gift staft sif www ft*s 

Vandana 545 

11 LALI LALAYYA " (Kedara Gowla) 
Oh Bestower of boons ! Pray, accept my worship ! You 
are the prosperity that graces the houses of those who 
repose faith in you. Is it a great thing for you to cast your 
glance at me ? I cannot part with you. Pray, protect me. 
You are my family treasure. 

I have decorated the brilliant mantapam and have 
installed therein a beautiful golden bedstead overlaid with 
jasmine flowers- Pray, rest oa it. I shall offer you 
T&n-bulam and I shall stroke your legs singing your 
praises. The shamiana over the bedstead is also decorated 
with flowers. While I offer you nazirs and rock you, Brahma 
and other devatas will enjoy the grand sight with delight. 
In the midst of your elation at the ardent service of your 
devotees, you are apt to forget me ; pray, have mercy tt on 
Tyftgar&ja and bless him ! 





vm\ m wptt iw (3) 

V aiteg *ife gtsg 3te5 

fcrai # Jhwr m (q) 

*• $«is % s ^ srag ftsr- 


Salutations to you, Oh Raghunandana who made the 
sea fordable ! Oh Fulfiller of devotees' desires ! Oh Giver * 
of Prosperity! Are you to hold disputations with me ? Am 
I a stranger to you ? Do you seek pleasure in this ■? Oh 
Indweller in the heart of Lakshml ! Is it a burden to bless 
me ? Is this a matter for bargain ? I have heard of your 
glory, have reposed my faith in you, have sought your 
refuge and prayed for your presence. I will not run away 
abandoning my purpose; I will not give up my devotion 
to you ; I am your own and will not beg of others- I pray 
that you may come to me, accept my Tambulam and 
bless me with boons and speak to me. Oh Rama 
whose glories are sung by sages I Is this fair ? Does 

Dasya 547 

it bring you any benefit ? Or, are you still feeling it deroga- 
tory ? Your name brings one prosperity, leads one always 
on the right path and is the abode of Divinity. Oh Ocean of 
Mercy who has made Tyagar&ja's heart his home, come 
quick ! 

W3 - 'S°§I%[3tf' - Sflft 



Oh Garudhavahana, having the Sun and the Moon as 
your eyes ! Sesha Sayana ! Lord of the Universe ! I Salute 
you. Have I reposed my faith in you for name and 
fame and for the approbation of people ? All the people 
of the place and the street (of Tyagaraja) are not of one 
type and temperament. Pray, take me by the hand and 
lead me on the right path ! 

?wn^t wwiht w^wM <ow$ (a) 


src^q" swnft fa) 

S^fcr f^r^r wRSr (a) 

3. for 4HycRT foqtRff 

His ^T 5TCR$ (<0 

^3 WII ^Rnft (a) 

V *R Wfte gfasRqia; 

qnc*rg €ffe ^rrA fa) 

w TAVA DASOHAM " (Punnagavarali) 
Oh Son of Dasaratha ! I am your servant. I have been 
seeking you. Pray, protect me and listen to my appeal! 
This is not the time to forget me. Convinced that there is 
no other God like you in the world, I have taken refuge in 

sqsrcg ^TOTRfr «wr (s) 

fOT|#!ft ^1 #|fr *&$% 5^1 ($) 

basya 549 


«ftw^ ^sgg Sift gsrrcft 
S^Fcigpg ^wf% ^rftr ;p(5ft 


Pray, do not forget me and refuse my services on the 
ground that there are others to serve you. In the hope of 
obtaining your grace, I have been singing your glory. 
True, there is Anjaneya to keep safe watch at the gate, your 
worthy brothers are assembled near you to do your bidding, 
and there is Sit& to cheer you when you are alone. You 
may feel that there is no need for others. 

§3 nHi ?te «g5 §3 ftsr (#) 

wrej srg 3S f^555 

" BANTU BlTI " (Hamsanadam) 

Pray, vouchsafe to me that I may serve you as a true 
servant who has completely subjugated lust, arrogance, 
haughtiness and other evil qualities. To such a servant the 
following are the insignia : — 

550 TYAGARAJA kirtanaS 

Haripulated hair is his armour ; the appellation, Rama 
Bhakta, is the metal badge of his livery ; Rama Namam is 
is his sword. 



5&g%f *fopg^ ig~ 


cf^^cf qg<^ $ ^fe% 

335$* 3§1% S*crfe!<[*T ; 

<J3TO3OT <Tf*f^ ; IVR\ I 

wgftqft OT^wgp 


" CHENTANE SADA " (Kuntalavarali) 

Oh Rama ! Pray keep me always near you just as you 
had with you the famous Hanuman and Bharata. I shall 
intelligently grasp your behests even as you think of them 
and carry them out with heart and soul and feel blessed 
thereby. There will be no need for you to give expression 
to them or repeat them. 



Sara&agati & feharanyasa 

m%m ffawa mm «fr ww i (m) 

Atma-Nive&ana 55l 

'SRT^R $^*T 35*5*? ftfc 

i?T siTOisr filter $33 (flrt) 

w MAKELARA VICHARAMU " (Ravichandrika) 

Sri Ramachandra! Why should I feel any concern, 
when you hold in your hands the leading-strings of all the 
dolls in the drama which you conduct so unerringly and to 
the delight of the whole Universe ? 

Hspwrrr - c ^ ^3 ' ~ ^nt^ 


n NI CHITTAMU NA BHAGYAMU " (Vijayavasantam) 
Oh Lord ! I am yours and your will is my fortune* 
Realising that it is ineffective to be brooding, I have once 
for all taken refuge in you; Whenever I see or think of 
other gods, I only see you shining in them. , Treat me with 



srwfip* ^^ *rfer «ir P Ml" (?) 

8TFRW: i «ft snraargct ! (?) 

"RAGHUNAYAKA" (Hamsadhwani) 
Oh Raghunayaka! Protector of refugees! Giver of 
transcendental bliss ! I can never give up your blessed 
lotus feet. Are you not the only being that can destroy my 
sins and protect me ? Unable to cross the ocean of Sams&ra 
and having suffered untold misery, I have taken shelter 
under you. 



snfc m% &i$*i eft ot 5 

US sf?l srwfcj? ; 3ft wr?£ ! (in) 


WH« ^ *nft VP& lf<Nr (q) 


won vss "SNft-wa ? ftair, gfe 

V&halya 553 

$R$$t ^rg 55315 5|li| ^firfe *$ 

Pray do not play false with me. I have not reposed my 

faith in you to please others- Have I joined the company of 

the wicked and wandered about arrogantly ? 

In spite of the opposition of my cousins I had been 

praying to you as your steadfast devotee. 

When a boy is teased by his playmates and accosted 

with insulting words like, ' Who are you, fellow ?* ' Stop, 

have you no sense ? do not the boy's parents come to his 

rescue, hug and caress him ? Do I not stand in the position 

of this boy ? Pray, bless and protect me. 

m m m sifo «ft m 

m in *sm sife (if) 



$*S #3 d?«* *ra (*r) 

S^$ wt*r §?<?* mt (xi) 

\. eftfe %fe* % toot wr 

5^3 ^33 *n fsj^sresn (w) 

*« 3*5^*1$ <dg %cT 8TT- 


^ *fi>m ®w w ftrtt wft 

%v$ sftg v*% *«rftft fa) 

i nw fig faftft *i- 

*ra «Wte" ci c 3^f^ wntftft fa) 

g?r ott& Stenuft wftw fa) 

TOT?te 5R[ w ^IcSt fa) 

v (fa $f 33 #?$ ^t- 

#fe 3I#8qt Q$Q$ fa) 

wftfa ^§qf% wrre W5 fa) 

n- gsgpr ^ *| %b *r- 

«Hg5T *n^f TgRI ^25 fa) 

*Rprat %rfa to&8lft fa) 

WWOT3? twr arftf* fa) 

u RAMA RAMA RAMA " (Sahana) 
Oh Lord of Lords, of unsurpassed beauty even among 
Devas, come to the swing ! My darling, my race treasure, 
you are the fruit of my worship in the past and have come 
down to the earth as the wealth of the Solar race. Why do 
you not come to me in a sprightly mood ? Tell me, are 
you hungry ? What is the trouble with you ? 

Avirdtia Sakti » 55 § 

Your playmates invited you for play. When you had 
come, they asked you to go away. They found fault with 
you and asked you not to come. 

They played the hide and seek game. They complained 
that you had eyes too large for being covered by the h«id. 
Why should my beloved's eyes, which are as soft as lily 
petals, be excited and reddened ? Lest they should close 
your charming eyes, my friends warned you not to go. Why 
all this trouble and perspiration ? Tell me the whole story. - 

Your hiding may be due to concert (about devotees), 
while their hiding may be due to their difficulty in facing 
your splendour. How is it that your pearl - necklaces have 
got entangled and how is it that your anklets have pressed 
on your legs, leaving a mark ? 

When I catch you with joy they surround me, crowding 
like birds perching on a tree (to release you). How did 
they call you ? And what did they take you for ? 

They have asked you to come as ** Sakshi " and enqui- 
red whether you are really God adored by Ty&gar&ja. 


Aviraha Sakti 

(Separation and Anguish) 


ifi - '^[fTO' 



tpf^iPi^ ? i®§ *? 

Ssif *& SJ^t ? aft u?ra ! 



trspg xtqgg ? f|q| SOTrffefit 

%&& wgs %fkw 




Stare! 1 * s^^^f wis 

jt^t fSfapr «^i ? anftft $ (4) 

" ENDUDAGI NAD<3 " (Todi) 
Where has he hidden himself ? When will he have the 
mercy to go to me ? Oh mind ! Why worry ? As in the past; 
the Lord must have hidden himself only for the purpose of 
protecting his devotees. Did he not, in days of old, out of 
supreme compassion, hide himself in a pillar for the sake 
of protecting Prahlada who had been subjected by his 
father, Hiranyakasipu to innumerable cruel torments ? In 
the same way he must have concealed himself now also* 
But where ? 

Did he not before, with similar solicitude, take his stand 
unseen behind a palmyra tree to protect Sugrlva who 
had been brutally belaboured by Vali ? In the same way 


Aviraha Sakti 557 

he must have concealed himself now also. Certainly, con- 
cealment must be to destroy the six inward enemies, Kama, 
Kr6dha etc., and to undo the evil consequences of my sins 
in previous births as well as to protect true and firm 
Bhaktas of the world including Ty&gar&j. But where -can 
be his hiding place ? 

" ENTAPAPINAITI " (Gowlipantu) 

Oh Rama! What a sinner have I become that the Lord 
whom I used to worship with ecstatic love is not with me 
now ? What shall I do ? How can I bear ? Having once had 
darsan of Sri Hari, the dispeller of all sorrows, can any one 
bear separation from him ? Having treated me before with 
affection, is he now set with a deceitful mind ? Was it 


ordered by Brahma that I should undergo suffering, aband- 
oning my hopes ? I do not find my beloved Lord. I have 
been regarding service to Him as my life's sustenance. My 
fate has come to this. 

* - '<5Rfttfi#' 



<pft ffi|sg% «ft w m 


x&fa Wft fcsft fcftsg 


lifefe aifefe igire T*tftfefe 



srs&qi sift *i %*if|ifs[ era^g 



Oh Rama ! My beloved Lord has forsaken me. How 
can I live and how long am I to endure it ? Has it struck 
your mind as fair to forsake me after treating me so long 
with endearing affection, embracing me often, and cheering 
me up ? The sweet words you administered to me and the 
way in which you previously took me by the hand and rid 
me of my troubles, have so infilled my heart that I have till 
now considered myself unequalled. 

Aviraha Sakti 559 

^3^5 m&>$ $t *m ft) 

cMte ^1% 3235$ ?ft^S5 (**) 

*. ^§^3 wig %ftr w 

w *rft«p&% igpiHte sift (*) 

%l NANNU VIDACHI " (Rlti Gowla) 
I cannot bear your separation even for half a minute. 
Do not leave me alone and go. 

I have found you just as a diver dives deep into the 
sea and holding his breath fast secures the pearl. Now I 
feel I have come under the shade of the Kalpataru from 
the unbearable heat of the sun. I have come by you, as a 
man who digs the earth finds pure gold buried deep. It is 
something like the breaking in of a hail storm in the midst 
of hot summer. 

Pray keep me well protected. This body is after all 
your property. 

%fo6rf*r w^ng *v& $mim fa £%) 



SW^fofa ^E^I SHSJ^T (^) 

%3§i siw% 6riift»n ift (^) 

#& »jft 3fefe n* *ft** K^i lit (*) 

CHELIMINI JALAJAKSHU " (Yadukulak&mbhoji) 
Oh devotees ! Kindly tell me if you have seen my 
Lord. I bow to you. He shines with bow and arrows in hand ; 
His eyes beam with compassion; to see Him is to get 
captivated by His charm ; He is an expert in holding 
conversation with devotees, understanding the disposition 
of their minds. Owing to separation from Him I am reduced 
much in body. My mind was lost in Him when I stood 
before Him. I am not in a position to give expression to the 
distrees of my heart. Pray, tell me the secret oi finding 
Him* I regard Him as my friend. Pray, help in removing 
my troubles. 


<mtfr - 'timmn' - mil 

1- TOTS* 3>g WTOgS 

\. wfefir *r$g *reiyi%gs (*) 

Aviraha Sakti 561 

*. v$3Fm *rr $ f *r *% («ft) 


<* *. qppn ^3 grwfcft ira («ft) 

U SRI RAMA JAYARAMA" (Madhyamavati) 

Oh Rama of captivating beauty ! Bless me graciously 
with your affection. Why do you not take cognisance of my 
suffering? When will you be pleased to talk to me heartily? 
When will be that blessed day when you will make me 
happy ? I cannot bear any more delay. Is your hesitancy 
due to my forcing my affection on you ? Can anybody have 
this happiness and blessedness anywhere else ? Can he 
have the vision of this beauty elsewhere ? Is it my faulty 
penance or have I offended you ? 

You are my prosperity. For whom is my beauty ? 
Separation from you even for a minute makes life useless, 
How many days can I spend without satisfying your 
mind ? My mind does not go after worldly comforts. By 
separation from you, my body has been reduced to half. 



Sit by me, remove my troubles and protect me. I beg you. 
I am in your hands, 

5?ra§fi qfti ($) 


ft| 3ri%fo 4ft $ iwr (£) 

ftSttg 3F*ft 

<*si ^slft sjr *mr (at) 

" ANDUNDAKANE " (Pantuvarali) 

Oh Raghava ! Swear to me in the presence of the sea 
that you will promptly come to me whenever needed. If 
you should forget me in the company of your chosen, what 
could I do? If you do not come when I want to have your 
vision, tears will roll down my cheeks in streams, my 
whole house will look empty and every minute will appear 

Kanta Sakti or Nayaka-Nd,yika (Madhura) Bhava 563 

to me a Yuga. When I get bewildered at your not respond- 
ing to my prayers, I shall be only the laughing stock of 
others and my life and devotion will surely get under 
demoniac sways. 


(Love Divine) 



w§3 $%%% mfe to^ (^) 

x. n^s 3fe «ft* *m #*r%ift 

3. %tft sift % dgOT ift- 

sftftm sig w ^*a (?j) 

^JBRf jH^S ^1 S°I^ft (^1) 

nfcj S^ WWW w* «ft (*t) 


Ram&bhir&ma ! I have been restless to get at you ; but 

you have not been compassionate to me at heart. What is 

the use of all this trouble ? The maid of my mind is in deep 

love with you, but you do not respond by taking her by the 


hand. While I have been serving you lovingly, your ways 
have been quite different. I don't know what my destiny is. 
I have provided for you a comfortable bed (in my heart) 
but you, without accepting it and thereby- making me 
happy/ are giving me trouble. While I have reposed 
implicit faith in you, deeming you as my sole refuge, you 
have been scanning me closely to find out my excesses and 
shortcomings. What is the merit in doing so ? 

You of your own accord should feel compassion for me 
and protect me. 

HfeTOlftft %$f *T$% <^ft tfcgg 5| # m QQ 

**lft 3Tfft% ^Fr TOSWft cR (%) 

%^ ^ %% ftqg (ij, 

11 ETI JANMAMIDI " (Varftli) 

Oh Rama ! What a life is this ? Why did I have it at all 

and how long am, I to bear it ? Life will be useless and the 

heart parched up, if it is not given to one to have frequent 

vision of the peerless and beautiful Lord, with shining 

Kanta Sakti or Nayaka-Nayika {Madhura) Bh&va S65 

ornaments and radiant face, and to have talks and embraces 
with him who has abundance of sense of propriety and 
love for music. 



afe ^faf ^fe 3tafJr *T%faR: 5 

" PALUKAVEMI NA DAIVAMA " (Puma Chandrika) 

Oh my Lord ! Why is it that you do not talk to me 
though I have always danced to your tune ? What is the 
reason for your being angry with me ? Is it fair that others 
should laugh at me ? 

My parents gave me devotion and protected me: 
others tormented me much. Knowing all this, how long 
are you going to keep quiet ? 



11 PATTIVIDUVA RADU " (Manjari) 

Having taken me by the hand, you should not now give 
me up. From my very birth, you have blessed me with true 
devotion and protected me, helping me to lead a respectable 
life. You have taught me how to discriminate between the 
permanent and the evanascent, between worthy and 
unworthy actions. # You have revealed to me that you are 
the absolute Supreme Being and have accepted me as your 

^fir ^fe ^ ! eft 9FNT ! (ST) 

11 CHANI TODITEVE " (Harikambhoji) 

Oh maid of my mind ! Go and bring quick my Lord. 
Seek him eagerly and lead him to me with due respect. I 
want to enjoy happiness for long with him. I want the one 
who has the reputation of redeeming the fallen! the disciple 
qf Vasishta who lived the life prescribed by the Vedas* who 

Kanta Sakti or Nayaka-Nayika {Madhura) Bhava 567 

surpasses in beauty myriads of Manmathas, who graces the 
heart of his devoted servant Ty&gar&ja. 

*m ws ^i*3 ^j ot33r: ! ^ (q) 

fcsft ^RrcRr smfa ^Sf (*) 

tot c^TOaft ^3 ^i 0*) 

w PALUKU KANDACHAKKERANU " (Navarasa Kannada) 

Oh Ladies ! behold how sweet is the speech of Sri 
Rama ; sweetness of sugar candy is nothing before it. His 
affectionate talk to his attendants in the Durbar Hall ; and 
his appreciative conversation with Tyagaraja about the 
merits of the dance and music of the celestial women and 
dancing girls* adepts in handling Sringara Rasa, are ins- 
tances in point. 

m*s sp&g* f^rcg ft) 

5£8 TYAGARAJA kirta^ as 

% lift flR*E flfcr (*0 


Oh Ramaohandra ! What else is there for me to aspire 
for when you take 'me by the hand and cast your benign 
look on me ? 

When my look and your look fit in with each other 
properly, who can know the happiness that I then will 
derive ? 

When you are there to indicate to me what is wise, why 
should I need other Devatas for the purpose ? 

If you do not take me by the hand, my forlorn con- 
dition will be no less than that of an unmarried virgin. 

Whom else does this royal demeanour befit but you, 
Oh the protector of Tyagaraja ? 





8P15 «ft$r flif sransr star 993 



qfircit sRSRifor gfa1% *#ra 9w?s[g 


v ^fesd *fl# *if*f isfoft *i&?fa snfe 
%fefe ste^ft ills sfeftft^ pj§ 


kanta Sakti or Nayaha-Naijika (Maihura) Bhava 58§ 
^k STTfe %?? % %fe ^fiftRra? (?) 

w&$ %%*?% ?tR: owtos 5 ^ (?)* 

11 DAYA SEYAVAYYA " (Yadukulakambhoji) 

Vouchsafe to me, Oh Merciful Ona your grace and 
a little of that joy, which the expectant Slta had on the 
assurance given to her that Rama will come, when she felt 
concerned at the incoming of the unwanted kings and at 
the doubt whether Rama will come at all ; the happiness, 
which Slta had, when Rama presented himself before her, 
while she, troubled in mind whether his absence might be 
due to his attention being claimed by other women like 
herself, was praying for his advent ; the pleasure which 
Slta derived, when Rama put up his full stature to her very 
eyes and drove away her mental torment that he with his 
small form might not be able to bend the bow of SiVa ; the 
high elation which Slta experienced when Sri Rama tied 
the M&ngalyam and took her by the hand- Vouchsafe also 
to Tyagaraja the protection which you by your deportment 
conveyed to the audience assembled at the marriage 
function that you would similarly bless all those who desired 
you as Slta did. 

fttpifr qt %fr lift* ify 



t**roft #*rg t^fir 

M 9m iwg %5pft (ft) 


*lH twr ! cSHRTSfgcT ! (ft) 

" CHINNA NADE NA ;/ (Kalanidhi) 

You have taken me in your hand from my early days, 
made me do service in a large measure and promised 
protection. I cannot understand why you should at a time 
like this waver whether to give me up or prop me. Pray, do 
save me. 



(Spiritual Experience) 


sfaw ! qi sftwrc i ft) 

^r^r s ? cr *Rcftrg* (§) 

*frft «&ft *j *3g%3 ^ 
iK ^ft PS* 3SRnfri 

Bhagavad Anuhhava-G-eneral 571 

11 NERAMA RAMA RAMA " (Sowrashtram) 

Is it an unpardonable offence on my part, Oh the 
prop of my life, if I had been forgetful in my mind for a 
short while ? The fact was that in my ardent worship, I was 
dazzled by the effulgence of your blessed lotus feet and was 
at a loss to know whether I should hug them to my bosom or 
press them to my eyes, and overpowered by Supreme Bliss, 
lost control over myself for the time. 


'f^HFWirc' - 



ftgEpfl SltiTFT ; !JR«WM ! 



Tlg^t WR$ qfll3W6fih*I 



^3 srang (jR^ng, mw§ »ra 



*Gwm qftijfos 5 Sfwias is 



^mflre ! ^rnft?? i pn»Ri3nnpT^ ! 



Oh the All-merciful One ! Lover of music ! Tyagar^ja's 
fortune ! I do not find happiness in anything but you, the 
Lord who sublimates my mind with bliss and makes the 
body thrill Even my senses find the object for their 
pleasure in you and in your various aspects-— your beautiful 
form, powers, your mellifluous speech and sweet conver* 




sift lift 5ft %5^qrgg (cf) 

*. SftnCT tf|cr eft *w ! 

*RlftWT §^¥f %mi- 

wip* 3ff$ ^f^fs (a) 

$t$ l 3JWNCF5rft3cT ! Wf ! 


Oh Lord adored by Siva, Brahma and other devas! 
My whole body becomes thrilled with joy the moment I 
contemplate on : (i) your divine sports like the one by which 
you allowed yourself to be bound to the mortar ; (ii) your 
qualities which transcend those of the Trinity ; (iii) your divine 
form which surpasses the beauty of myriads of Manmathas'; 
(iv) your prowess which removes the difficulties and distress 
caused by samsara ; (v) your life-history admired by Brahma, 
Rudra and other gods ; (vi) your holy name, which is the 
essence of Vedas* 



Bhaqavad Anubhava-General 573 

tf ^ % OT ft<w?gifo («ft) 


Oh Rama! Through your grace, I have attained 
eternal Bliss. Your physical constitution is of the essence of 
the Supreme Bliss of N&da. You are yourself sweet and soft- 
worded. Your ornament is pure musical sound and you are 
surrounded by the garment of sweet words of Ty&garaja. 

^wmm - 'fig for* - ww 


ftg frn Jimft *5 



$g«5$ ift s^cft srffcr gvrf% ; 13$ s 






*5 WS $3^ fiftr gsrf^ 5 w ! 
^3 ^fc ^f%^3 *t 3*r% 3 *w ! 

OTg ?fr*T q*?g 3fa 5 cqpncnrasrar 



" NINNUVINA NAMADI ENDU " (Navarasa Kannada) 
1 My mind does not dwell nor rest upon anything other 
than you, Sri Hari. My eyes ^re fully captivated by your 


beauty ; my ears are full of your stories ; my mouth feels 
blessed only in uttering your holy name ; Wherever I see, 
I see you and you alone ; to me even distasteful and deceitful 
words have become relishable. Verily you are the fruit of 
alfrmy penance and meditation. 


ftftft SsAsr wgft ufi zptt ife (fit) 

sfir ft^3 %^l 3%XPT (f?j) 

nr^a wpncwROTft (fit) 

Unerringly I have seen Sri Rama, who is installed on 
the hill, with his attendants vieing with each other in fanning 
him with flower fans and otherwise serving him, and who 
promised to give me salvation after five days. My body was 
thrilled and tears of joy rolled down my cheeks and I 
merely mumbled, not being able to give expression to my 


Bhagavad Anubhava-General 575 


wg«T *R #3^ bereft 

" NANU PALIMPA " (Mohana) 

Oh Lord of my life ! Have you come walking all the way 
to bless me, knowing fully the unexpressed secret longing 
of my heart, that to have a vision of your lotus-eyed face 
is the sole purpose of my life ? You have been gracious 
enough to appear before me with a body resplendently 
blue coloured, adorned in the chest with strings of pearls, 
with shining bow and arrows in hand and accompanied by 

f^5 ^ *3*iias awrftil 3i ^*rg§ On) 

SPnCflft ^Fflf 3mTw^*F| Oct) 

11 RAMA NIPAI TANAKU " (Kedaram) 
Rama ! I can never give up my love and affection for 
you* I do not know what illusion you have cast on me for my 


mind always to seek your holy feet, for my eyes always to 
long to see your beautiful form, for my ears always to pant 
to hear your holy name. All this is due to your grace. 

The words, that one utters daily, that you alone are 
father, mother, friend and other, wealth, gold, guru, and 
devas are my ornaments. 

Even when I enjoy sense pleasures my mind is well 
fixed in you- Just as it is when my heart is full of 
Brahmanandam. My love for you will never forsake me. 


^*H $3FOT$ft % (33) 

figfe&T, SIPHjarggft Slf (35) 

w KANUGONTINI " (Bilahari) 

I have to-day found Sri Rama, the Lord of Sri Sltft Devi, 
the gem of the solar race, with Bharata, Lakshmana and 
Satrughna doing service to him, with Anjaneya holding his 
feet, with heroes like Sugrlva singing his praise. 

3lfefo ^ §fa ^ \sg& ; OT f (^ r ) 

Shagavad Anubhavto-General 577 

11 SAMIKI SARI " (Begada) 
When my mind is fixed on my friend and protectee 
Rftma, I cannot bring myself to consider other gods or 
devatas as equal to him. There is no need for any thinking. 
Each one gets his own desires. If the Lord talks to me, that 
will be a wealth to me. To my eyes his form and his l^enign 
looks are exquisitely beautiful, and he also treats me with 

#rw%?: i *w Kitarc ! (#) 




" SITA MANOHARA " (Rama ManShari) 

I feel blessed to hear people say that I am your own* 
It is probably the result of my worship in the past, or it may 
be the effect of your own grace. It is not accidental that my 
mind is firmly ppssessed by your blessed form. I have 
been supremely fortunate in that. 

By your grace, pray, make me firm in my devotion, 
hold me always by the hand and protect me* 

SNflf ? gspq^d ? 33- ($) 


" ENTA BHAGYAMU " (SSranga) 

How blessed am I that have got you by my side ! Oh 
peerless one in the three worlds ! You have come close to 
me, spoken to me with affegtion, dispelled all my sorrow 

Bhagavad Anubhava-General 579 

and protected me in the same way as you protected the 
great sages of old by conferring on them the AnimSdi 


sct*I f^q^f ginger sfHfrg 
^c^-cf «q*g st&rt ^g 

H NI VADA NEGANA " (Saranga) 
Since I am your own, Oh Upholder of the universe ! 
Can I bear your separation even for a minute ? You are 
truth, you are eternal you are prowess itself in the 
battlefield. You are exquisite beauty, extraordinary 
strength, ever in festivity, I speak only the bare truth when 
I say that I am your truly devoted servant. 

<n$ m m qgsuwi *N% («ri) 


1 . $ftw?f*i1N #3i$Fgfa ^m 

m% tfira *&k tt^^t 5R53 (qri) 

580 TYAGARaJA kirtanas 

\. *TC§ $T$e5 $*ft $lfil fawn 

*$ Jfcpi^fa 3^3$^ (5?) 

*. 3i*r wr %% $gf *ra *?tag3t 

tt PAHI RAMA RAMA YANUCHU w (Kharaharapriya) 

Sing in chorus ' Pahi Rama Rama' (bless, Oh Rama! ) 
When, filled with affectionate devotion, I had darsanam of 
Sitakanta, he spoke to me endearingly to the delectation 
of my heart. At that time, Lakshmana smartly dressed 
stood by lovingly and Sri Rftma cast his benign look on 
him; while Bharata was then standing beside brimming 
with ecstacy, the Lord held him by the hand and embraced 
him ; when mighty Satrughna was absorbed in deep medit- 
ation of theommanifested, Sri Rama felt elated; when 
Hanuman with the true understanding of the Lord's mind, 
associated himself with the party, the Lord spoke to him in 
affectionale terms. 

When will it be given to me to be blessed with the 
grace of all these and to sing the praise of the Lord with 
deep devotion ? 

Bhagavad Ambhava-General 58i 

Should I be blessed with this, where is the need for 
the four Purusharthas, (Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha) 
or for Indra's status which by itself does not help one in 
Tmowing the^ truth? 

When will the Lord condescend to show Tyftgaraja His 
grace, take him by the hand and protect him ? 

T. ^3 ^ft* €fi£ §^3 

*ipw s^ara qfarei ch (%) 

*. *j to *j 5J1S ^$% 

wprnf^pppr tor 


Oh Primordeal one ! Blessed Redeemer ! I do not know 
as the result of what charity or sacred duty of mine, I am 
privileged to do service to you, to have your close company 
and your support and to worship you, keeping you in my 


lap. I feel I have really become your property. I have thug 
been enobled to enjoy real happiness. All my long cheri- 
shed desires have been fulfilled. 

spwjft ?roift-?Knpflr *ra (?) 

V fN^*T %wi *f 4fci «pqgg m (?) 

^ $3*far SH*<dl «^te ft<% qq (5) 

v. ^ior ItfJrfo ^c5 stefr IN^g *w (?) 

V snfef fe 5Pm?5r 3°w$3 *ra (?) 

^. aft OT*TOlft %fe«lf «ft% *W (?) 

11 DAYA RANI DAYA RANI " (Mohana) 

Let your grace flow to me. The bliss which I enjoy 
will be beyond description. When I think of you, my whole 
body becomes thrilled. When I have your darsan, tears of 
joy roll down from my eyes. When I embrace your feet, I 
forget my body. When you are by my side, worries abandon 
me. When the desire for you comes up in me, the whole 
universe looks a trifle as a blade of grass. You alone are 
the friend of Tyagaraja. 

writ* 3> %s#& *rr- 

ig fifciw ifir ft^r ' (a) 

Bhagavad Anubhava-General 5S& 


§ff ^ sts^I J^ite (g) 

#B to5 fag Sfclfft *?fl 

" TANAMIDANE " (Bhtishavali) 
You have been speaking to me with affection some- 
times and harshly at other times. I should only blame 
myself for this change in you ; there is no room for accusing 
you. I, too, had been lovingly worshipping you with 
flowers, but occasionally was angry with you and had been 
abusing you. 


ftfsnfe 3§ g?|d P ftflwg^ *m (fa) 

3TTO §3<Rf mi tfw i 

src$ %vm i wmw i (fa) 

wmraism i «sfara (fa) 

%t NINNUBASI " (Balahamsa) 
How do pure-minded ones bear a separation from you ? 
Oh Sinless one, the Best of devas, the All-merciful ! You 
provide feasts for all my senses ; my eyes delight in your 

S84 tyagaraja kIrtanA^ 

vision, my ears get filled with nectar ; my sense of hearing 
gets pleasing thrill, my mind happiness, and my body bliss. 





to ^ Tiff $t xm 


§f <$fftft sfcj aft *p? 


%a ?H»rrg #^ ?ft%- 


# 8f2^f^fir aft *w 


#5T gr^flfct^ aft ^W 


^•wft % g^tsri 'fit 
53% 5ft gifflftr aft vn 


*i&? iterator aft *ur 


5R25 ^piffet^ aft ^ 


%W %^g ^ffeft aft *w 



«J35| «H«ftf*ft aft m 


Bhagavad Anubhaoar-G-emral 585 

wrcpga ^for # tot fa) 

Oh Rama ! I have approached you in the faith that you 
are unequalled in the three worlds. Without trusting the 
people of the world, I have surrendered myself to you 
alone. I have always been regarding you as the God of 
Gods— my prop. I always believed that you alone are real 
and everything else is unreal. The moment I think of you, 
my body gets thrilled with hair standing on its end and I 
lovingly feel that I am yours. I have counted upon your holy 
name as the effective lion's roar to drive away the wicked* 
My mind has ever been conceiving new and beautiful forms 
of yours. I have realised that, in the samsara, relationship 
between members is unreal. All my good deeds I have in 
truth surrendered to you. Take my word as truth. Here- 
after at least, Oh Ocean of transcendental Bliss, enjoyed 
by Sankara, Suka and Brahma ! Pray, bless me. 

SOT - '^ra^' 




*w iciifft *e xm ?ftf *rt 


1. sg^sigf ft§ *rc§«T ^ttft 

ansp^i^ ^i^t 


\ g$3 i<rf«i<a *?t§3 gflifir tft 




WR$ ^Tc5t fa) 

dwft spreS! 1 fa) 

staprft sprest fa) 

wfaft epnat fa) 

sppcw ^nast fa) 

" RARA RAGHUViRA " (Atana) 
Oh Raghuvlra ! Merciful on^! Come with me ! Every 
day I visualise you in my mind and get transported with joy. 

r Iseea concourse of pious people praising you and feel 
elated and delighted. I have freed myself from all sorts of 
vicious sense pleasures. I have at every step realised that 
this is wisdom and felt happy over it. I have seen your 

- bewitching face shining with Tilakam, and pined in estacy. 
Avoiding the whirl of sams&ra, I have devoted myself to 
your service. 

TOW? - c ^#«ft*R' - qfa 

ww wig *ft <tks sfa (s?r) 

*rf&5? afar 5ftf srgg H53U (31) 

Bhagavad Anubhava-General $$$ 

<v $H 3tas[ &r sftj &jg 53ft 

iR?m 5iP5ft *re§ stag (ir) 

"NAPALI SRI RAMA" (Sankarabharanam) 

Oh my Saviour, Sri Rama ! This is the time to protect 
me; Pray, give me your holy feet so that I may apply the 
auspicious saffron tint. I have always believed that you are 
the fruit of the devotees' worship. Your exquisite beauty, 
which can be matched only by myriads of Manmathas, has 
firmly implanted itself in my mind. And I have consequently 
been passionately loving you. As an indigent man comes 
by a precious treasure, I have got at you and thus secured 
the privilege of serving your holy feet. This is probably 
the result of my past worship of you. Is it possible even for 
Brahma to understand you ? If you do not deign to protect 
me what other refuge have I got ? I prostrate before you. 
Pray, bless me soon. 

<pr*HtftRt*P mi <w- (%) 



*rRtwwt, wncwS^sc •' «ffaw ! w- (%) 

" ETLA DORIKITIVO u (Vasanta; 
When I have no sympathetic and loving friend any- 
where near me, how did I get at you ? Is it by the greatness 
oi your holy feet or as the effect of the blessings of the 
Great ones, or as reward for the pure music of mine ? 

T&d&tmyasakti (Advaita Bhava) 

m$ - '^taw' - soft 

See above page 503 

" RAMA S1TA RAMA w (Balahamsa) 
Just like a creeper twines round Kalpa Taru (the divine 
tree), my mind is inseparably attached to you and will not 
leave you even for ages. This gives me bliss as in advaitic 


See above page 503 

«ft wfgk m®[ fifaSfofe (5?) 

qwtcgi sfcncgf ijsfiss ^$g§ 
«Rftwc fogcgs flWific 53S 

Tad&tmyasakti-Advaita Bh&va 589 

" JNANA MOSAGARADA " (Shadvidhamargini) 
Oh the Perfect One ! Oh the immaculate, Oh the 
giver of perennial supreme bliss ! Now that my mind has 
been purified by the chanting of your holy name, can't you 
bless me with the divine wisdom which will enable me to 
realise that I am myself Paramatma, Jlvatma, the fourteen 
worlds and the species of inhabitants thereof and sages like 

%^m iff* Stfft * * m i Km (?) 



vwg* %b ^wrftl Sflpnft (?) 

1 3fl§3 SfRS 5 ^! ^S 2 * 1 

1?g§ *rc£r <ifc3bft ^Tg (?) 

Is there any bliss greater than this— to deem it suffi- 
cient to dance, to sing divine music, to pray for His 
presence and to be in communion with him in mind— 
tg deem it suffigtent to fgrget oneself, body and senses 


at the mere chanting of the Lord's name and to become one 
with him,— and to realise at the time of worship and medita- 
tion that He is the whole Universe ?— and this is admitted 
by all the Bhakta Goshti. 

See above pages 333—334 

11 SIGGUMALI NAVALE * (Kedara Gowla) 
Really, my heart is not after leading a worldly life like 
others. I have not realized in my heart that Thou art my- 

See above pages 334—335 

See above page 382 

"NIKE DAYA RAKA " (Nllambari) 
Will a Jn^ni who does not realize identity with the 
Lord/ but retains the sense of I and Thou, attain happiness ? 
See above pages 382—383 

(Music itself as the Supreme End) 

stag ^ ? gft* tftagsffiift tres (*ft) 

Ndda Ydga 591 

"MOKSHAMU" (S&ramati) 

Is it possible iot any but the realised souls to attain 
salvation ? Is it possible for one who is devoid of real 
devotion and knowledge of divine music^to attain salvation? 

Vital force contacting with fire produces Pranava (Om) 
and the Seven notes. People do not generally know the 
secret of Lord Siva deriving immeasurable pleasure from 
music of Vina. 



%T3 - ^RtW^' ^$Ufe 

sircPFT $$§ %®fak 5 eft *hst (*t) 

ftqitu ftfr 5* ms (*n) 

fl*3J3 §sRt tows 

cNfaq *TOIT {|^S§ 

Sankara, Narayana, and Brahma have attained their 
distinctive glory through Nadopasana and have thereby 
become the upholders of the Vedas. They even transcend 


the Vedas and fill the whole Universe. They impart life to 
Mantras, Yantras, and Tantras- They are free souls and 
revel in being experts in Swara, R&ga and Laya and live for 
countless ages. 

ift WOT «Jjg* qft*FPRT iSlWTft 

tfratg gqiRi^ ^ OTi^cig %feg ! (sit) 

11 NADA LOLUDA1 " (Kalyana Vasantam) 
Oh mind ! Attain the highest bliss, by losing yourself 
in N&da, which is associated with varieties of Ragas, them- 
selves the manipulations of the Seven notes, and which 
fulfils all righteous disires. The Trinity, all the gods and 
the great sages have followed this path. Ty&gar&ja knows 

See above page 35 

" VIDULAKU w (Mayamalava Gowla) 

I make obeisance to all those grest beings who are 

well-vef sed in the divine music of Vedas and of the Seven 

Notes, with Nada as their soul and dive deep into the ocean 

of highest happines. 

See above page 35 


N&da Yoga 


ft - '3I%W 


SIR? W* *itefa *- 

15 #r *?rcg ; *R ! * 


sft ' ! iwwf%?s ti»?r- 

l^cT a^cTpn^ 3 


4 f^ii*nf^ afMct $m 

iPR qjffnffiv &?t ? 

*#f% *FT 553JTp5 

ifcrfti «ft snrosigcr 


u ANANDA SAGARA " (Garudadhvani) 
Rama ! The body that does not float on the ocean of 
the ineffable Bliss of Brahman called Sangitajn&na, which 
abides in all the Vedas, is a burden to the earth. Have 
not the holy Trinity and other sacred persons worshipped 
it ? Lord of Lakshmi, sung by Tyagar&ja who adores 
melody and rhythm with true understanding ! 

See above page 112 

"SIT AVAR A SANGITA" (Devagandhari) 
Oh Rama ! One must be blessed by Brahma with the 
gift of Sangitajnana to be qualified to be a Jlvanmukta 
which is the goal of the Gita and all Upanishads, 
See above page 112 



See above page 107 

" SANGITA SASTRA JNANAMU " (Salaga Bhairvi) 
Music, when it has for its theme the blissful ocean of 
Ramakatha, is capable of securing for one Sarupya, the 
Lord's grace, glory and wealth. 

See above page 1-07 

See above page 108 

11 SVARA rAGASUDHA," (Sankarabharanam) 

To know and realise the nature of Nada, originating 

from Muladhara, is itself bliss and salvation- A true 

devotee, who has knowledge of r&gas, becomes a Mukta 


See above pages 109—110 

sn^rfaw - 'm mm 9 - ^sifft 

aJFTOfa ^tt«t $t*i m ot$w (v) 

ssifira *W9 ^t k m- 

w RAGASUDHARASA " (Andolika) 
The nectar of Ragas gives one the beneficient 
results of Yaga, Yoga, Ty&ga (Sacrifice) and Bhoga 

Nada Yoga 595 

(enjoyment). Drink it and delight, Oh Mind ! Ty&gar&ja 
knows that those who have knowledge of Nada, Omkara 
and Svara which are nothing but Sadasiva Himself are 
realised souls. 


^ xpt mm mm *$m (*) 


WrPFJ %feqs5 gf&sr (g) 

f^WT stoker: qft 

11 VARARAGALAYA " (Chenchukambhoji) 

People have been bragging and deceiving the world 
that they are great proficients in Raga and Laya without 
realising the significance of Svara, subtle Murchana and 
their variations. Nada, which emanates from the body 
is of the form the sacred Pranava. 


sfafor *frafarcw %% 5 eft 5r^^t ! («ft) 


*rft*r ^5 HPrcwapg (*) 

Oh Mind ! Worship the music which is dear to Sripati 
who moves among the seven Svaras and is sung by Ty&gar&ja 
who knows the glory that every melodious R&ga has incar- 
nated as a graceful form and with tinkling anklet carries 
on its enchanting dance. 

*ftfo« ww a 5 ^^ *$ra% ; WW («sft) 


" SOBHILLU SAPTASVARA " (Jaganmohini) 
Worship the beautiful goddesses presiding over the 
seven svaras, which shine through navel, heart, throat, 
tongue, nose etc. and in and through Rik and Sama 
Vedas, the heart of the Gayatri Mantra and the minds of 
gods and holy men and Tyagar&ja< 


Anubandha— Appendix 59? 

STfJFTCgs ft%g * (8j) 

3H3P <fafN ft ^ 

c133 ftfsnfo 5TCOT3 (3T) 

fiwffi *rf ft wifittr ftfir 

srasrs** isgs *ta^ (si) 



" Ask for favours, I will grant ; I am mindful of you at 
every step and I am overjoyed with your wonderful 
devotion* With love I shall grant you gold and wealth, 
wife and children and beautiful houses. Why do you 
entertain any doubt ? Why strain and emaciate yourself ? 
Killing all the atrocious Rakshasas and putting down all 
your difficulties, I will, with valour, and in a grand praiM* 


worthy manner, grant you the kingdom of Brahma and 
Indra. I cannot bear for a moment without presenting you 
gem-bedecked ornaments and horse-drawn carriages and 
elephants- I amTyagaraja's friend. " 



fas <lft *55 *w (?) 

If you delay like this, how long can I bear and what 
gan I do, Oh Rama ? Oh father of Manmathal If you make 

Anubandha — Appendix 5§ 9 

fun of me, will not others laugh at you, Lord of Sit& ! Oh 
lotus-eyed Lord ! Why not bestow mercy on me ? Why 
should you not make peace and come to me ? You are my 
sole life ; yol are the sole prop of my life ! Oh you of 
beautiful form ! Why do you not show mercy on me ? Whfere 
shall I go ? I am devoted to you but where are you ? Why 
do you doubt ? Where can you be seen ? What is the 
prestige you are standing on ? Am I not fit for being 
purified, Oh you who abide in the hearts of sages ! Why ' 
do you not appear before me, at leas\ now, in a loving 
manner to honour Tyagaraja ? 




te?^ mfm\ end 

■aft W: ntaftafl 

5FF53 ?T^ WIT- 

^TW gsRis ft^vr ($0 

M EASICCHEDE " (Gowlipantu) 
The kings in this Kali age are vainglorious in giving a 
pie to the devotees ; they have not cared for their future life ; 


they become merciless towards the devotees of God for 
they do not serve them. 

Oh Lotus-eyed one, destroyer of the sins of the good, 
and worshipped by Ty&gar&ja ! Which of these conduces 
toliappiness to the kings, — protecting the people of four 
classes according to the science of polity, or the Rajasic 
negligence born of the ignorance of the right path ? Do not 
the life-long devotees of yours enjoy happiness ? This is 
all your Maya. 

te<5 - mi fig 3f**R - 3*rf| 



*% iforfteft life 
^ ^% ^ig jps* 

Anubandha—Appendix 601 

ww=f ^ sritftj to- 
5hpnj «ft *m (*i; 

Oh Rama ! have we not reposed faith in you ? You are, 
the honey bee in the lotus-hearts of the Saints* Why this 
delay in coming to me gracefully? Why do you not show 
yourself to us ? Why this forgetfulness ? Why do you not 
make up your mind to protect us now itself ? You are the, 
protector of devotees. I do not know anything except that 
you are my refuge. Why don't you come before us and 
favour us with constant devotion at your lotus-feet? You are 
worshipped by Lord Siva. Our devotion to your lotus-feet. 
Protects us. Oh the prop of all sages ! Why don't you 
come always to our protection? You are the wind that 
clears the clouds of sins. 

Oh Lord dwelling in the heart of Tygtgaraja 1 It is not 
fair for you that I, without complete faith in you and without 
realising the worthlessness of Samsara, should suffer like 

m TYaGARAJA kirtanas 

#?t - m m wr - «nfit 

TR 37T 5TW 5?$ 

swrftat f^wftr #^g- 

ftarfo csn^ra 35^-g (*r) 


Oh my mind I How can I describe the saving valour of 
Rama's arrow, the arrow that killed the army of Ravana 
who desired Sltft ; when Lakshmana lay senseless on the 
battlefield and Ravana rejoiced and Indrajit exhorted and 
his hosts rose up to attack at that opportune moment, Rama 
aimed that arrow with the thundering noice of the bow- 
string, and saw his brother Lakshmana getting up with his 
senses restored. 




*flRsj; -Mangala 

v ^ng^nwgs ifftfti g*s*s (*ft) 

V ^1$ *fafts ^cJ*T3 %5ff I*) 

*. qf3n% h^#§t wg^f ('ft) 


11 NI NAMARUPAMULAKU " (Sowrashtram) 

To your Name and Form, may there ever be victorious 
Mangala ! 

To your lotus-feet held by Hanuman, to your chest with 
the dandling new pearl necklace, to your moon-like face 
with gentle smile, to your heart where Lakshmi abides, 
may there ever be victorious Mangala ! 

To your Name and Form praised by devotees like 
Prahalada and Narada, may there ever be victorious 
Mangala ! 

To your Name and Form praised by Ty^garSja, may 
there ever be, Oh lotus-eyed Lord, victorious Mangala ! 


to - 'wjitcgwbp? m 

ftfiNrcpr ^nftajpipr 

w KARUNARASAKSAYA lf (Ghan tft) 

May there be victorious Mangala, ever auspicious 

Mangala to the Lord of eyes full of com passion i praised 

^by Siva, with feet bright and exceedingly charming, 

"of incomparable personality, pervading all the Vedas, 

of acts praised by gods, the Lord of excellent vows ! 

May there be victorious Mangala, ever auspicious 
Mangala to the Lord of teeth like jasmine buds, praised 
well by sage Agastya, Lord M&dhava who supported the 
Mandara mountain, the father of the god of Love, the 
bestower of the excellent fruits that are sought after, formid- 
able to the foes of the gods ! 

Ma/ there be victorious Mangala, ever auspicious 
Mangala, to the Lord who is benevolent to the whole world 
who resides in Ayodhya, who is devoid of change, who 
honours merit, the Emperor who patronises Tyagaraja, the 
pure God who bestows the fruit of salvation ! 



«AS«ttl$ — Index of Songs 

an *?g§f 
sr^-f*t gag 

8119 ^g^ 


^»cf ^sf%5q 

258, 385 

Sagging $% 

wig vm* 


fsr lift in*. 

^a %% 
q§i* ^f%i 

Ipjp 3f%fNt 













<Pf 5[rf?t *re> 
qsri toss 


8, 172 
349, 475 

sit *raifira»r 

3^1 Slf Tit 

^3 $m% 

, 229 



74, 347 
113, 462 



3J5ffifS|r qft 






%f% ' 




gs&s $gqfe 


^aW g^Stf 




^°T sj;f ^ 


SflSfiT ^5T4TI% 


^Uf ifoFpft 




3J5&TT ^T55^t 




WW Sf^ 


^m nit 


^OTT <3§5 


! <TOJr^55pgr 


$3^ ^55^cf 



107, 133 

3Je5$ ^Nffi 


fa5Fn%*i 3fe 


efiM*T§°£ I^T 

254, 387 







qSHptt < T5pft^5T 






^fcel$ €?I 




%c wiWlro 




%feft% srasnaj 








srq 5Pr «ftaj *pr- 


fTOiwawra * 


sre *raran 



% 3r dtaran 





BR *fr3<T ^TO 




cTf^W cTOT 


S&fiflWS *CT 




#$ ftfarcft 


cTrrgfir ata 


ilSTO^ 15 


waft 'snftfar 


€tgtg*n* v^ptp^:) 


sr^nft ci^g 





$o& fcTW 


cifc? srfctfo 




cT«5% 3^% 3T 


^^rg ^3 ^ 


cT% ^?JS 




cm W«teWL 






firRt ^NNr 


ggg)[ sn^Vpft 





gsrcft ^ags% 


Jfg qife»T 




33 sfassg 


?fc #T1 II5C( 

88, 330, 393 

*m m affe 


%m %5 





JRT ffcf% 


atfe 5ts?rgn 


TO% tf € 


dft% %frr 




atfo j»3 3tRW 


Sffwi qrf^T 


?^g ^3'f 








WlPft «[TO* 




sp?3sft srg%& 


mfems ir^Mr^ 


?t skg^ 






5JPT «t5ft 



51, 187, 338 







Slftf ^3>siT 


iPf g*rcafa(«sg 


^iftft %i§sEtf5j 


5Hf§ Wfo%5 


^wcsft ftt ?ig 


sn^farcR % 




jfwife sit m 


Iff 1 * 5 



' 105, 142 



irot^csf $ft 




5JI J7ftl«if%PT 




qfos wr 


%it %sa*iT 




*ft[ wm 


5TTf^ gssrfa 


$m *n spfe 




fag i€*n 


ftsr^fl gag 




ftsrgi # irl|qs 


^FTfcT ' 




^1^ «r3* 




33% isi^r 


ftg fl*f 5?rR% 


5g% T<3iiTSt 


fof^rr §^g 









ft^T^ 3*5 


%m *urcw 



sfftfrr «ft *w 


ft^ Sftsiffawij 

20, 484 

W3 R*53% 


fe§ ^ ^ffcJT^T3^I 


r *% %<? *r$ 




<ri&f% frcft 




<?<?f| tf ^%g 


^ft% %fe*ra 




tf% ?$m 

382, 590 

<iR#B *rcg%3> 


5ft%^ €fsrc 


■rosta mm% 


*ftf%rig sir qranro 


TOf %OT 


sft^rag fiwag 

81, 340 

TOf sftfea 






$<?*? % w 

286, 573 

ifeirrg ifl 


sft^ *i?r 


Tficrraq qft«rrw 


iftc^r <a#*rr$ 


*fi:<8# wr 




qfifaRTOTf 5TT3T 




?g$*fir |wi 



483, 524 

Tg^fir <rfoOTra* 


iftlflTfa STT^ 


TSf 5W 

227, 567 

sft VSR *FFT 




sft 5J % 


71% WqTOTOT 




Tif| WOTS??* 


# «ife t*3 


7IT5 q*OTc3r 


?ft #5 t^53 


Tift *tf sfiXRTO 


% sita# 


«nt *tf ^ 


sft% Tift sriiw 


Tift ww 


sftt Ufa %fed 

290, 500 

qrft WSF5 


^%u f wis 


Tift Ufl^ST 




qtft *w ot 




tJ^TP5 'ft? 


stast^T *$& 


SfFBT^nV ft*w 




5iR««r fta^ow 


3K ifrw 


sin <?>% 


% Mf& 












ui%wt fifarcg 






^T% 3f[^=g 










THg &n 


ate *tt**ti 


snqra I^Rr 


¥J% flra#i% 

192, 282 

wra *sy*r 




jfran s<ra 

188, 247 

*¥|5R <TCs5%S 




¥|3R fo ISO 


ftif^r *nwi^ 





259, 338 

m$ qrfhsL 

7, 512 

g^s awjaf 


¥TWg?I 5TT 






33^ %fe333 



292, 499 



jqf^fa ^Nht 

211, 423 

g*r ra°r 


*R% 3F5$W 




srI^t figm 




jw«fi *rc gm**r 


% ^flta 




^ eflif 


**R*?I ilHwvsft 


Jt§# ^iftsft 


*FWT $ Tl# 












*h$ Sw 




5FT^S S3i#$3r 




4H*d TrfiiWT 




*KI Wfll 


gwg?n5 ! f 




arte*! sussfat 





tqft& ^ftf 


vfTVK W»r 




iRrof iijit 






vnvw vkq] 
mtm Km 

^w fig fi*n 
xm tffossta 

xm «t otw 

^ 3FT 3FT 

?:m *w ?ft (wspit) 




*ra qStvfites 



Km sflr Km «ife 



Km wrag 



im $tmm 



„ (i^ta) 

503, 588 


xm ^3 ^flr«i 






twiRmq *ws 



„ W^T 



TWift'tw *f*m 



?rc «tar 



*RT 1«tg#CT 



k\u nifirfe 



tci *ifa 






<3SJ°Ig *R5 



sfe% yt sit 



55tfe ^fl% 



Slfe 3R5^T 


140, 164 

arfe 55ifs?{% 



ssrarcr ^rH 

















*F?*3 l &^ 






«r *ks 









5^T5S5J 3Jtr*tft 






*mm fa& 




sftatf: *rffr 

fift fifo ft www 

aft wrictft 



35, 592 






























<**!«* 346, 440 
«ft *HPF5 455 

*ft iras^TW tTOfe; 

?ft" *ra*K»n 220 

eft tit Vw 

aft 5cw *ra *re (sftft) 
„ (qtfowras^m ) 

*m&ft fc*rg 


sg^rc ft?? 

sfarft ©to 




22J, 524 







112, 593 









108, 594 







Ada modi 




Adaya Sri 




Adigi sukhamu 


Buddhi radu 






Adugu varamula 


Chala kallaladu 






Amba ninu 


Challaga nato 


Amma dharma 


Chani toditeve 


Amma ravamma 


Chede buddhi 


Anandamanandam * 






Chentane sada 




Chera ravademira 










Anuragamu lem 


Chmna nade 





108, 133 






259, 385 



Appa Ramabhakti 








Atade dhanyudura 


Darini telusu 


Atta balukudu 


Darsanamu seya 52, 

187, 338 





Badalika dira 


Dasarathi nirunamu 




Daya juchutakidi 


Balamu kulamu 


Dayaleni bradukemi 


Bale balendu 


Daya rani 


Bantu riti 


Daya seyavayya 


Bhajana parulakela 


Dehi tava pada 


Bhajana seya 


Devadideva Sadasiva 


Bhajana seyave 


Deva Sritapastirtha 


Bhaja re"Raghuviram 


Devi Sri Tulasamma 


Bhakti bichchamiyyavc 

) 192,282 

Dharanu ni sari 


Bhaktuni charitramu 












Bhuvini dasudane 

292, 499 



Index c 

>/ Songs 




Enta papinaiti 






Dvaitamu sukhama 


Enta vedukondu 

349, 476 





Edi ni bahubala 


E papamu 


Eduta nilichite 


E Ramuni 


Etavuna nerchitivo 


Ehi Trijagadisa 




Ela deliyaleru 


Eti janmamidi 


Ela ni daya 


Eti yochanalu 




Etla dorikitivo 




Etula brotpvo 


Emani mataditivo 


Etula gapaduduvo 


Emani pogadudura 


Etulaina bhakti 


Emani vegintune 




Einidova balkuma 




Emi jesitenemi 




Emi neramu 


Evaraina lera 


Enati nomu 


Evarikai avataram 


Endaro mahanubhavulu 


Evari mata 


Endudagi nado 


Evarito nedelpudu 


Enduki chalamu 


Evarura ninu vina 


Enduko baga 


Evaru teliya boyyeru 


Enduko ni manasu 


Evaru teliyanu 


Endu kougalintura 




Enduku daya radura 


Eware Ramayya 


Enduku nirdaya 




Enduku peddalavale 


Gati nivani 


Endundi vedalitivo 




Ennado rakshinchite 




Ennadu jutuno 




Ennaga manasuku rani 




Ennallu ni trova 




Ennallu tirigeti 




Ennallu urake 


Enta bhagyamu 
Enta niuddo 




Enta nerchina 




Entani ne 


Ide bhagyamu 




Idi niku 




Idi samayamura 


Ika gavalasina demi 


Ilalo pranatarti 


Imenu galginanduku 


Induka buttinchitivi 


Indijka itanuvunu 


Inka dayarakunte 


Inka yochana ayite 


Innalla vale 


Innallu nanneli 


Innalu daya rakuna 


Inta bhagyamani „ 


Intakanna delpatarama 


Intakanna yanandamemi 


Intanuchu varnimpa 


Inta soukhyamani 


Inta tamasamaite 


Isa pahi mam 


Itara daivamula 


fvaraku juchinati 


I vasudha 


Jaya jaya Sri Raghurama 


Jaya Mangalam 


Je je Sitaram 


'Jnana mosagarada 


Kadalu vadu 


Kadatera rada 


Kaddanuvariki 113 






Kaligi yuntegada 255 








Kanakana ruchira 


Kanna talli 




Kanta judumi 




Kanugonu soukhyamu 169 
Karmame balavantamaya 70 

Karubaru 243 

Karuna elagante 163 

Kanmajaladhe 25 

Karunajaladhi 418 

Karuna judavamma 60 

Karuna judumayya 78 

Karunasamudra 353 

Karuvelpulu 210 

Kasichchede 599 

Kattu jesinavu 251 
Koluvaiyunnade (Bhairavi) 519 

(Devagandhari) 271 

Koluvamare gada 543 

Koniyadedu 461 

Kori sevimparare 93 

Kori vachchitinayya 298 

Koti nadulu 184 

Kripa juchu taku 396 

Kshinamai 189 

Kshirasagara 399 

Kulabirudu 489 

Kuvalayadalanayana 435 

Lali lalayya 545 

Lali laliyani 535 

Lalite Sri Pravriddhe 81 

Lali yugave 538 

Lakshanamu gala 266 

Lavanya Rama 222 

Lekana ninnu 246 

Lilaganu juchu 37 

Lokavana chatura 467 
Madilona 212,423 

Mabita pravriddha 83 

Ma Janaki 148 

Makelara 551 

Mamava Raghuratna 496 
Mamava satatam 188, 24? 

Index of Songs 


Manamu leda 430 

Manasa etulortune 513 
Manasa mana samarthya 241 
Manasa Sri Ramachandruni 283 

Manasa Sri R&nuni 512 

Manasuloni 346 

Manasu nilpa 174 

Manasu svadhinamaina 178 

Manasu vishaya nata 10 

Manavi nalagincha 177 

Manavini vinuma 506 

Mapala velasi 358 

Marachuvadena 524 

Marakatamanivarna 402 

Maravakara 225 

Mari mari ninne 443 

Mariyada gadayya 41 1 

Mariyada gadura 112 

Marubalka 41 5 

Marugelara 394 

Matadavemi 313 

Mati matiki 464 

Melukodayanidhi 542 

Melukovayya 541 

Melu melu 136 

Menu juchi 10 

Meru samana 226 

Mitri bhagyame 151 
Mivalla guna 260, 338 

Mofaana Rama 224 

Mokshamu 591 

Mosaboku 201 
Muphchata Brahmadulaku 49 

Muddu momu 219 

Mummurtulu 209 

Mundu venuka 395 

Munnu Ravana 356 

Munupe teliyaka 350 

Muripemu galige 46 

Nadachi nadachi 186 

Nadadinamata 454 

Nada loludai 592 

Nada sudharasambilanu 284 

Nada tanum 288 

Nadopasanache ^ 59 1 

Nadupai balikeru 7 

Nagumcmu galavani 265 

Nagumomu ganaleni 440 

Najivadhara 268 

Nalina lochana 167 
Nama kuswnamulache 105, 142 

Nammakane mosa podu 485 

Nammina varini 459 

Nammi vachchina 94 

Na moralakimpaveini 425 

Na moralanu vini 494 

Nannu brova 415 

Nannu brovakanu 289 

Nannu kanna talli 67^ 

Nannu vidachi 559 

Nanu palimpa 575 

Napali Sri Rama 587 

Naradagana lola 268 

Naradagurusvami 43 " 

Narasimha nanu 368 

Narayana Hari 5 

Natha brovave 244 

Nati mata marachitivo 386 

Nayada vanchana 553 

Nemorabettite 458 

Nenarunchera 274 

Nenarunchi nanu 295 

Nenendu vetukudura * 333 

Nepogada kunte 455 

Nerama Rama Rama 571 

Nibhajana gana 3 1 9 

Nibhakti bhagya 179 
Nichittamu na bhagyamu 551 



Nichittamu nischalamu 32, 340 

Ni dasanudasu 429 

Ni dayache Rama 286, 573 

Ni daya galgute 13 

Ni daya rada 362 

Ni 4aya ravalegaka 254 

Nidhi chala sukhama 3 

Nijamarmamulanu 420 

Nijamuga ni mahimalu 277 

Nike daya raka 382,590 

Nike teliyakapote 269 

Nikevari bodhana ^ 427 

Niku tanaku 468 

Ni muddu momu 227 

Ni namarupamulaku 603 

Ninnada nela 261 

Ninnana valasina 336 

Ninne bhajana 482 
Ninne nera namminanu 21 , ^S4 

"Ninne nera namniinanura 

(Pantuvarali) 484 

Ninnu basi 583 

Ninu vina namadi endu 573 
Ninu vina sukhamu gana 571 

* Nipada pankajamula 483, 525 

Nitya rupa evari 24 o 

Nivada negana 579 
Nivanti daivamu (Bhairavi) 204 

Nivanti daivamu (Todi) 73 

Nive gani nannu 264 

Nive nanneda jesite 29 1 , 500 

Nivera kuladhanamu 297 

Nivu brovavale 58 

Noremi Sri Rama 337 

Nrupalavala 193 

OhJagannatha 381 

Okamata 249 

Okapari judaga rada 304 

Oh Rajivaksha 354 

Orajupa 416 

Oh Rama Oh Rama 377 

Oh Rama Rama 436 

Oh Ramaramna 448 
Oh Rangasayi 75, 347 

Orulanaduko 325 

Fadavi ni 170 

Pahi Kalyanarama 273 

Pahi Kalyanasundara 342 

Pahi mam Hare 127 

Pahi mam Sri 404 

Pahi Paramatma 409 

Pahi Ramachandra 457 

Pahi Ramaduta 152 

Pahi Rama Rama 580 

Pahi Ramaramana 379 

Pakkala nilabadi 158 

Palintuvo 471 

Paiukavemi na 565 

Palukavemi patita 502 
Paluku kanda 228, 567 

Paraku jesina 344 

Paraku nikelara 453 

Paraloka bhayamu 16 

Paraloka sadhaname 522 

Paramatmudu 281 

Parasakti manuparadha 56 

Paripalaya paripalaya 176 

Paripurna kama 429 

Paritapamu gani 475 

Pariyachakama mata 384 

Patiki harati 537 

Pattividuva radu 566 

Prananatha birana 401 

Prarabdha mittundaga 321 

Proddu poyyenu 14 

Pula panpu mida 540 

Raga sudharasa 594 
Raghunandana Rajamohana 508 

Raghu nayaka 552 

Raghuvara nannu 206 


dex of Songs 


Raghuvira Ranadhira 


Rama Sitarama 

Raju vedale 



503, 588 

Raka sasivadana 


Rama Sitarama 

Raksha bcttarc 




Rama bana trana 


Rama Sri Rama 


Ramabhakti saSifajyame 
Ramabhirama (Dhanyasi) 


Ranidi Radii 


Ramabhirama (Saveri) 


Rara mayintidaka 
Rara nannelukora 



Rara Raghuvira 


Ramachandra nidaya 


Rara Sita 


Rama daivama 


Rukalu padivelu 


Rama eva daivatam 




Rama kathasudha 




Rama Kodandarama 


Sakshi ledanuchu 


Rama Kodandarama pahi 


Samaja varagamana 


Rama lobha mela 


Samayamu delisi 


Rama namam bhajare 


Samayamu emarake 


Rama nannu brovara 


Sambho Mahadeva 


Rama ninne namminanu 


Samiki Sari 


Rama ninu nammina 




Rama ninu vina 


Samukhana nilva 


Rama nipai 


Sanatana paramapavana 


Rama nisamana 



221, 524 

Rama nivadu 


Sangita jnanamu 


Rama nivegani 


Sangita sastra jnanamu 

107, 594 

Rama niyeda 


Santamu leka 


Rama pahi Meghasyama 




Rama Raghukulajalanidhi 


Sarasa sama dana 


Rama Ramakrishna 


Sarasara samaraika 






Ramaramana bharama 




Sarijesi veduka 


Rama Rama nivaramu gama 275 

Sari vedalina 


Rama Rama Rama (Mohana) 447 


Rama Rama Rama(Sahana) 


Sariyevvare Sri Janaki 


Rama Rama Ramachandara 




Rama Rama Rama Napai 


Sarvaloka dayanidhe 


Rama Rama Rama Sita 




Rama Samayamu brovara 


Sasivadana bhakta 




Sattaleni dinamu 




Siggumali 33^ 






Sukhi yevvaro 


Sitamma mayamma 


Sundara Dasaratha 








Sundari nannindarilo 


SitaVara sangita 1 12, 593 

Sundari ni divya 


Siva Siva Siva yanarada 
Sive pahi mam 
Smarane sukhamu 




Sundari ninu varnimpa 




109, 594 




Talachi nantane 


Sogasuga mridanga 




Sogasu juda tarama 


Tanalone Dhyaninchi 


Sri Ganapatini 




Sri Janakatanaye 


Tanavari tanamu 


Sri Janakimanohara 


Tanayuni brova 


Srikanta niyada 


Tappagane vachchuna 


Srimanini manohara 


Tappi bratiki 


Sri Naradamuni 


Tattva meruga 


JSri Narada nada 


Tava dasoham 




Telisi Ramachintanato 


Sripate nipada 




Sri Raghuvara 347 


Tera tiyaga rada 89, 

330, 393 

Sri Ramachandra 


Tiruna naloni 


JSri Ramadasadasoham 


Toli janmamu 


Sri Ramajayarama 

Toline jesina 




Toli nenu jesina 


Sri Ramajayarama (Varali) 




Sri Ramapadama 220 : 




Sri Rama Ragburama 


Tulasi jagajjanani 


Sri Rama Rama 





Sri Rama Rama 

Upacharamu jesevaru 






Sri RamaJ&ama (Saveri) 




Sri Rama Ramasritulamu 




Sri Rama Sri Rama Jitarama 450 

Sri Rama Sri Rama Sri 





Vachchunu Hari 


Sri Tulasamma mayinta 




Vadera daivamu 


Vandanamu Raghunandana 546 


Varalandu koajg^ni 



Varasikhi vahana 


Venkatesa ninu 



Vidamu seyave 

Vidhi sakradulaku 

Index of Songs 




35, 592 




ana 546 












Vinave manasa 


Vinayakuni valenu 


















Yuktamu gadu 































































14, 15 

SPTTwftriteRf^ 5 






^■*$ *n- 





TWirRtPfcr %3raHra3T5fS6 









itfel *R?#5ft 




























9, 10 











































sfarra m* 


















f^| #131 









worshipped by Siva, 
Brahma and others and 

Indra ! 











Like a bull astray, 



$fR5lftE3 5RRBR«ifel«R: 








f«i3 flii 


m n% 


17, 18 













m ww% 










ftTf 55 ^ ^5^1%^ 









tuMmft irtlft 



a stone. 



















The titles AMARSHA 
etc. on next page to 
come here. 







422 r 








Atta balukudu 




Page Line Read 



































gwrpif % 


25, 26 







^nXlfcl ^l*" 











The translation of the 
charana : 

' You are sporting in this 
universe of Pancha 
Bhutas, in gods like 
Vishnu, " Brahma, 
Siva, and Indra and 
in great devotees.' 


















dl, 12 


like puffed rice 



490 12 3?jfR 

20 -TTSW^f- 

4? 9 1 16 transcending 

494 11 ever alert 

495 5 W^fcs^tfW 'im^X 
196 29 §g*ii? 

501 7 Delete < to you \ 

506 3 5ro# 

507 22 gp$ft 
27 w^r&^sr 
27-8 I^ftsigf* 

508 23 u 
26 ftfcr 

Page Line Read 

509 4 <TO*FfeT^- 

5 ' $f 

5, 6 g$g* 

511 22 (Raga-name:) irmspft 

522 last yourself will come here, 

524? 5, 6, 7 Read the traslation as 

follows : 
Whether cruel persons 
hostile to me merci- 
lessly fling false accu- 
sations against me or 
Lakshmi comes and 
abides with me, I can 
never forget that 
grace of yours which, 
is difficult to obtain. 






last but one 























m grates 






Avirahasakti (8?fg*?I3fifi 






fixed in you, just as 





of exquisite beauty and 


and ever in 


last but one 







f k mwi s^fe 


Attain the bliss oi 

















Delete ' Mangala 


Title of piece 


611 -Index 

qt Hi & 



Before Raga- 
sudha add 

Ragaratnam alikache 105